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936 
B67 
1908 




Cornell University Library 
ML 936.B67 1908 



The flute and flute-playin 



II 




in acoustica 



3 1924 021 743 848 



CORNELL 

UNIVERSITY 

LIBRARY 




Gift of 
¥. H. French 



MUSIC 




The original of tliis book is in 
tine Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924021743848 




Theobald Boehm 

Aged 34 
At the time of the development of the conical bore, ring key, flute 



THE FLUTE 
AND FLUTE- PLAYING 



IN ACOUSTICAL, TECHNICAL, AND 
ARTISTIC ASPECTS 



THEOBALD BOEHM 

Royal Bavarian Court-Musician 
ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED IN GERMAN IN 1871 

TRANSLATED AND ANNOTATED BY 

DAYTON C. MILLER, D. Sc. 

Professor of Physics in Case School of Applied Science 



PUBLISHED BY 

DAYTON C. MILLER 

Case School of Applied Science, Cleveland, Ohio 



rat 



Copyright, 1908, by 
DAYTON C. MILLER 



ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 







Munich, August 6th, igo8 

Dear Mr. Miller: — 

/ wish to express my, and my sisters' , 
great pleasure and satisfaction for your labor of 
love, which you have undertaken in the good 
intention to honor my grandfather. For this we 
can be only very thankful to you; and I believe 
I express the sentiment of the whole family of 
my grandfather in giving you our approval of 
the publishing of your translation of his book: 
"Die Flbte und das Flotenspiel." 

Yours very truly 

Theobald Bbhm, 



{The above is an extract from a personal letter; the original 
is written in £!nglish.] 



TRANSLATOR'S INTRODUCTION 



THEOBALD BoEHM, of Munich, — bom in 1794, 
died in 1881, — a celebrated Royal Bavarian 
Court-Musician, and inventor of the modem 
flute, described his inventions in a treatise on "Die 
Flote und das Flotenspiel" ; this work was read with 
great interest by the writer, and while upon a holiday 
some years ago, it was translated; others having 
expressed a desire to read the work in English, its 
publication has been undertaken. 

While much has been written about the Boehm 
flute, Boehm's own writings seem not to have received 
the attention they deserve ; this is especially true of the 
work here presented; his earlier pamphlet, published 
in German in 1847, ^^ French in 1848, and in English 
in 1882, is better known. In the introduction to "Die 
Flote und das Flotenspiel," Boehm says : "My treatise, 
Ueber den Flotenbau und die neuesten Verbesserungen 
desselben (1847), seems to have had but little influ- 
ence. There is need, therefore, of this work in which 
is given as complete a description as is possible of my 
flutes and instructions for handling them, and which 
also contains instructions upon the art of playing the 
flute with a pure tone and a good style." 



VI TRANSLATOR'S INTRODUCTION 

In a letter to Mr. Broadwood, dated November 
15, 1868, Boehm wrote: "I have at length finished it 
[this treatise]. There ought properly to be both a 
French and an English translation, but I cannot myself 
undertake them * * * ^ My treatise will contain 
* * * ; and the history of all my work and all 
my experience during a period of 60 years will be 
contained in one little book." In August, 1871, he 
writes: "My work, 'Die Flote und das Flotenspiel,' 
is in the press." 

The preparation of the English edition of this 
last work of Boehm's has been a labor of love, and the 
writer hopes that its study will make still better known 
Boehm's very careful and complete investigations, and 
will lead to a full appreciation of his remarkable 
improvements in the flute. His greatest desire was to 
elevate the art of music, but he was also possessed of 
the true scientific spirit, and has described his designs 
and practical constructions very explicitly. In 1847 
he wrote: "The surest proof of the authenticity of 
my inventions, I believe will consist in describing the 
motives I had in their development, and in explaining 
the acoustical and mechanical principles which I made 
use of; for he alone is capable of carrying out a 
rational work, who can give a complete account of the 
why and wherefore of every detail from the conception 
to the completion." Judged by this criterion, Boehm 
deserves the highest credit, for he has given an 
account-^-almost beyond criticism, and p«-haps the best 
ever given for any musical instrument — of the why 
and wherefore of the flute. 



TRANSLATOR'S INTRODUCTION vil 

The first part of the present work covers the same 
subjects as did the one of 1847, but the treatment is 
more complete and practical. In addition to this there 
is much of value about the mechanism, and the care of 
the flute, while the second part on flute-playing is of 
great interest. 

In 1847 stress was put upon the so-called scientific 
construction of the flute; in this treatise the scientific 
portions appear in truer relations to the subject. This 
should remove the slight cause for criticism which the 
earlier treatise seemed to present. To one who reads 
understandingly it is evident that, while the general 
treatment of the flute is a scientific one, the actual 
dimensions for construction are based upon experi- 
ment. No set of laws has yet been formulated which 
will enable one to calculate all the dimensions of a flute. 
This fact in no way lessens the value of Boehm's work ; ' 
his purposes were conceived and carried out according 
to scientific methods, and his finished work was the 
best practical realization of his ideals. Boehm is more 
than worthy of all the honor that he has received, not 
for scientific discoveries, but for practical improve- 
ments and artistic successes. 

The full consideration of Boehm's contributions 
cannot be given here ; but to him we certainly owe the 
present system of fingering, — an astonishingly perfect 
one, — the cylinder bore, and much of the beautiful 
mechanism, which have completely revolutionized the 
instrument and have made the Boehm flute one of the 
most perfect of musical instruments. 



Vili TRANSLATOR'S INTRODUCTION 

The text here given is a faithful, and usually a 
very literal, translation of the German^ Boehm's 
writings possess both a historical and a scientific 
interest, and his inventions have been the subject of 
much controversy. It has seemed desirable, in giving 
his descriptions and explanations, to retain as far as 
possible, the forms of expression and even the wording 
of the original. Some traces of the German construc- