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FLUTE PLAYING 



AN ELEMENTARY METHOD 

New and Revised Edition 
ERNEST F. WAGNER 




3.50 



L^SiS! 



0223 



Carl Fischer, inc. 



62 COOPER SQUARE, NEW YORK • BOSTON • CHICAGO • DALLAS WUXSL 




r 



J 



FOUNDATION TO FLUTE PLAYING 

AN ELEMENTARY METHOD 




ERNEST F. WAGNER 



Copyright MCMXVIII by Carl Fischer, Inc., New York 
International Copyright Secured 

Cofyright renewed 



0223 



^f!^ 



Carl Fischer, inc.-^ 



6? COOPER SQUARE NEW YORK • BOSTON • CHICAGO ■ DALLAS 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Introduction 3 

Position 4 

The Flute and Its Care 6 

How to Practice 6 

What to Practice 6 

Transposition 6 

Fingering 6 

The Crutch (or Bridge) 6 

Open and Closed G^ Key 6 

Breathing 7 

Tuning 7 

Time 7 

Before Pia\ ing 7 

General Prelim inar>' Advice 7 

Additional Advice 7 

Rudiments of Music 8 

Kinds of Notes 9 

Kinds of Rests 9 

Sharps, Flats, Naturals, etc 9 

Signs Most Frequently- Used 10 

Tone Production 11 

Construction of Scales 17 

Exercises on the D and F Scales 18 

Dotted Quarter Notes Followed by Eighths. ... 19 

The Slur 20 

Simple Tonguing Exercises 22 

Slurring and Tonguing 23 

Miscellaneous Slurring Exercises 24 

Syncopation 25 

Staccato Tonguing 26 

Staccato Exercises in 6-8 Time 27 



Page 

Miscellaneous Exercises 28 

Dotted Eighths Followed by Sixteenths 32 

Staccato Exercises in Sixteenth Notes 34 

Sixteenths Followed by Dotted Eighths 42 

Scale Studies 44 

Triplets 50 

The Chromatic Scale 52 

Exercises for Developing Technique 56 

Preparator\ P'xercises on the Turn 58 

The Turn 60 

Grace Notes 62 

The Trill 64 

Major and Minor Scales 68 

Major and Minor Chord Exercises 71 

Melodic Minor Scales 74 

Harmonic Minor Scales 75 

Sustained Tones 76 

Intervals '° 

Embouchure Exercises 80 

Miscellaneous Technical Exercises 82 

Double Tonguing 86 

Triple Tonguing ^^ 

r- 1 92 

C adenzas 

Collection of Songs and Solos 94 

Etudel 105 

H 106 

HI 108 

IV 110 

Y 112 

VI 114 

VII 116 

Grand Fantasie ^^ ' 



:9I3 




THEOBALD BOEHM 

Theobald Boehm was born in Munich, Germany, 
on April 9th, 1794. In his youth he was quite delicate, 
but through the lung exercise which he derived from 
placing the flute, he eventually became possessed of 
unusual strength. Being of a mechanical as well as 
an artistic frame of mind, he realized in his early 
>outh that the flute was a very imperfect instrument, 
and he devoted most of his time to its improvement. 
At sixteen years of age, he made a flute for his own 
use, and at eighteen he held the position of first flutist 
at a theatre in Munich. In about 1828, Boehm es- 
tablished a factory for the manufacture of flutes. 
These instruments were still of the old style, but their 
mechanism was considerably improved. After almost 
twenty years of toil and study, the new system instru- 
ment, universally known as the Boehm Flute, was 
given to the world in 1847. 

Theobald Boehm's name will always be a household 
word among flutists. He died in 1881 at the age of 
eighty-seven years. 
N9I3 



INTRODUCTION 

In writing this book, my idea was simply to provide 
a method for beginners, which would progress sys- 
tematically by slow degrees, thus giving the student 
an opportunity of acquiring a solid foundation. There 
are many wonderful flute methods published, some 
of which go too far beyond the capabilities of the 
student, after the first few pages. I have tried to 
make this book precisely what its name implies — • 
a Foundation, pure and simple. 

The exercises are explained in detail, and the student 
who is not within reach of a competent teacher, should 
find this work easy to comprehend. I have trietl to 
write the lessons as though 1 were giving them per- 
sonally to each student. Every effort has been made 
to make the exercises pleasing and melodious, so as 
to increase the student's interest with each lesson. 

Those who have mastered these exercises, and have 
profited by the advice and suggestions given, will 
have a good foundation upon which to build, and 
t^here is no reason why they should not become excel- 
lent players. This book should serve as a fine prep- 
ation for the other standard and more advanced 
methods. 

If this work will start flutists on the proper path, 
I will be happy in the thought that its mission has 
been accomplished. 

Ernest F. \V.\gner 



I 



POSITION 




When practicing, always stand, if at all possible. 

Stand erect and expand the chest. 

Keep the right elbow higher than the left. The 
left elbow should not be too close to the body. 

The position should be free and comfortable. 

Stand before a mirror when practicing, in order 
to correct any faulty position. 
N9I3 



Avoid any contortions of the face. A normal 
condition is to be desired. 

The cheeks should not be puffed out. This is 
a very common fault, and one which adds nothing 
to the ease of playing. 

The player who puffs out his cheeks loses the 
muscular control of his lips, and his articulation 
will become impaired. 



POSITION — Continued 




\ 



Do not lift the fingers too high or keep them 
too stiff. Let them bend naturally over the 
keys. 

The thumb of the right hand should alwavs 



be kept in the same place, viz., under the first 
and second fingers. 

Endeavor to secure a position of perfect 
repose. 




N9I3 



THE FLUTE 



Adjustment and Care 

The flute consists of three parts; the head-joint, the middle- 
joint, and the tail- or foot-joint. On the head-joint there are 
no keys, but at the upper end is the blow-hole, or embouchure, 
through which the sound is produced. On the middle- and 
tail-joints are the keys by which the instrument is played. 

To put the flute together properly, place the upper end of 
the middle-joint between the thumb and forefinger of the 
left hand, take the tail-piece by its lower end, and, with a 
gentle turn, slide the tail-joint on to the lower cork end of 
the middle-joint to the position in which the little finger of 
the right hand will fall directly on the Dif key. To adjust 
the head-joint, retain the same jx^sition of the middle-joint 
in the hollow of the thumb of the left hand, and with the 
right hand gently turn the head-joint into the position where 
the blow-hole or embouchure is in a direct line with the keys 
of the middle-joint. The exact i:;osition of the blow-hole 
cannot be uniform, but must be determined by the individual. 
Some can produce a better tone by having it slightly turned 
out, others b>- having it slightly turned in. This is caused by 
the different formations of the lips, and the jiosition of the 
head while playing. 

Take the flute apart the same w;iy it was put together. 
After playing, dry out each joint with a soft piece of silk 
wrajji^ed around a thin cleaning stick, which comes with the 
purchase of most flutes. To keep the ke^s bright, wipe the 
])erspiration from them with the piece of silk before putting 
the instrument away. 

For hygienic reasons, never allow anyone to use your 
flute. 

The bearings and delicate parts of your instrument cannot 
work well forever without attention now and then. A little 
oil should be used frequently. 

It is not essential to pull out the stopper which is located in 
the head-joint each time the instrument is wiped, but if yf)u 
arc accustomed to dcjing it, be careful that it is proj^erly 
replaced. 

The stopper in the head-joint should not be tampered 
with. It will be found in its proper place if the first, second 
and third D can be produced in perfect tune. 

It is best to have a mark on the projecting end of the cork- 
screw, that one may always place the cork exactly at the cor- 
rect distance, 17 millimeters (about 11-16 of an inch) from 
the center of the blow-hole. 

Ho\v to Practice 

Set aside a regular time for practice each day if possible. 

Do not attempt too much at first, and do not get dis- 
couraged if the first lessons prove tiresome and monotonous. 

In striking tones, especially in rapid execution, the fingers 
and the tongue must work simultaneously. 

Play all music exactly as written. 

Practice in such a manner that you can play without ap- 
l)arent effort, and can derive pleasure from it. 

Do not practice too long at one time. Too much or too 
strenuous practice is as harmful as too little. Use discretion. 
Always cease practicing when the lii:)s begin to grow tired. 
Do not try to practice for an hour or more at a stretch. It 
is often an impossibility, and always does more harm than 
good. When the lips are in good condition, do not tire or 
strain them. Rest every little while. Playing when the lips 
are tired weakens them, and is to be avoided whenever 
N913 



jK)ssible. Fifteen minutes of correct practice is more beneficial 
than four hours of carelessness. 

Do not spend too much time on high tones; too much of 
this sort of practice weakens the lips materially. 

What to Practice 

Practice whatever may be necessary and what you are 
not familiar with. Do not neglect the remote keys. 

Practice sustained tones for ten or fifteen minutes each 
day. This strengthens the lips, and greatly improves the 
quality of tone. Nothing in the way of practice is more 
important. 

Do not sacrifice tone for technique. .-\ good tone is a 
performer's most valuable asset. 

Do not fail to practice all sorts of exercises and scales, 
and do not give up until they are completely mastered. 

Give particular attention to quality of tone, also to style 
of performance and to ])hrasing. 

Avoid the "tremolo" or "vibrato" style of pla>ing. See 
that your tone is absolutely clear and pure. 

Transposition 

Learn to transpose. This is a jwsitive necessity for pro- 
fessionals, and is very convenient and desirable for amateurs. 
It should not be studied, however, until the pupil has a fair 
knowledge of the rudiments of music, and is beyond the first 
stages of playing. 

Fingering 

The fingerings given in this method are exactly as they 
were given to the writer by the late Carl Wehner, who was 
a pupil of Boehm himself. There are many methods which 
give different fingerings for the quick passages, such as taking 
the FS in the first space and on the fifth line with the iniddle 
finger of the right hand, and the high F^ with the third 
finger of the right hand, also the use of the double Bl? Key 
in playing in flat keys. 

I have always found it expedient to teach the correct 
fingering at first, in order to de\elop all the fingers. After 
one is able to play fairly well, he will soon discover which is 
the easiest and simplest way to play certain passages. 

The Crutch ("or Bridge ; 

The use of the crutch is a matter of personal taste. Most 
players of the closed G^ flute do not use it, while almost all 
who play the open G# flute find that it has its advantages, 
especially when playing in the upper register. It is usually 
well for beginners to use the crutch, as it affords a certain 
support for the left hand. 

Open and Closed G^t Key 

There has always been more or less controversy regarding 
the merits of the open and closed GS key. The flute with the 
closed G^ key was first made to enable the players of the 
old or Meyer system flute to change over to the Boehm 
system without altering the fingering for the G^, as all the 
old flutes were made with the closed Gtf key. 

Boehm, in his book, "The Flute and Flute Playing," gives 
many reasons for his preference for the open G?t flute, the 
principal one being that all the fingers of the left hand are 
used for closing the keys, while on the closed Gi^ flute, the 



little finger is used to open the GS key, causing a contrary 
motion for that finger. Another reason is that, scientifically, 
tlie open (>if fiute is more perfect. 

The high Eb on the closed G;t flute is usually thin in quality 
and inclined to be somewhat too sharp in pitch. The writer 
prefers the open G^ (kite. However, there are more closed 
(i« flutes in use than the other, and some of the most promin- 
ent players use them for one reason or another. 

Whether the student plays the open or the closed G# flute, 
it matters not as far as the music for the instrument is con- 
cerned. All the nuisic in this book can be used to ad\antage 
on instruments of either system. The charts give the finger- 
ing for both flutes, and the student should study the fingering 
very conscientious!). 

Breathing 

Breathe through the mouth. Take lireath according to 
the length of phrase to be played. 

Uo not try to play as much as jiossible on one breath. 

Tuning 

A small breath will sustain cjuite a long phrase, so do not 
inhale more breath than is needed. 

Never start to play together with some other instrument 
or instruments before tuning carefully. 

Xo wind instruments, whether reed or brass, are perfectly 
in tune; but they can be regulated, and the bad jilaces 
humored, if the performer has a good ear and a fairly strong 

Train your ear and \ou will ha\e little difticuliN' in pla>ing 
well in tune. 

The embouchure is not always the same, and the head- 
joint must be drawn accordingly. 

Heat and cold ha\e opposite effects on the instrument. 
When the flute is cold, it is flat; when warm, it is sharp. 

Time 

.'\lways bear in minrl that rlnthm is the most important 
factor in music. 

To play in perfect rhythm it is essential to give all notes 
their proi:)er time-value. 

Without rhythm, there is no music. 

Practice your exercises slowly at first, in order to j^lay the 
correct notes. After you have mastered the notes, begin to 
play in the proper tempo, which is generalK indicated by 
some suitable Italian word. 

Do not count or keep time b\' moving the body or the feet. 
That is a very bad habit. 

Counting must be done mentally. 

Vou must think as you i)lay. 

Before Playing 

Be sure that the instrument is in perfect condition before 
commencing to play. 

•Always be sure of the key in which you are to i^lay. Re- 
member that there is a vast difference between F and G, 
for example, especially in the fingering. 

Always see that the instrument is ])roperly tuned to the 
pitch of the piano, violin or other instrument which is to be 
used at the same time. 

Before starting to play, always look the music over well 
and figure out hf)w >ou are going to count and di\ ide the beats. 

Do not play directly- after eating a heavy meal. Gi\e the 
food time to digest 
N9I3 



General Preliminary Advice 

No lesson in this work will be quite as important as the 
first, and it is on just such fundamental exercises as these 
that the student often spends too little time. It is a serious 
mistake to try to build the foundation too quickly. P'ach 
indi\idual exercise should be well within one's grasp before 
the next one is attempted. It is not to be expected that the 
student will be able to control his tones immediately at the 
start. .Some players acquire the "knack" of striking the tones 
\ery quickly, others take longer, but in the end may get 
it just as well. It is not necessary for the student to learn an 
entire lesson each day. Take i)lenty of time and get one 
exercise perfect before the next is attempted. 

If one learns to attack his notes and to sustain them 
I)ro])erly at the start, he will have little or no trouble in the 
future, i)rovided he continues his studies systematically and 
conscientiously. Keep the lij^s closed as much as possible 
at all times. Raise the flute to the lij^s, not directly to the 
blow-hole but a few inches below, draw it to the right until 
the lips are in position, and be careful not to co\er more than 
half of the blow-hole. Do not feel around with the tongue 
for the blow-hole as it is an unnecessary and unsightly habit. 
With a little j^ractice in drawing the flute in position as ex- 
plained above, you will soon acquire a perfect position. 

Keep the lips closed and pronounce the syllable "Tu" as 
you would in the word tune, and the lips will voluntarily open 
sufficiently to jjroduce the sound. Be sure there is enough 
tension at the corners of the mouth to keep control of the 
tone. Opening the lips too far will mean loss of control and 
cause the tone to drop in pitch and become flat. 

After >()U have learned to jjroduce the first note, C, look 
in a mirror and see that all fingers of both hands are in their 
proper position. Play it over and over again until you get 
it well under control and can play it with a clear tone. 

Additional Advice 

Above all, secure a good instrument and a competent in- 
structor. Although i^erhaps a trifle more expensive at the 
outset, it will prove much more economical in the end. 

If you have not a musical dictionary, you should secure 
one. It is a real necessity. 

Ensemble pla>ing — duos, trios, orchestra and band practice 
— is exceedingly beneficial, and should be indulged in when- 
ever possible. 

Orchestra playing is generally better for the student than 
band, as the latter is apt to be too strenuous, and tone qualit>- 
is sacrificed for power. 

Hear good music, especially when rendered by eminent 
performers on difl'erent instriuuents. Embrace every op- 
portunity of hearing great singers, and imitate their style 
of performance as much as possible. 

.Aim for the highest in music — do not be satisfied with 
anything mediocre. 

By conscientious practice, the student will ultimately 
master all difficulties. 

Advancement can only be made by careful study and 
practice. 

It is not good to attempt too much at one time. 

Nothing is too easy to practice. 

It benefits e\en advanced players to jilay the simplest 
kinds of exercises. 

All kinds of exercises are beneficial. 



8 



Rudiments of Music 



Music is the art of combining sounds in a manner agreeable to the ear. 

It is divided into two parts.- Melody and Harmony. 

Melody is a combination of sounds which, by their elevation, duration and suc- 
cession, serve to form a tune. 

Harmony is another combination of sounds which, by their simultaneous union, 
serve to form chords. 

The Signs used to represent sound are called Notes. 

The five lines upon which notes are written are called the Staff. 

The Staff consists of five lines and four spaces. 

Extra lines are used above and below the staff. They are called Ledger Lines. 

Seven letters of the alphabet are used to designate the notes; they are C-D-E- 
F-G-A-B. 

At the beginning of each line of music you will find the Clef Sign (^p) 

The Clef is used to determine the position and pitch of the scale. This clef is 
called the G or Treble Clef. It shows where G is, thereby giving place to the other 
notes. The sign crosses the second line "G" four times. 

There are other clefs, but they are not used in Flute music. 

There are seven natural tones in music, to which is added an e ighth tone,which 
however, is only a repetition of the first tone an octave higher. 

When the notes are written in the Treble Clef, the names of the lines and spac- 
es are as follows: 



6th L 
4t-h L. 
aid Li 
andL 
Mt L 



LINES 



ine ^ 

ine — -jJ- 1 

ine fL 

ine — pr^ ^ 

ine -^ 4 



B D 



4*-h Space 

aid space 

2'ld Space fij^ 

!*> Space V 7 



i 



SPACES 



E 



The notes that can be written on the staff are not enough to enable us to indi- 
cate all the tones that are within the range and compass of the Flute. For this rea- 
son, it becomes necessary to go beyond the staff, and use what are termed"Ledger 
Lines and Spaces." 



LEDGER NOTES 



t 



-^ — •» 

CD GABCDEFGA 
The distance between two notes is called"interval'. 



B C 



21145-112 



NOTES 

There are seven characters which de- 
termine the value of notes. 

o whole note — 4 beats or counts. 
a half note— 2 beats or counts, 
quarter note— 1 beat or count. 



h 



I 



eighth note— ^ beat, 
sixteenth note — 

thirty-second note- 
sixty- fourth note — 



RESTS 

There are seven characters that de 
note the value of rests. 

-m- whole rest — 4 beats or counts. 
.M. half rest— 2 beats or counts. 

quarter rest— 1 beat or count. 

eighth rest— -^beat or count. 

sixteenth rest- 



9 



7 



thirty-second rest — 



sixty-fourth rest- 

A Rest is a character used to indicate 
silence, or a temporary suspension of sounds. 

SHARPS, FLATS, NATURALS ETC. 

The Sharp (|) raises the note half a tone. 

The Flat (W lowers the note half a tone. 

The Natural (\) restores the note which has been changed by the % ox l> to its form- 
er position. 

The Double Sharp (x) raises a note a half tone higher than the simple (^) would raise 
it. In other words, it raises the note a whole tone. 

The Double Flat ([>!?) sinks a note a half tone lower than the simple %) would lower 
it,— in other words, a whole tone. 

Always after the Clef, we must look for the Signature, or key, in which we are to play. 

The word Signature signifies a certain number of sharps or flats placed imme- 
diately after the clef. 

Either sharps or flats found after the Clef as Signature, influence the notes placed 
on the same degree, or at the upper or lower octave, during the whole of a piece of music, 
unless a natural comes accidentally to suspend their effect. 

If a sharp or flat is written in any bar without being designated at the beginning 
(in the Signature), such sharp or flat is called an 'Accidental", and holds good only for 
the bar in which it is written. If this sign is to be contradicted, in said bar, a "natural" 
must be placed before the note in question. 

MEASURES AND BARS 

Musical Composition is divided into equal portions,— called Measures or Bars, by 
short lines drawn across the staff which are also called Bars. 

A double Bar is placed at the end of each strain of music. 

Measures are divided into equal parts called "beats". 

All music does not begin with a perfect or full bar. The first bar maybe imper- 
fect and contain what is known as "start notes". There may be one or more of such start 
notes. However, the first and last bars of a strain, or of a complete piece,must together form 
a full bar. 

TIME MARKS 

Immediately after the signature comes the Time Mark. 

There are various kinds of time marks, but those most frequently used are,'%-^-% and %. 
There are many other time marks, such as, %-%-%- 5/4-%-%- 12/3^etc.,etc., but in this 
book, only the simpler forms will be used. 

The upper figure (numerator; indicates the number of notes of a given kind in the 

measure. 

The lower figure (denominator) shows the kind of notes, taken as the unit of measure. 
Time refers to the number of beats to the measure. 
Tempo indicates the rapidity of the beats. 
The two are often confounded. 



21145 



10 

SIGNS MOST FREQUENTLY USED 



• A Dot placed after a note or rest prolong-s its value by half. J- would be the same 
as J_J A second or third dot prolongs the time value of the dot immediately preceding- 

I i S ^ 

it by half. '5' •would be the same as d # • •' 

— Tennto. This line when placed over or under a note signifies that the tone should 
be well sustained, for its full value. 

/Cn or 'O' Hold or Pause, placed over or under a note or rest indicates an indefinite 
prolongation of its time value, at the performer's discretion. 



— H Rcpedt. This sign signifies that the division between the dotted double bars 



is to be repeated. 

9 Bredthin^ vitirk. A sign which indicates where breath may be taken. 

/- — ^ S/.ur or Tic. This sign indicates that when two or more notes are joined by it, 
they are to be played in a smooth and connected manner ( Legato). If the notes so joined 
are on the same degree of the staff, they are held over as one note. 
Crescpuffo, increasing in loudness, by degrees. 
DecrcHceiido, growing softer by degrees. 

A Sfurzdto, marked or sudden emphasis. 

^^^^.^-^ ir Trill, the rapid alternation of a principal note with a higher auxiliary, 
'major or minor second above\ 

A5 Turn or Grupetto, a melodic grace consisting in what may be termed the typi- 
cal form ^the direct turn, of four notes, a principal note (twice struck ) with its high- 
er and lower auxiliary 'the major and minor second above and below, each struck 
once.) 

M.M. # = 60 Mrtrononie 7rinrk, a mark often set at the beginning of a composition for 
exactly indicating its tempo. The # = 60 means, that the time value of one quarter note 
is equal to one pendulum-beat with the slider set at 60. With the slider set at 60, 
the pendulum makes one beat per second. M.M. actually stands for "Matilzel's Metro- 
nome," named after its inventor, Maelzel, of Vienna. The Metronome is much used by 
beginners and students, for learning to play strictly in time and in timing their prac- 
tice. 

J —Forte, means loud, strong. 

tKr — Fortissimo, means very loud. 

^^J— Mezzo-forte, h-eili loud. 

jP — Piano, soft. 

1^— Pianissi7Ho, very soft. 

D.C.— Da 6'a/?6/, from the beginning. 

D.S.— Dal Segno, repeat from the sign. 



For other signs etc.,see Coon's Standard Pocket Dictionary of Musical Terms. 
31145- 



11 



l^t Lesson 

ATTACK 

Keep DH key open with little finger of right hand for all exercises on this page. 



1. , c 

iCount 1234 



i 



v^^.u 



IsIMA 



42H4 



1234 



1234 



1234 



3 



4 <> 



1234 



in: 



xn 



KT 



1234 



31 



All keys open except first key marked 1 for first finger, left hand. 



Count 1234 



1234 



1234 



^^ 



-O^ 



-^ 



-o- 



-o- 



Close single B key with thumb of left hand. It is usually found to left on open Gjt flute, to the righi on 
closed G|t flute. 



3. A 

I Count 1234 



1234 1234 



.f 
















11 


/m,. i* 


^ 




^ 








■i 


r 


f<> * ^ 


t» 




t» 




»» 




*» 




** n 


\: J 
















N 



4. 



Leaving first finger and thumb down, close key marked 2 with second finger of left hand. 



G 



£ 



-^ 



-o- 



-^ 



-o^ 



-^ 



Leaving down the fingers that are already down, close keys marked 3 and 4 with third and fourth fingers 
of left hand on open G}| flute, and only key marked 3 with third linger on closed GJ| flute. 



5. 



4 



C 



B 



A 



G 



A 



B 



i 



iZZXH 



zzxr 



-o- 



3X 



3i: 



-o- 



-o- 



WTiile counting measure '•est, take fingering for next note. Always be sure position is correct. Faulty pos 
ition and bad habits are easily acquired at first and difficult to remedy later. 



6. 






G 




B 




A 




C 




B 




G 




C 


y 


























^ /* 


HI 


M~^. 


■ii 




■i 


t) 


IH 


^"^ 


HI 




^ 


c» 


(m y 


-o^ 




%3 




*» 












— ^ — 







This exercise includes all notes previously practiced. 



7. 



G 



B 



C 



B 



A 



B 



J 


























. 






/ /* 






■1 


^-^ 


IB 


<.> 


^ 


tf^ 


^ 




■1 


^ 




IB 


«> 


ff\ \j t^ 








^* 












*f 




^-^ 








\:) ^ 
























^^ 









From G to C , ascending and descending. 



8. 



C 



B 



G 



3 



* 11 



-o- 



B 



33r 



-«3- 



31 



31: 



-^ 



xn 



-o- 



This exercise is a trifle more difficult because the notes are in a different rotation. Always think ahead 
for the fingering of the next note. 
21145- 



12 



2nd Lesson 

ATTACK 



±, C B A 

'/^ Count 1234 ? 1234 1 1234 ? G ^ ^^ F ? G ? A ? B 



i 



2. 



< \> 



-o- 



31 



-O- 



? C 



XE 



-O^ 



XH 



-O- 



1) Clo.'>e key No. 1 for right hand, in addition to those already down for the left. 



3X 



4^^ 



1 A 



*1 



B ? G ? A ^ F ^ G ^ A ^ B ^ G ? C 



-o- 



-o- 



xi: 



XE 



-o- 



xt 



-o- 



-o- 



XE 



3. 



s 



-o- 



B?A?C?B?G?A?F ^ G ? B ? A ? G ? C 



-o- 



XE 



xr 



-^ 



-o- 



XE 



XE 



-»- 



-o- 



XE 



-O- 



XE 



4. 



C ?B?A^B?A?G?F?G?A ? G ^ A ? B 7 C 



[4 i> 



-o- 



xr 



-o- 



XE 



-o- 



XE 



-&- 



XE 



-o- 



XE 



-o- 



XE 



5. 



CjC ^A^C 7B?B^G^Bw\?A?F^A?B?B ^G -^B^C 



r* u 



XE 



XE 



3CE 



-O- 



-O- 



-O- 



-O- 



XE 



XE 



XX 



-O- 



-^ 



^ 



-O- 



XE 



XE 



i C B A 

*lCountl234 ? 1234 ? 1234 ^ G 



i 



S^d Lesson 

ATTACK 

? F ? 2) E ? F 



^ G ? A ? B ? C 



I 



* o 



-o- 



XE 



3ZE 



-O- 



XEZZZZ 



-O- 



3CE 



XE 



-O- 



-O- 



*^ 2) Close key No. 2 with second finger of right hand. 



2. 



i 



C ^A^B^G?A?F7G^E^FiA5G^B7C 



r* ** 



XE 



-O- 



XE 



XE 



-O- 



XE 



3. 



-o- 



XE 



-O- 



XE 



-O- 



-O- 



G 1 Y •»£ ^F ^G ?A?G ^E ^F ?A?G ?B^C 



3 



XE 



XE 



-O- 



XE 



2=^: 



XE 



-^ 



-O- 



O ' *» 



-O- 



XE 



-^ 



/" P AC B C B 

^Count 1234^2 34 ? 1234 ? 12 34 ^ A 7 F A ^ G ^ E G ? A ^ F A ? B ? G B 



t 



^ c 



i 



XE 



3 



izzo: 



i 



-o- 



12 



XE 



3E 



-^ 



3 



33: 



3Z 



-o- 



5. 



i 



C A B B G A 



3=122: 



-^ 



8. 



^ 



-«^ 



XE 



AF 



G G E 



A F A B G 



B 



-o- 



s^ 



XE 



XE 



^ 



-O- 



XE 



C A B G A F 



G E 



F E 



FA G B 



i 



3 



C 



^ 



E 



E 



7. 



C G BE 



5 



a — g 



A E 



G 3^D F D G E 



4 



B G C 



-?:^-^ 



g ■' 



3 > Put down 3rd finger of right hand and raise 4th finger from D$ key. 



21145- 



4th Lesson 

ATTACK 



13 



i. 



c 



?T)^C:»D^C?D^C?D^C 



3 



^ \> 



-^ 



xn 



-o- 



m 



-^ 



jce 



o- 



33: 



3. 



i 



This exercise introduces D in the second register. Close all keys that are open for C and raise fingers 
that are down for D. D^ key always open for C , but closed for D. 

C DEDCEDCDEC 



E 



xn 



-o- 



or 



-o- 



"cr 



jq: 



t>— 



XE 



XE 



3. 



i 



This exercise introduces E in the second register. Same fingering as low E . Slightly more lip pressure 
from now on. 

C DEFEDFEDC 

— O — — , n 1 ^^ 1 O- 



E 



JOT 



-O- 



XH 



xi: 



-o- 



xr 



4. 



t 



This exercise introduces F in the second register. Same fingering as low F. 

CDEFGFEDFEGF 

XI— 1 — ^ r-O r— n r— *^ t-O^ 



-f*- 



XE 



F 



F 



-o- 



XT 



E D C 



xn 



-o- 



xe: 



E 



XE 



5. 



This exercise introduces G in the second register. Same fingering as low G, 



^* rj 



J ^ _: 



-^--±- 



j± 



12L 



izz: 



These exercises in half notes include all notes previously practiced. 



W^ 



g .^ r ^ . g ^ 



XE 



i 



6. 



^^ 



^^ 



^ 



?2: 



n: 



^ 



E£ 



i 



-^ 



'• \MioIe and half notes. 




E 



^ <> I '- g _{^suj:^ 



XE 



-O- 



ZZ 



3 



-cL=^=3 



^ 



XE 



-O- 



-iS^ 



p 



:s: 



-o- 



XE 



8. 



Sh 



? 



i 



S 



g ' r ^p ^ I ti - 



^ T^gT^ 



^^ 



3 



XE 



zn 



-&- 



-&■ 



^-^ 



22=3=^ 



9. 



s 



i 



«>- 



zz: 



I 



XE 



5 



J 



3: 



22: 



^ 



This exercise is somewhat longer. Do not tire the lips — rest when necessary. 



-fS^-S r 



SL 



^ 



-O- 



r" i r r i rr 1'^^ 1^^ r i r 



XE 



i 



2114B- 



14 



5th Lesson 

ATTACK 



1. 



i 



i 



Scale of G 



E 



^ — o- 



ZSIL 



-tv 



-O- 



m: 



-o- 



_^£> 



o- 



xy^ 



-o^ 



xt 



-^ 



xn 



-o- 



^ Refer to p. 9, ."Sharps, Flats, Naturals, etc. J' and consult chart for fingering of F|, 

^' Arpeggio of G 



m 



E 



-o- 



-c>- 



o 



-o- 



-o- 



-*^- 



-IV 



o 



-o- 



-o- 



-o- 



i 



3. Whole notes, half notes and half rests 



-«^- 



-«- 



:!: 



^ 



E 



£: 



^ 



^ 



s 



xn 



-^- 



i 



-o- 



iff: 



P 



i 



^ 



^ 



-7^ 



4. 

i 



Quarter notes 

.Count 1 2 3 4 12 34 12 3 4 12 34 



^ 



-0-^-0-0- 



* ■< * * 



122: 



F#^ 



-iS^ 



^^ 



# P P | » I s ^ 



#-^ 



r i r - irrrr 



5. 

i 



ss 



l^W^ 



-i^^- 



^ 



s 



•yy 



aar«: 



am 



P 



-m-m- 



P 



.^ ^ 

Attention to intonation of E, which is inclined to be a trifle flat on Boehm flutes. 



'WW 



^-0- 



0^M^ 



Z^^MW 



Sh 



WM 



I 



^ 



2: 



^♦A*^ 



-0-0- 



-MM. 



^ 



?^ 



-O- 



6. Seal 



i 



e exercise 



w 



# • , » 



mfrtffr 



3E 



^ 



■^^ 



7. 



i 



i 



^ 



^ff r 



? 



PTy 



iS^ 



E 



P 



■i^-hH 



Full value to rests. 



^m 



-Gh 



rrir i' "' r 



a^ 



K^ 



Z2: 



^cs: 



^^ 



8. 



+-t 



^^;. JrJj l^rr^^ 



f^n ^ 



^^ 



^ 



21145- 



Intervals of the third between first and second notes of meas. 1-6, 



J 



6th Lesson 

ATTACK 



15 



1. 



Scale of C, range two octaves 



E 



3X 



O^ 



it 



-o- 



33: 



-^ 



33" 



XT^ 



-^ 



33: 



-o 



3X 



-O- 



33: 



-€> 



_Ol 



^ xi. :?^ 



Low C with all fingers do^^-n, fourth finger of right hand on C and CH keys instead of Dj key. 
2, Arpeggio of C, range two octaves -»- 



i 



r^ 



-^>^ 



-^ 



331 



33: 



33_ 



r» 



-^ 



-o- 



3. ^ Scale exercise 



^H^^-^V^ 



•=*: 



♦i* 



^JJJNJJJIJJJJIJJJJIJJJ^ 



^?=it 



4, Scale exercise, upper octave 



^E? 



^i^E 



♦=*= 



-"Mrrrr i rrffirrrnrrrnrrr 



t* 



5. Triple rhythm 



r rr i r rr i r rr, I f ) irrr iN'Mi r r ir=n 



rrr i frr 



P 



^ 



-M—^^ 



1 1- 



-4 1 



^ 



^ 



6. 



Introducing method of counting eighth notes 



Count 1 2av.iH 4nnd 



£ 



0^ ^#>ip »pr ^ 



j>/j|jj:pJ] | P^r:r i '"r : ; i r LriL m 



^rr\r:Tr 



U ' u I u 



t 



^ rcrrrTirnrr r rn 



» rr i T rr^ '^ 



f 00 



r u T air ir 



^^ 



!»-»^aqB 



S 



^^ Play staccato and verv evenlv 
7. ^ -0- ^ ■' ■' 




J^ 



r f P r 



k 



^ r rr r r 



f * F 



I 



^ 




f^= 



I; 




S 




# e 



itaH^ 



BLUE BELLS OF SCOTLAND 
8.. ^ 



^ ^ 



rrrirrrfirrrrif^-rirfr 



*t 



s 



■Z3B 



s 



# , p 



p 



rff i rrr^r i rVrf rr i rrtf 



-p~y 



=?^ 



m 



21145- 



16 



7th Lesson 

ATTACK 



i. Scale of D 



f?H ' » <- ° 



33: 



-o- 



m 



-o- 



30: 



33: 



-©- 



30: 



-o- 



33r 



-o- 



-cr 



-o- 



'^•^ Arpeggio of D 



S 



33r 



33: 



33: 



-o- 



33: 



33: 



"O" 



33: 



33: 



^>- 



3o: 



33: 



33- 



3, Quadruple rhythm 

1 Count 1 2 3 4 



^^'!n^t^^\^^^^ 



^i 



^ 



i5^ 



i 



^^ 



¥^=it 



f»^^ 



* r -jt 



m 



0-^ 



jce 



^ 



K Triple rhythm 

Count 12 3 12 3 



12 3 



H-^f r I r rr ^ff FfT^r~r" ^^ 



f"rrr i rrrNrr i ^ 



-^ 



tS^-^ 



§ 



K Eighths and quarters in triple rhythm 

^'^ Count 1 2 3 12 3 



^ a ^ ouni 1 4 



^ 



^ 



» 



ii^ii 



jE ^rW 



ffip 




gJ J I JJJJj i j jJj 



g Quarters, eighths and dotted halves 

Count 1 2 3 4 



i 



^^ 



J i JjjjJriffip^ Mrrrcr^irtH^^^-^ 



lS^ 



s 



V r [rrrnrrf? ;rira b 'i | Ur i rrrrn if^^ 



ry Quarters and eighths in duple rhythm 




P 



• F 



i 



r ^ 1 ^ cJ i r 



m 



i 





/2_ 



r r nr r i i h i , i ^p i rji^ i P i s i m 



21145 - 



17 

8^P Lesson 

CONSTRUCTION OF SCALES 

INTRODUCTORY 

A scale consists of eight consecutive notes (technically called degrees, counting from any note 
to its octave) separated by intervals of whole -tones (major seconds) and half-tones (minor seconds). 

Counting upward in the major scales the half-tones are between the 3rd and 4th and the 7th 
and 8th degrees of the scale. 

There are twenty -four scales in common use, one major and one minor for each of the twelve 
divisions of the octave. Of the seven intervals in each scale two are half-tones and the rest are 
whole-tones. 



Scale of C Major 



Degrees: l^J- 



2 id 



trd 



4t_h 



5 th 



fith 



i 



Tone 



Tone I Semitone lont- 



Torve 



-jth 



8 th 



T(jne I Semitone 



331 



331 



-O- 



331 



-O- 



XT" 



-^ 



Scale of C Major, descending 

Degrees: 8^h 



i 



J t h 7 1 h 




fith 


5lh 




4 


th Hid 




ond 


1 


1 Semitone 1 


Tone 


1 Tone 




Tone 




Semitone 1 


Tone 


1 Tone 


1 



?t 



jq: 



-o- 



XE 



-o- 



331 



-o- 



T3" 



9J 



Scale of r Major 

Degrees: 1^1* 21^ 



Tone 



3'i 



rd 



4th 



5th 



6th 



Tone Semitone Tone 



Tone 



7th 



8th 



Tune I Semitone 



-O- 



^ 



-o- 



nt 



T~l" 



-O- 



33: 



XE 



-O- 



Scale of G Major 

Degrees: 1^.* 



i 



* 



Tone 



ond 



Tone 



»rd 



4th 



5t_h 



r,th 



7TJ 



th 



8th 



Semitone Tcme 



Tone 



Tone ' Semitone 
O 



Xi_ 



I 



-O- 



XH 



w 



-^ 



xn 



-o- 



xr 



Scale of Bb Major 

Degrees: l^.t 21^ 



31:^ 



rd 



4th 



^th 



6th 



7th 



8th 



$ 



Tone 



Tone I Semitone I Tone 



t 



-O- 



Xt 



-o- 



xe: 



Tone I Tone I Semitone I 



-O- 



_o_ 



m 



21145- 



18 



1. 



Scale of D, range tw^o octaves 



9^^ Lesson 

ATTACK 



For higher notes, less opening of lips, and slightly more pressure at corners of mouth. 



m 



■o- 



Xi_ 



^ :^ ^ 



^ 



i o 



331 



n: 



^^ 



-»- 



zx 



m 



■o- 



-o- 



-»- 



■O" 



2.^ Arpeggio of D, range two octaves ^ £1. 

■tf — — - 



-^ 



-o- 



-^ 



-o- 



^e 



Bet 



331 



«T 



XE 



%rr 



"O" 



3. ^ Attention to change of fingering from C$ to D. 

^ m 



f P # f 



^^=m=^ 



^^ f:f=#-e £• 



rrrf i ffrr i fff 



iLti ^^' ^ 



* 



? 






• # * 



g m 







W 



m 



^^ 



g^''' rrrr i rrrr ^^ 



^ # * 



^ J J ^ 



^ s • 



TJ" 



^^li i r r r 



^ 



i 



acrs 



^ 



f * P I* p r ^^ 



pf^ ^ 



»iirff i rff i rrr ^ 



#— ^ 



^*=F 



Mrrr ir mi 



lOth Lesson 

ATTACK 



1. 



i 



Scale of F, range two octaves 

Consult chart for higher notes. 



331 



-O- 



-0_ 



-©- ii- 



^ 



3X 



-O- 



f 



xn 



-^^ 



33: 



-o- 



Arpeggio of F, range two octaves 



s±. 



-o- 



-o- 



^Sl 



~rv 



331 



JJL 



331 



331 



f> 



(Ascending, lower lip forward) 



I 



t 



u 



p \ M r I P ^ r 



^ 



^ J ^ ' 1^ i^ ** 



r i r-rr irrn m 



4 



g 



f . . ^^ f .f f Pf p p f f Ff Ff Fp 



*■- -f^ 



4. 



^ 



^ 



-0- M 



^ 



^^ 



^ 



7KZ^ 



rrfirrnrff i frr 



e 



21146- 



11 ^h Lesson 

DOTTED QUARTER NOTES FOLLOWTD BY EIGHTHS 



19 



This is a rhj^thmic figure that is often incorrectly played. Since the dot increases the value of a 
note by half, the dotted quarter has the value of a quarter plus an eighth. Therefore it takes a count 
and a half; the following eighth occupies the other half count. 



■^ Count I 2 and 3 4 and 1 2 nnd 8 * ajid 

f-- i^ ^ T^- 



w-rt 



rrrF i rt^rp 



^ 



^m 



JO-ft l r-prP l ^^ 



3 



'mm 



m 



^^ 



o 



aJ. Count 1 2 and 1 2 and 



ji^ 1 J. i' i J- ;if^^4^ 



s 



fe 



^ 



f 



r^r p ir p r P ^ 



p If :> 



^ 



g 



3. 



Count 1 2 and 3 12 and 3 



* 



« 



fe 



r P i 1^- ^^' 



r" p[ i r P" i^ i 



■i ^ - ' f 



^ r' ^^^ 1^' pr ^^ 



^^-tM^ 



^^ 



4. 






^^icrprpirT^i irprpir-pr i ''P^'^ i ^^^'''ir^'rt^r i 



#-• ^-. #^ ♦^ 



i*,ifprF | rPr i r^r^ i riV.Vp,.- , , i r'.vf i rpr^ i f> ii 



5. 



"' Pr r 



^ 



y ^ 

^^ 



^^ 



^ 



^ 



jt r- r^ r > i r ^ 



P i Mr p r r I f p r ^ 



f p ^ ' I r p 



-# — #- 



^ 



^ i f'-^r \r P 



m 



21145 



20 



12th Lesson 

THE SLUR»> 

±^ Minor seconds in C (All the intervals will be found in the 51 st lesson.) 



■4)- 



^m 



221 



^ 



w 



ZZ 



-"rS- 



s^ 



zz 



7^-15- 



^rT i^rT i^rT i ^i n ^=Fn 



WTien slurring to a higher note, contract lips. 
t5^^^ ^^'-~^ -(^^ r^'"^ 



^ r I jp r | fr |r ^f pf | f p,' | f^^ | fT^ | ii^7 | ^'^^ i^- 



^ WTien slurring to a lower note, relax lips. 
'^' Seconds in C 



:^ ' rj 



^ 



# 



(*. ^ ' f" 



zz: 



2z: 



Tl" 



s 



-O- 



77-lS^ 



ZZ 



3x: 



i 



i5^- 



^2-^ 



i 



■iS^ 



-CL 



-i:^ 



-O- 



-t5»- 



i 



J 



-O- 



TT" 



3. . Thirds in C 



3^^ 



^> 1 : /">' 



m 



-G- 



^ 



-^ 



-^ 



^ 



g 



^ r-^ 



^^ 



t 



ii . r '^ I r ^ 1 r i ^if ^ i rTi r^i r i i r' ^ i rM^' i rT i rr i r i 



4:. Thirds in G 



$ 



xt 



r i-'r ir r ir r ir ^ 



^^ 



f: 



E 



^^ 



^ 






r i r -^ ir 



zt 



-^^ 



-o- 



5. Fourths in F 



^m 



^ 



*3 



ZZ 



i 



* 



f 



^ 



-ZX 



^^ 



J i i'^J i rl' 



ts^ 



1 



6. Study in D 



P 



1 15- 



# 



^ . ^ ^ 



rfirTrirrfirrr i rrr i fM^r i rTri r ^ 



^^ 



fz: 



<2.ii ««1 «^ 



^pi^,i r^^|ffr | ffr | ffr|frrirrrirTrirT?ir?rirTrirTrir7r If- ^i i 



^ ^'First note is struck with the tongue (attacked) and connected with all other notes under or over the same slur. 
2H4*i- '^^^^ style of playing is called legato. 



13th Lesson 

THE SLUR 

(Varied articulations) 



21 



1. 



Court 12 3 12 3 






2. Count 12 3 4 12 3 4 



-A A__A 



^^Trr?f iff rr i r . ^ ffr-t^tt^ f:^ 



^ 



E 



i 



^ 



^ 



.^^^ 



^m 



f^-^u 



¥=^ 



# — P- 



^^r I rr^ 



# # 



^ 



3. Count 12 3 12 3 




tfi W^^ 



* J J ^»=^ r^^r » "~ =^ 



p-»^-i-T» 



^ JJ*JJ I J** ^ J B 



^rf 



f-f^F T^^rT-T- f-f-f 



rrrrrfrrrr i ^ 



F=#^ 



e 



# ^ » 



^. Count 12 3 4 5 6 12 3 4 5 



12 3 4 5 6 



^ig ##J?3^J3^ ^if n-rrrif'aiM Trrr i C iTrD i f' P v, 



* c^rgir i cLrmir^ g 



^T^^ 




^s 



BffltJri 



te 



5. 



Count 13 3 4 an^ ,3 34 



i 



L J I fH^ 



£: 



^- J^lJ- i 



w f • p I f-"^ ^ 



pif r r I ir 



^ 



^-^-fif 



^ 



i 



f ri I f^i^ 



^ 



f^^ 



P 



6. 



Count 3 and 12 3 12 3 and 1 2 3 



fe 



P I P # »=F 



up-beat 



? 



-^ 



^ 



22: 



^ 



^ 



• # (•_ 



^ 



p .prp ^ ii # iP 



/^ 



(■*!*: 



r r rirrrir i i 



22 



1. 



14^]^ Lesson 

SIMPLE TONGUIXG EXERCISES 

These exercises are to be played very staccato in strict time, always attacking each unslurred 
note separately. Practice slowly at lirst,then gradually increase the speed. 



(^^•rr^r 



^^^ 



*=^ 



w 



^ J # 



4 



t 



¥m 



'=¥=^ 



# , > > 



■^M. 



i — r 



i 



^ 



^ 



fe 






♦^ .*_t 



t^m^^mm^- 



' rr- ,rrP 



B, 




3. 



fe 




-^ ff: 



^ 



f^f- 



m m 



^ 



*=^ 



? 



3 



;^==t: 



•I'M- 



# 



^^m 



g" ' ' J ' • ' 



=#=*: 



* '# * 



3^ Ci^ llL' ' l^ ^ 'u^ Cu^ i ui> ^^ '-^"^ ^-^ ' -^ 



^^^ 



^.S'-.T^^Ji. 



^7 j^d^-J^'JIJJ^^JJJ^ |J»- ^j^ : 



^^^ 



*rri 



I JiJ CLLi iLlC^u 



g^ 1 * 1 * - p 




f-» ff*- ,» 



III i ll i r-j *! ^^ 



il ff iffr-Mffrf r 



^ 



-I — u 



i 



21145- 



15th Lesson 

SLURRING AND TONGUING 

(Varied Articulations) 



23 



jL» Pronounce the syllable"tu" very distinctly. 




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(f f rp f r,r f f illztt 





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Large commas show breathing places. 



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21146 



24 



16^]^ Lesson 

MISCELLANEOUS SLLHRING EXERCISES 



M S 1 ii 3 4 5 6 

J-. Count li 2 



fiirrrrTra 



1^ L^ i.m r i\ im^ 



First count 6 u^ a measure, then increase the speed and count ^ in a measure, playing 3 notes to each coui'.t. 



i'ai^'^d^'um 



m 




In measure 7 open the D# key with 4 th finger of right hand for every note except D 



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3. Count 1 



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finger D-j same as C#. (Meas. 9) 









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21H5 



17^1^ Lesson 



25 



SYNCOPATION 

Syncopation occurs 'when the usual accent is displaced. It results from tying unaccented notes to 
M accented notes, or from placing long notes between short ones in a single measure. 



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2. 

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3. 



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:*=: 



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ir^r^rripr.rr i p ^ ^ 



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21146 



26 



18lh Lesson 

STACCA T TONGUING 



^^ Practice slowly at first. 
.Ccur.t 12 3 4 



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2. 



Court 1 2 3 4 



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3. Count 12 3 4 



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6. Count 12 3 12 3 



81145 





19 ^h Lesson 

ACCATO EXERCISES IN ^ TIME 



27 



Count )1 2 3 4 5 6 12 3 4 5 6 
/I 2 1 ^ 



123 4 5 6 




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Court 6 1 2a-d 3 4 5 6 i 2 and 3 4 5 6 

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12 3 4 5 6 

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21145- 



28 



20t> Lesson 

MISCELLANEOUS EXERCLSES 
(in G Major) 







g ^ l J-^BSJTjB l 



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21145- 



21 ^J' Lesson 

MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES 

(in F Major) 



29 



1. 

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^1146- 



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30 



Twenty- second Lesson 

MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES 
(111 D Major) 



This lesson in D major will include the second and third octaves. The 
high Bt] in the third octave should not be too difficult for the pupil to master 
at this time. But since the fingering for the third octave is rather com.pl i cat ed, 
it will of necessity require more practice time to reach perfection. Look at 
the fingering chart to be absolutely sure the fingering is correct. 

No. 1 is the D major scale up to the high Bq in the third octave. 

No. 2 is the chord of D major up to high A in all three octaves. 

No. 3 is a short exercise in ^/4. or common time, which includes eve- 
ry note of the D major scale up to high G. 

No. 4 is an exercise in ■^//\. time, with sixteenth notes, which will be 
very beneficial if practiced slowly at first and gradually increasing the 
tempo. 

No. 5 is a more difficult exercise in 2/4 time, sixteenth notes. If the 
scale and chord have been practiced sufficiently it should not be too difficult. 
The pupil should bear in mind that there is no short cut to perfection, which 
can only be acquired by diligent and intelligent study. 



21145- 



L 



22 nd Lesson 

MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES 
(in D Majorj 



31 



M Scale 

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21145- 



S2 



Twenty -third Lesson 

DOTTED EIGHTHS FOLLOWED BY SIXTEENTHS 



In a previous lesson, the exercises were similar to these, only they 
were written in dotted quarter notes followed by eighths. 

These exercises are on the dotted eighth note followed by sixteenths. 

It is not necessary to go into detail regarding each exercise, as the 
same explanation will apply to all. 

It is important that all the notes of the same denomination should 
have the same value. 

The sixteenth notes should be short and precise and should be 
played as though they belonged to the note that foUowsj that is, they 
should be pushed on to the following note, as it were. 

This sort of exercise must sound very snappy and full of life. Play 
smoothly and lightly. 

These exercises require an uneven stroke of the tongue and are 
quite difficult to play fast. 

In order to play them so that they will sound well, much careful 
practice will be necessary. 



21145- 



23 rd Lesson 

DOTTED EIGHTHS FOLLOWED BY SIXTEENTHS 



33 



i. 



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00 000 1 f 



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2M4R- 



34 



Twenty- fourth Lesson 

STACCATO EXERCISES IN SIXTEENTH NOTES 



A good staccato is very necessary to flutists. Both single and double tongu- 
ing are used. Double tonguing will be dealt with later on. These exercises are all 
meant to be played with single tonguing. 

No. 1 is in y^ time. Key of G Major. Should be played very short and snap- 
py and with good rhythm. 

No. 2 is in ^ time. Key of D Major. Count three beats to each bar. The 
eighth notes must be played short, but be careful and not hurry them. Keep per- 
fect time, so that the last bar is no slower or faster than the first. A good plan is 
to play these exercises with a Metronome'' increasing the tempo gradually. In the 
fourth bar, GH occurs for the first time. Consult the chart for the correct fingering. 

No. 3 is in 5^ time. Key of F Major. The first four notes form the leading 
tones or up-beat. Notice that the rhythm is exactly opposite- from exercise 1 in that 
the two sixteenths come ahead of the eighths in most instances* 

No. 4 is in ^ time. Key of Bl» Major, and is perhaps the most difficult exer- 
cise in this lesson. It will be necessary to take breath very quickly so that the rhy- 
thm will not be broken. The tongue and fingers must move simultaneously. 



21145- 



24 th Lesson 

STACCATO EXERCISES IN SIXTEENTH NOTES 



35 



1. 



§L fL 



,f>..r frrr^ l ^^^"F | fFrf ff | f rFrff | fffrrE 



5 



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Ttrr Lj-ir 



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f— ^ 



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fl 



^^ 



m m 



p f # 



m m-M. 



ffrFff i ffftti' i fe 



2. 



fe 









n^ 



#- • -•-i- 



^ m m m 



♦=¥^ 



^jj'L/^ ' I 



t^rr£!a'^r!r 




^s 




^^?^,g^jfji;jj J7^ ^i; ^7^ i >^ £^'£^^^ i 



4.. ^^ffr^riffffrff^rrrrriffffFrffFfff 



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2JU5 



86 



25 ^^ Lesson 

MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES 
(in Bt Major) 
Consult chart for fingering of high El» and Bk 



1. 



XE 



^ 



£k 



-e- ^ 



^i^i- 



Q--^zr:==±:^tli.,^ 



£Il 



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IT 



o: 



^ 



■o- 



b (*/ o 



XX 



^^ 



2. 



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a. 9: 



9 o. 



-o- 



-o- 



b <t o 



-o- 



-o- 



3. 



^te 



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UTLi. t: 



fn . mr 



^ 



m 



frif ni 




A'' rrrrrr i rrrrfe 



^^ The hie^h B^ is usually a trifle low. Correct it by increasing pressure at the corners of the mouth , and 
21145 - pushing tne lower lip forward. 



26th Lesson 

MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES 

(in El» Major) 



37 



i 



CT=^ 



^ 



..,0,0,^,-,^,-,=-,^, ^,^,0,0 



IX 



^ 



zx 



XX 



-o- 



IX 



^ 



jTY 



^ 



XX 



^ 



-o- 



JLE 



^ 



^fe 



3x: 



^ -t^ = ^^ ^ 

Xi . . . . O- 



3x: 



-o- 



-€>- 



f 



-o- 



-o- 



-o- 



-o- 




21146- 



38 



27th Lesson 

MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES 
(m A Major) 
Be careful not to overblow Ct. 



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O 


-O 


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4>- 


Q. 


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Q. 


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O 


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Q. 


<^ 


O 


<^ 


Q. 


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O 














J' ^J*-^ 






f^ 


< k 








































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4 k 














































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211 4fi- 



28th Lesson 

MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES 
(in E Major) 



39 



¥ 



feft 



Consult chart for fingering of Cj| and Djl. 



XE 



-e»- 



-XX 



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^ ^ 



^ 



XE 



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-O- 



331 



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jo: 



Xi- 



XI. 



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3. 



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r ' J J r"f f^ 



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^^^^if-^ 



r r f T ^ 



m 



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Cx =Dt] (see p. 9) 



g¥# r " rrr 



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^ f f f ff f 



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r ifrrr^^^^ 



^/^fPfffrrriFtt^rri^rIf^r^gF|ffPFr ^ n 



21145- 



40 



Twenty- ninth Lesson 

MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES 

(In Al» Major) 



No. 1 is the scale of A\> major. 

No. 2 is the chord of Al> major. 

No. 3 is an exercise in 4^ time. Play staccato and very slowly at first. Study 
carefully and be careful not to over-blow the instrument, which is rather a common 
faultwith beginners. Try to acquire a clear full tone, in which lies the real beauty of 
the instrument. 

No. 4 is in ^ time and should be played in strict time. Do not hurry the slurred 
notes, but give them the same value as the staccato notes. 

No. 5 is in ^ time. Three notes slurred and one staccato. 

No. 6 is a scale exercise in ^ time. Take notice of the different slurrings. 

No. 7 is also a scale exercise in ^ time, sixteenth notes. Eight notes to each 
bar are slurred. After this exercise has been carefully practiced, the pupil will find 
it easy enough to play it with one breath. 



21145- 



29th Lesson 

MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES 

(in A!» Major) 



41 



**fl 1 L 










r-<~% 


r* 


-o- 


a 


-»- 


£L 


-*^ 


£L 


-O- 


li- 


-o- 


o 


^ 


o 


-o^ 


o 


-ev- 


o 














.f \ l?,h .. 






o 


4k 






































t* 


4> 


^_^ 








/ b ly I* 


ffc 


4 k 














































O 


f> 






f(\^^ P 1 y i > 






















































■o- 


i.\ 


\\f 




























































/M .. 1 


*^ 


1^ 


-€►- 


-»- 


■€»- 


O 


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<V 


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€.\ 
















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f^f^^^ A.f:*- ^ 



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f f- >,^pf 



m 



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fffrrTifPf- 



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t^ 4- fa 



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"MnMi 



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42 



Thirtieth Lesson 

SIXTEENTH NOTES FOLLOWED BY DOTTED EIGHTHS 



This is a form of rhythm that appears very frequently, especially in Scottish 
Songs. It is also very characteristic of Hungarian Music. Most players perform this 
style of music in a jerky and disconnected manner, and it rarely sounds as it was in- 
tended to. It is in reality a sort of syncopation, and must be played with much care and 
considerable taste. 

No. 1 is a short exercise which is intended to acquaint the pupil with this pecu- 
liar style of rhythm. The student must be careful to get the sixteenth notes precisely 
on the beat or count, not a second before or after. This is tremendously important. 
The sixteenth note must be played rather quickly and very lightly. The dotted eighth 
notes must be given full value. Do not emphasize the sixteenths. 

No. 2 is a famous Scotch Song which almost everybody knows. It is a very pretty 
melody. It starts with a dotted eighth note followed by a sixteenth. The student must care- 
fully observe each group and notice whether there is a sixteenth followed by an eighth, or 
vice versa. This is an important item. Smoothness of style is very essential. Give all dotted 
notes good value, and be sure to get the proper notes on the count. 

The same rules apply to the third, fourth and fifth exercises. 



21145- 



30^h Lesson 

SIXTEENTH NOTES FOLLOWED BY DOTTED EIGHTHS 



43 



ktr^^r rrn- i fr Q- frfnrf 



* 



w 



WITHIN A MILE OF EDINBORO TOWN 



2.. 






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, :^0 



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ii 



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3. 



Moderate (BONNIE DUNDEE) 



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21145 



44 



Thirty- first Lesson 

SCALE STUDIES 



This lesson is a scale study in the Key of C, ascending and decending, and 
should be conscientiously studied. It is well to remember that the playing of 
scales is the foundation of the technical or mechanical branch of flute playing. 

After the pupil has mastered the entire major and minor scales, he will have 
accomplished a great deal, and will progress more rapidly as a consequence. 

Play this scale slowly at first and gradually increase the speed, and see that 
the tone is clear and round. Begin rather softly and make a crescendo (-«=::;) to the 
higher note in each group of four bars, and a decrescendo <z=^) to the lowest note 
as marked. This is the natural manner of playing the flute as well as other wind in- 
struments. 

The flutist should know every scale perfectly and be able to play them from 
memory. 

Do not force or over-blcnv the high notes. They require only slightly more 
breath, but sufficient pressure at the corners of the mouth. 



21145- 



3lth Lesson 

SCALE STUDIES 



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21145 



46 



32nd Lesson 

SCALE STUDIES 

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21145 



33^d Lesson 

SCALE STUDIES 



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34 1^ Lesson 

SCALE STUDIES 




21146 



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35^1^ Lesson 

SCALE EXERCISES 



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60 



Thirty - sixth Lesson 

TRIPLETS 



When the figure".? is placed over or under three notes, it denotes that they are 
to be played in the time of two smaller notes not so marked. Very often, however, the 
figure "o?" is omitted, but it is an easy matter to figure out whether a triplet is intend- 
ed or not. 

The figure''^?'' placed over or under a group of notes, denotes that they are of the 
value of four smaller notes not so marked. This is called a double triplet. 

The figures 5, 7, i*, 10 and upwards are sometimes employed under the same circum- 
stances. These are called groups. 

No. 1 is in ^ time. The triplet comes on the first beat of each bar. Remember 
that each triplet must contain three even notes, and that the three notes of the trip- 
let come on one beat. Count as indicated. 

No. 2 is in 5^ time, and contains a triplet on each beat of the first three bars. 
Be sure to count the rests and give them their full value. 

Nos. 3 and 4 are also in j^ time and are to be played in the same manner as the 
preceding exercise. The time is very simple, four beats to each bar and on each beat 
three notes or a triplet. 

No. 5 is in ^ time. Play slowly at first counting lour eighths to each bar. The 
first triplet on the first count, the second triplet on the second count, the third on the 
third count, and the eighth note on the fourth count. The three notes of the triplet 
have the value of an eighth. After this has been carefully studied, begin to practice 
it two in a bar. That would put the first two triplets on the first count and the remain- 
ing triplet and the eighth note on the second. Master the time and fingering and even 
tonguing. 



21145- 



36 th Lesson 

TRIPLETS 



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21145 



62 



Thirty- seventh Lesson 

THE CHROMATIC SCALE 



No. 1 is a chromatic scale. 

A chromatic scale is one that proceeds entirely by half tones. The smallest in- 
terval in music is that of a half tone. 

From C to C| is a half tone. 

From CI to D is a half tone. 

From D to Df is a half tone and so on. 

Listen carefully and train your ear to distinguish between a whole and a half tone. 
You can soon accustom your ear to the different intervals. 

Play number 1 over several times and be careful of the inttjnation. Listen to the 
second CI and do not play it too high. 

No. 2 is a chromatic scale ascending and descending. It is written in quarter notes. 
Study the fingering from the chart and see that the tongue and fingers work simultane- 
ously. 

Besides remembering how these chromatic scales sound, it will be beneficial to 
look them over carefully and try to remember how they look on paper. In fact, try to 
form a picture in your mind of all the music you play. This is the greatest aid in mem- 
orizing. 

These chromatic exercises should be practiced very diligently. 

Nos. 3 and 4 contain more chromatic scales. Chromatic scales are the easiest to 
remember in regard to intervals, for the progressions are all by half tones only. 

Major and minor scales progress by both half and whole tones. There is no bet- 
ter exercise for finger technique than the chromatic scale, but, unless it is correctly 
practiced, no benefit can be derived. 

The fingers must be quick and accurate, and must not move too quickly or too 
slowly, so that each note has its proper place. 

After the exercises can be played smoothly at a moderate tempo, begin to play 
them faster. 

In playing scales of all kinds rapidly, there is a great tendency to press the fingers 
too hard on the keys. The less pressure used, the lighter and more rapid the technique will 
become. 



2114Fi- 



37th Lesson 

THE CHROMATIC SCALE 



53 




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21145 



54 



Thirty-eighth Lesson 

THE CHROMATIC SCALE 



No. 1 is a slurring exercise composed of triplets. Three notes 
to each beat. The twelve notes in each bar are slurred. Smoothness 
and evenness of fingering" are essential in all these exercises. 

After the pupil has studied these exercises as marked ( slurred\ 
they may be practiced staccato. 

No. 2 is an exercise in /g time. Count two beats to each bar. 
This exercise progresses chromatically; that is, the first note in each 
bar is a half tone higher than in the preceding bar. Play very slowly, 
as it is very difficult. 

No. 3 is in 7^ time. Count three quarters to each bar. Two 

bars are played with one slur. After the pupil is sure of his finger- 
ing and can play these exercisers without hesitancy, he should increase 
the speed. 

Play as quickly as you can play smoothly and evenly — no quicker. 

No. 4 is the entire playable register of the modern flute, chromat- 
ically arranged. It is not necessary for the pupil to practice this exer- 
cise above high Bk It is put in here more as an example of the pos-- 
siblities of the instrument. 

The most important part of these exercises is to master the fin- 
gering. You must be sure of every noce and not hesitate. Play these o- 
ver many times each day. They help to make the lips and fingers supple 

Good players are not developed in a few months. Be satisfied if 
your improvement is steady. Let your progress be"slow but sure." 

See next lesson for explanation regarding triplets. 



31146- 



38th Lesson 

CHROMATIC SCALES 



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21145 



56 



Thirty - nint h Lesson 

EXERCISE FOR DEVELOPING TECHNIQUE IN BOTH HANDS 



In the playing of any instrument, certain exercises are important 
for developing the fingers. These exercises, if practiced properly, will 
prove of great benefit to the student. Some bars will be found to be 
considerably easier than others. In some instances, the fingering will 
seem perfectly free and natural, while in other places it will seem 
stiff and forced. It would be wise to make a complete exercise of each 
bar that seems difficult. Play it over and over again. The fingers will not 
limber up in a day, but through systematic practice, all difficulties will 
eventually be overcome. In exercises such as these, the student must use 
discretion. Devote most of the time to the troublesome bars. The fingers 
must not be allowed to become stiff. Exercises of this kind, together 
with the scales and chromatic exercises, should be indulged in daily. 
While they may be monotonous to many players, it must not be lost sight 
of that many of the exercises that are most uninteresting to practice give 
the greatest amount of benefit. 



2114B- 



39th Lesson 

EXERCISES FOR DEVELOPING TECHNIQUE IN BOTH HANDS 



57 



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21145 



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58 



Fortieth Lesson 

PREPARATORY EXERCISES ON THE GRUPETTO 



The next few lessons will prove of great value in studying the Grup- 
etto which we will take up shortly. 

You will notice that there are always three notes slurred, followed by a stac- 
cato note. Play the slurred notes very evenly. Give the staccato note an ac- 
cent, and separate it well from the grouped notes. Tongue it well. 

Nos, 1, 2 and 3 are the same, except that they are written in different 
keys. 

Nos. 4 and 5 are similar to the others, except that they are written in 
sixteenth notes. 

Play very slowly at first and master the fingering. Then increase the 
tempo. 

This form is used to a large extent in the playing of variations. 

In the next lesson, the Grupetto proper will be explained. 

Nos. 6 and 7 w411 serve to demonstrate how useful exercises of the a- 
bove kind are in the playing of variations. 

No. 7 is a form of variation very frequently used in flute and picco- 
lo solos. 

No. 6. This theme is used as the national air of several countries and 
is universally familiar to everybody. To us it is known as America^'. The 
theme itself is most simple. 

No. 7 is a variation on that theme. 

A variation is one of a set or series of transformations of a theme 
by means of harmonic, rhythmic and melodic changes and embellishments. 
Play smoothly and in strict time. Do not hurry the slurred notes. Be sure 
to accent the notes so marked, as they indicate the theme. Always rest when 
you feel the least bit fatigued. If you have studied the first five exercises 
carefully, No. 7 will be quite easy to master. 



21145- 



40th Lesson 

PREPARATORY EXERCISES ON THE GRUPETTO 



59 




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2114B 



*® Forty-first Lesson 

THE GRUPETTO 



The Grupetto (or Turn) is indicated thus.- (c/s) 

It consists of se\«ral extra or grace notes. Sometimes the notes are written in 
the music, at cjther times only designated by the sign. 

The sign is placed either over or after a principal note, and consists of three 
grace notes, viz., that on the degree next above, then the degree of the principal note, 
and lastly that on the degree below, and then returning to the principal note. 

Notice the first bar of Exercise No. 1. 

When a sharp is placed under a Turn, as in the second bar of first Exercise, the 
lowest note must be made sharp. 

When a flat is placed above a Turn as in the third bar, it signifies that the high- 
est note must be made flat. 

When sharps are placed above and below the Turn, it indicates that both the high- 
est and lowest notes must be sharpened. 

A flat, double flat, sharp, double sharp, or natural placed in similar positions af- 
fect the notes in like manner. 

If there are no accidentals marked over or under the Turn, both the upper and low- 
er grace notes must be played in accordance with the Key Signature. 

The Grupetto should be played smoothly and gracefully. 

The Grupetto may also be inverted, but in that case the notes are generally 
written. 

In exercise No. 1, each bar contains a Grupetto with a different indication. Study 
this carefully. This is merely an example. 

In this lesson, the upper line shows how the music is written, and the second line, 
how it should be played. 

Play No. 2 slowly. Count four even quarters to a bar. 

In order to play in strict time, it is necessary to take from the value of one of the 
longer notes, so as to make room for the grace notes. Therefore shorten the half note. 
For instance, in the first bar, count one, two, and immediately without waiting after 
the second count, bring in your Grupetto notes evenly but not too quickly, so that the 
G comes precisely on the third count and the quarter note C on the fourth. 

In No. 3, play the Grupetto immediately after the first count, so that strict rhy- 
thm may be maintained. 

There is no rule for the playing of Grupettos or other fancy notes. It is left to 
a great extent to the judgment and good taste of the performer. 

It would be wise to play these exercises first without the extra notes, just as 
they are written on the top line; then with the extra notes. 

In all the exercises of this lesson, all the notes retain their full time value, except 
the first note of each bar, which is shortened a trifle so that the Grupetto may be play- 
ed without interfering with the time and rhythm of the other notes in the bar. 

The Grupetto is very effective and graceful when well played. 

Play the Grupetto as lightly as possible, as they are not principal notes, but 
merely ornamental. 

There are other forms of the Grupetto, but it is not necessary or advisable to 
take them up at this time. 



2114B - 



41 st Lesson 

THE GRUPETTO OR TURN 



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21145 



(J 2 



Forty-second Lesson 

GRACE NOTES 



There are many kinds of grace notes, some of which are explained in 
tliis lesson. 

Grace notes are ornaments of melody which are implies in smaller char- 
acters, and, as their name implies, are introduced as embellishments. They 
do not form an essential part of the time value of the bar, but appear as a sur- 
plus, and their actual value is deducted either from the notes that they precede or 
follow. Grace notes are of different kinds, and are clearly defined by their de- 
signations, which comprise the Appog-giatura,the Acciaccatura,the Grupetto or Turn, the 
Shake or Trill, the Mordente, the Portamento, and the Cadenza. 

No.1. This particular kind of grace note is called 'Acciaccatura'.' The 

name is unimportant, as most embellishments are known by musicians as sim- 
ply ' Grace notes. 

This grace note consists of a small eighth note, with a line drawn through 
its tail, which signifies that it must be played lightly and rapidly in order that 
the accent should fall on the principal note. It should be slurred to the prin- 
cipal note. 

No. 2. should be played very lightly. Do not give the grace notes any ac- 
cent. They should be barely heard. The accent goes to the note to w^hich 
the grace note belongs. 

Play all the notes in this exercise short, except the quarters. 

No. 3 has two grace notes instead of one. The exercise is a simple one. 

Count four in a bar. 

The quarters that are followed by grace notes must be somewhat shortened. 
In other words, do not dwell on the quarter, but immediately after the first count, 
play the grace notes so that the note that follows comes precisely on its pro- 
per beat. 

No. 4 is in six-eighth time. Play it quite slowly at first. The grace notes 
are somewhat different than in the previous exercise. In this exercise, there 
is an interval of a third between each two grace notes. 

There are so many different kinds of grace notes etc. that it would be im- 
possibe to go into detail about all of them. They should be taken up by more 
advanced players. 

In No. 5, there are three grace notes. They must be played quickly and 
lightly. Since all of these notes are at the beginning of the bar, they must be played 
a little before the first count or beat, so that the real first note of the bar 
comes precisely on the first beat. 

The fingering must be sure and even. 



21145 - 



42^d Lesson 

GRACE NOTES 



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21145- 



64 



Forty - third Lesson 

THE TRILL 



The Trill or Shake marked thus"//*" or "Z/*^'*'*'**'" consists of a rapid alterna- 
tion of the note so marked, with the note on the next degree above it. "//*" is an 
abbreviation of the word "trill."' 

It is necessary to practice the trill slowly at first. Then the velocity may be 
increased, until the utmost rapidity has been reached. 

A trill, as a rule, is ended with an appoggiatura, a turn or some other kind of 
grace notes, but this is always indicated by the notation. 

As in the case of all wind instruments, the trills on the flute are not always 
perfect. The principal reason for this is that, no matter how carefully a flute is 
made, it is an absolute impossibility to make a perfect instrument, although the 
flute is admittedly the most perfect of all the wind instruments. They will always 
vary slightly in pitch, tone and intonation. Some trills are very easy t" make and 
others are decidedly difficult. In looking at the chart carefully, fingerings will be 
found for some trills. Try to find the one best in tune on your pariicular flute. 

No. 1 is a simple preparatory exercise in half tones. Each bar may be repeat- 
ed as often as the pupil chooses. In fact, each bar may be used as a separate ex- 
ercise. Use only the correct trill fingering, as marked in the chart. 

* No. 2 shows how the trill is written and how it is played. As a rule, when the 
trill is long it begins rather slowly and increases in speed as it progresses. This 
sort of trill is very effective. The intervals are half and whole tone trills. 

You will notice that the trill ends with a turn or extra notes (grace notes,) 
which makes a very satisfactory ending. Do not play the grace notes or turn too 
fast. 

No. 3 is a melody adorned with trills. Only trill the notes so marked and 
terminate the trill as designated. 

The trill depends mostly on the evenness of fingering, and requires diligent 
practice to master. 

No. 4 is also a melody containing more trills in the upper register. 

Careful practice will overcome all difficulties in a short time. 



21146- 



43 ^d Lesson 

THE TRILL 



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31145- 



66 



Forty- fourth Lesson 

THE TRILL 



No. 1 is an exercise containing various kinds of trills and should be 
played quite slowly. All should terminate as marked. In the eighth 

and ninth bars will be found trills without the turn or appoggiatura and are 
to be played as marked. In the thirteenth bar occurs what is termed a 
"chain trill'.' Each note slurs into the other without any extra embellish- 
ments. In the nineteenth and twentieth bars will be found a chain trill 
written in eighth notes. Slur the two bars, but be sure to make each trill 
distinct. 

No'. 2 is an exercise in ^ time, containing half and whole tone trills 
and shakes. Look at the chart carefully before attempting to play the high 
trills and do not allow them to become boisterous or explosive. They are 
just as easy to play as the others, if practiced sufficiently. 

No. 3 is an exercise in /^ time and should be played at a faster 
tempo than the previous exercises. The twelfth bar is written "legato 
staccato" or soft staccato. In the thirteenth and sixteenth bars, the turn 
may be simplified, playing the C|| by closing No. 2 key with the middle fin- 
ger of the right hand, at the same time keeping all the fingers down that 
are in use for the D. *^ 



21145- 



44 tj^ Lesson 

THE TRILL 



67 




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21146- 



«« Forty - fifth Lesson 

MAJOR AND MINOR SCALES 



In order to master any instrument, a person must know something of the rudiments 
of music. One may be able to play after a fashion, without having any knowledge of mu- 
sic, butone cannot play correctly. Many people endowed with great natural talent do not 
study the fundamental principles of music. This is a great mistake. To be endowed with 
talent is a great blessing, but in order to play musically correctly, one must understand the 
rudiments of music. 

It is absolutely necessary to know the value of time and rhythm, to know the various 
scales, both Major and Minor, to know the meaning of all signs and expression marks,fctc. 

Instead of giving new exercises to practice for each lesson, it will be of great bene- 
fit to the student to receive a lesson here and there, that is intended to increase his gener- 
al knowledge of music. 

If the student has the necessary knowledge, he will know how each passage should be 
played, and why. Then by conscientiously practicing the necessary exercises and studies, 
(which is the mechanical part of the work) he cannot fail to achieve the desired result. 

You will notice that these scales are arranged in groups of two. The reason for this 
is that each Major scale has a relative Minor scale, and the signature of both is the same. 

C Major and A Minor have the same signature. 

G Major and E Minor have the same signature, and so on. 

But while the signatures are the same, the scales sound vastly different. 

Minor scales are related to the Major scale of which their Tonic (or key-note) forms 
the sixth degree, and each minor scale is written under the key signature of the Major 
scale to which it is related. 

As an example, A is the sixth degree in the scale of C; therefore the scaleof AMinor 
is the relative of C Major and is written without key signature of sharps and flats. 

E is the sixth degree of the scale of G Major, therefore E is its relative minor,and 
is written in the key signature of G Major, and so on, such alteration as may be necessary 
to any note being indicated by jt,b,or l| when such notes occur. 

The Minor scale always bears the same signature as its relative Major scale, and 
the difference in its intervals is made by substituting extra sharps, flats or naturals instead 
of writing them in the signature. 

The relative Minor scale to every Major scale is found a minor third below the Major. 
For instance, the relative to C Major is A Minor. A is a minor third (which means a tone 
and a half) lower than C. 

E Minor is the relative to G Major. E is a Minor third lower than G, and so on. 

There are two kinds of Minor scales, Melodic and Harmonic. 

The Melodic Minor Scale has two forms: When ascending, its semitones are between 
the second and third and the seventh and eighth degrees, but in descending, the semitones 
are between the sixth and fifth and the third and second degrees. 

Study the illustration carefully. 

With the Harmonic Minor Scale we will not go into detail. It is not used so often. 

The Harmonic Minor scale has three semitones, viz: between the second and third, 
the fifth and sixth and the seventh and eighth degrees, whilst, between the sixth andsev- 
enth degrees it has an interval of a tone and a half (tone and semitone). The latter is called 
an augmented interval. The Harmonic Minor scale does not change in descending no illustra- 
tion given). 

Play the scales so that your ear becomes familiar with the differences of intervals etc. 

Study the diagrams and you cannot fail to understand the positions of the tones and semitones. 

21145 






45th Lesson 



69 



MAJOR AND MINOR SCALES WITH SHARPS 



C Major 



A Minor 



G Major 
E Minor 

D Major 
B Minor 

A Major 

F| Minor 

E Major 
Ct Minor 

B Major 

G| Minor 

Ft Major 
D| Minor 

21145- 



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46^^ Lesson 



MAJOR AND MINOR SCALES WITH FLATS 



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^1145- 



47 ^^ Lesson 

MAJOR AND MINOR CHORD EXERCISES 



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21145- 




72 



47^]^ Lesson (Continued) 
MAJOR AND MINOR CHORD EXERCISES 



B Major 



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31145- 




r " aii^-^ 



47^1^ Lesson (Concluded) 

MAJOR AND MINOR CHORD EXERCISES 



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21145- 




74 



48lh Lesson 

MELODIC MINOR SCALES 

These scales make excellent practice for finger development, tone production, and intonation 

They should be practiced daily 




21145- 



49th Lesson 

HARMONIC MINOR SCALES 

These scales make excellent practice for finger development, tone production and intonation. 

They should be practiced daily. 



75 




21146 - 



76 



Fiftieth Lesson 

SUSTAINED TONES 



In previous lessons, we have had various studies on sustained tones, 
but none with the crescendo and diminuendo. 

Until now, it would have been unwise to give the student exercises 
of this kind, because without a certain degree of lip development, he 
would be totally unable to play anything of this kind. 

From now on, it will be most advisable to play long, steady tones 
first, each and every day, before anything else is attempted. Then devote 
fifteen or twenty minutes or more to this sort of practice. 

It will not be necessary to confine one's self to the playing of only 
one scale. Each scale in this book should be practised in the same man- 
ner. 

For giving strength and certainty to the lips, and for improving the 
tone as well as controlling it, this exercise is invaluable. It should be prac- 
ticed each day several times without fail. The student will soon notice 
the benefit derived from this and similar exercises. 

Begin the tone as softly as possible, but distinctly. The tone should 
respond immediately it has been struck. Make a gradual crescendo till the 
middle of the second bar. Then decrease the tone gradually until the end. 

Do not make the crescendo too suddenly, and in increasing the tone 
do not change the pitch of the note. In a crescendo, there is a strong ten- 
dency to get sharp and in a diminuendo to get flat. This can be avoided 
by spreading or pulling the lips on the crescendo and by bringing them 
back to a normal position on the diminuendo. In this way, the tone will be- 
come perfectly steady. 

Play all the notes in this exercise in the same manner and be care- 
ful not to over-blow on the fortissimo. 

If you can play this exercise well, your lips are under good control. 



2114B- 



50th Lesson 



77 



SUSTAINED TONES 
For Developing the Tone and Strenerthenine: the Lips 



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78 



Fifty- first Lesson 

INTERVALS 



Exerises of this kind are very important. They should be practiced 
with particular care. Great attention should be paid to the intonation. 
Nothing will do more to train the ear than exercises on the interval. The 
student should learn to discriminate between a second and third, or a 
fourth and fifth. In fact, he should know his intervals so thoroughly that 
he can sing the second, third, fourth, fifth, octave etc. of any given note. 
After he is able to do this, he should learn the difference between major 
and minor, diminished and augmented intervals, etc. A player of any wind 
instrument who does not develop his ear properly, can never hope to a- 
chieve any great success as a performer. The player, while sounding one 
note, should anticipate the next. In other words, he should know his in - 
tervals so well, that he hears mentally just how the next one ought to sound. 

Exercise No. 1 is written in thirds. The notes are all quarters and should 
be played evenly. 

No. 2 is in fourths and should be played in a similar manner to the 
first exercise. 

No. 3 is in fifths. Care should be taken to connect the notes smoothly. 

No. 4 is an exercise in sixths. 

No. 5 is in sevenths. The greater the interval is between the two 
notes, the more difficult it becomes to slur them smoothly. 

No. 6 is in octaves. Be very careful to play them in tune. 



2114&- 



5 1st Lesson 

INTERVALS 
For Daily Practice 



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80 



Fifty - second Lesson 

EMBOUCHURE EXERCISES 



These lessons are quite difficult, and are therefore placed toward the end of 
this method. % 

They are very valuable for making the lips flexible and for strengthening 
the corners of the mouth, this being essential to good flute playing. 

Take one exercise and play it over and over until you can play it without 
breaking the slur and with good intonation. 

The pupil can play Nos. 1, 3,5,7 and 9 and perfect them, before attempting 
Nos. 2, 4,6, 8, and 10. At first, take breath as marked. After sufficient practice, 
increase the tempo and play each exercise in one breath. 

These exercises will do much towards strengthening the lips and improving 
the tone. They should be practiced daily. 



21145 



52 nd Lesson 

EMBOUCHURE EXERCISES 



81 




21145 • 



82 



Fifty- third Lesson 

MISCELLANEOUS TECHNICAL EXERCISES 



Most of the exercises so far have been rather short. The following will be found 
somewhat longer and will require slightly more effort on the part of the pupil, 
as breath must be taken very quickly, so as not to disturb the even rhythm. 

No. 1 is in y^ time, key of G Major. Play very slowly and staccato at first, 
and take breath between the bars when necessary. After the tempo has been in- 
creased, breath may be taken less frequently. 

No. 2 is in ^ time, key of El> major. After this exercise has been thorough- 
ly mastered (playing the B? with the first finger of the right hand), the pupil may 
practice it with the double Bl> key, using the thumb of the left hand. The low 
notes must be attacked the same as the higher notes. 



21145 



53fd Lesson 

MISCELLANEOUS TECHNICAL EXERCISES 



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54th Lesson 

MISCELLANEOUS TECHNICAL EXERCISES 




3114B- 



55 y^ Lesson 

MISCELLANEOUS TECHNICAL EXERCISES 



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21146- 



86 



Fifty - sixth Lesson 

DOUBLE TONGUING 



The Flute has an advantage over all other woodv-'ind instruments in the mat- 
ter of playing rapid staccato passages. While it is possible on all reed instruments 
to play only single tonguing, the flutist can play both double and triple tonguing, 
which is used to great advantage. 

In the playing of double tonguing, it is possible to use several syllables: Di- 
ke, Tu-que, Te-ke;but I have found that the first given, Di- ke (pronounced as 
Dickey), is the most practical. It is less tiring than Te-ke, and with sufficient 
practice can be made to sound as distinct and short. 

In pronouncing the syllables slowly, you will notice that the first half is 
produced with the tongue and the second is 1/ack in the throat, but must be 
made to sound as short as the first syllable. 

In order to acquire even and distinct double tonguing, it is necessary to 
practice very slowly at first, with slightly more accent on the second syllable, 
as it is the weaker of the two. 

Care must be taken not to press the flute too tightly against the lips, as 
that will make the tone hard and less vibrant, and if held too loosely will not 
allow of sufficient control to produce a distinct sharp staccato. A happy med- 
ium between the two will bring the best results. 

Exercises from No. 1 to No. 6 inclusive are all written in quarter notes so 
that the pupil will begin slowly. It is a serious mistake to acquire speed at first. 
The slower the beginning, the more even will be the staccato. 

No. 7 is written in eighth notes and should be practiced at a somewhat in- 
creased tempo, that is, after the previous exercises have been thoroughly master- 
ed. The note changes at every bar. 

No. 8 is also written in eighth notes with the note changing every third quar- 
ter of the bar. 

No. 9 will be found more difficult as the note changes on each quarter of eve- 
ry bar. Care should be exercised to produce the low notes just as distinctly as 
the higher ones. 



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21145- 



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56^h Lesson 

DOUBLE TONGUING 



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31145- 



88 



\ 



Fifty-seventhLesson 

DOUBLE TONGUING 



No. 1 is perhaps the easiest form found in double tonguing, two notes 
slurred and two staccato, there being less strain on the tongue t^an in con- 
tinued staccato. 

No. 2 begins with an up beat on the leading tone. The eighth and quarter 
notes are all played with single tongue stroke. Absolute rhythm is necess- 
I ary to play this exercise properly. 

No. 3 begins with a single tongue stroke, and the double tongue begins 

Ion the second half of the first quarter. Be sure to give the rests their full 
value, in order to maintain strict rhythm. 



aii46- 



57^]^ Lesson 

DOUBLE TONGUING 



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2H45 - 



90 



Fifty-eighth Lesson 

TRIPLE TONGUING 



In the playing of triple tonguing, three syllables are used-the first two as 
in double tonguing, Di-ke, with the added syllable forming the triplet Di-ke-te. 
It is also possible to play triple tonguing with the double tongue syllable, but 
one must always be careful to bring the accent on the first note of each trip- 
let. Thus 



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or: Te - te - ke Te - te - ke 

The pupil should practice both ways and decide for himself which one he 
prefers. 

Exercise ISo. 1 consists of only tv/o different notes and should be practiced 
slowly until it can be played very evenly. 

No. 2. In this exercise, the note changes on the second half of every bar, and 
it is absolutely essential that the tongue and fingers act simultaneously, other- 
wise the sense of rhythm will be lost. 

No. 3 is written in 7^ time, sixteenth notes, to give the impression of a quick- 
er tempo. 

No. 4 Is written in sixteenth notes. In the first, second, fourth, sixth and eighth bars, 
the eighth note has the value of one triplet and should be played with the syl- 
lable Te. 

No. 5 is written in the lower register of the flute and will require mure prac- 
tice than exercises in the higher registers The dotted quarter has the value of 
three triplets, and the quarter without the dot the value of two triplets. 



31145- 



91 



58th Lesson 

TRIPLE TONGUING 



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21145 



9« 



Fifty -ninth Lesson 

CADENZAS 



Most instrumental solos in the larger forms contain one or two ca - 
denzas, and often three. Many of the well-known operatic arias and other 
vocal numbers also have cadenzas. In some instances, these cadenzas have 
really made the arias famous. Instrumental cadenzas for the flute appear 
so frequently that they become a very important item to soloists, as well 
as those who occupy the first positions in our orchestras and bands. 
As a general thing, cadenzas are rather difficult, and often extremely so, but 
this is not always the case. Orchestra and band players frequently become 
alarmed when they are confronted with a piece that contains a cadenza, be- 
cause a cadenza is always a solo and must therefore be played alone. Solo- 
ists, on the contrary, lay a great deal of importance upon these passages, 
and often when selecting new music will look first at the cadenza to see if 
it is effective and elaborate enough. 

When a cadenza (or cadence) is found, it indicates that the measure 
of time is suspended, and its performance left to the pleasure and judg - 
nient of the player. It should be played tastefully and as a rule, in corre- 
spondence with the general character of the composition. There is absolute- 
ly no rule for the playing of cadenzas, and it is left entirely to the taste and 
discretion of the performer. Very often cadenzas are written simply to show 
the range of the instrument, and the technical capabilities of the performer. In 
many instances, soloists change the cadenzas in order to display their own 
strong points. They even insert entire new cadenzas at times. Very often 
the composer leaves it to the performer to use his own cadenzas, so that he 
can display to the best advantage his capabilities as a performer. It is 
much easier to render effectively music which has to be played in a certain 
designated and strict time, such as^, yg, y^.? etc. But in cadenzas, where 
the regular time is dispensed with, it requires considerable taste and skill 
to make them sound artistic and impressive. Cadenzas are often very long, 
and the more extensive they are the more difficult it becomes to render them 
so as to keep up the interest and hold the attention of the auditors. In play- 
ing together with other instruments, many little defects can be concealed, but 
in a cadenza, which is absolutely free, open and unaccompanied, the perform- 
er must rely on a faultless rendition to be successful. 

Many of the most famous operatic, as well as other cadenzas, are 
written for voice and flute. The famous cadenza from the Mad Scene' in 
Lucia di Lammermoor" is one of the numerous cadenzas for Soprano and 
Flute. 



21145- 



59 th Lesson 

CADENZAS 



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Collection of Songs and Solos 



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FOLK SONG 



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16. 



TURKISH MARCH 



Allegro moderato 

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18. 



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21145- 



100 

20. 



LE CYGNE 

(THE SWAN) 



Adagio 



C. Saint- Sa'ens 




21. 



THE RED SARAFAN 



Russian Ballad 



Allegretto 






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101 



22 



SERENADE 



Andante cantabile 



Jos. Haydn 



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21145- 



102 

23 



SPRING SONG 



Allegretto grazioso 



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Felix Mendelssohn 



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103 



CAVATINA 



24. Larghetto quasi Andante 



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104 



INTERMEZZO SINFONICO 

from 
CAVALLERIA RUSTICANA 






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211A5- 



Etude I 

THE BROOK 



105 



Allegro mo derato 










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21145- 



100 



Etude II 

TARANTELLE 



Ernest F.Wag"ner 



Presto 



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107 



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21145- 



Etude II 



108 



Etude III 

SYMPHONIC 



Ernest F. Wagner 




I 



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109 



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110 



Etude IV 

BRILLANTE 



Ernest F. Wagner 



Allegro 



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21145- 



112 



Etude V 

FANTASTIQUE 



Ernest F. Wagner 



Allegro molto 



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113 





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114 



Etude VI 

STACCATO 



Ernest F. Wagner 



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115 



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116 



Etude Vn 

CHROMATIC 



Allegro moderato 



Ernest F. Wagner 











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Grand Fantasie 

THEME AND VARIATIONS 

Aloha Oe 



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(farewell to thee) 
Theme 
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Selected Solos for 
FLUTE 

with Piano Accompaniment 



MODERATELY DIFFICULT 

ALLEGRETTO, Op. 116, No. 1 (W45) b Godard 

ANDANTE from the 

Concerto in D Minor. Op. 69 (W1336) B. Molique — Q. E. Maganini 

BEE, The (Le Mouche — The Gnat) (Capriccio) from 

Suite for Violin and Piano (W48) _ C. Bohm — J. J. Gilbert 

BIRD'S CALL, A (W1722) A. Van Leeuwen 

BLUEBIRD'S CALL, The (W1679) H. Restorff 

BOLERO (Spanish Dance in E Minor), Op. 28, No. 2 E Pessard 

BY THE BROOK (Idylle), Op. 33 (W1914) p. Wetzger 

CANZONETTA from Concerto Romantique B. Godard — L A Hahn 

CSARDAS (W1516) V. Monti— C. J. Roberts 

DANSE DES MIRLITONS (Dance of the Reed Flutes) from 

The Nutcracker Suite, Op. 71 (W1338) P. I. Tchaikovsky— W. Popp 

DOLL'S LULLABY, A (W1564) L. Stringfield 

ELEGIE, Op. 10 (W1931) , "... H. W. Ernst 

FANTASIA on The Bohemian Girl (W1934) M. W. Balfe— C. Le Thiere 

FLIGHT OF THE BUMBLE BEE Scherzo from the Opera 

The Legend of Tsar Saltan N. Rimsky-Korsakoff — G. lasilli 

FOREST WARBLER, The (W1678) H. Restorff 

GLORJANA (Theme and Variations) .•.■ G. D. Barnar<i 

HILLS OF HOME, The O. Fox— G. lasilli 

IDYLLE from 5M/f^ A'o. 2, Op. 116 (W46) B. Godard 

JOTA from Spanish Suite (W1837) G. S. De Roxlo 

LIEBESTRAUM (Dream of Love) F. Liszt— L. A. Hahn 

MENUET from L'Arlesienne, Suite No. 2 (W109) G. Bizet — P. Caso 

NIGHT SOLILOQUY (ESI) K. Kennan 

Also published for Flute, Piano, and Strings. 

NIGHTINGALE SERENADE, Op. 447 (W1961) W. Popp 

OFFERTOIRE, Op. 12 (W1340) J. Donjon— Q. E. Maganini 

THREE HUMOROUS PIECES 

after Joachim Andersen's £:/w^e5. Op. 33 (W19 18; A. Lora 

1. The Snooping Little Cub 

2. The Lovesick Gazelle 

3. The Indefatigable Woodpecker 

THROUGH THE AIR (W14) A. Damm 

TOURBILLON (The Whirlwind) (W49) A. Krantz 

Band accompaniment published (U144). 

WHIMSICAL THOUGHT, A ( W1723) A. Van Leeuwen 



C. Chaminade 
W. A. Mozart 



DIFFICULT 
CONCERTINO, Op. 107 

Band accompaniment published (J568). 

CONCERTO No. 1 in G (K.313) (04185) 

FANTASIE PASTORALE HONGROISE. Op. 26 (W1894) F. Doppler 

IL CARNEVALE DI VENEZIA, Op. 78 (W7) G. Briccialdi— L. De Lorenzo 

ILVENTO (The Wind), Op. 112 (W1873) G. Briccialdi 

PAN'S SERENADE TO SPRING G. J. Trinkaus 

RONDO C APRICCIOSO, Op. 1 4 F. Mendelssohn— L. A. Hahn 

SONATINA (03643) E. Burton 

SYLVIA (Scherzo) (W61) C. Le Thiere 

VALSE, Op. 64, No. 1 (W95) F. Chopin— P. Taffanel 

VALSE, Op. 116, No. 3 (W47) B. Godard 

VALSE CAPRICE (W53) C. T. Howe 



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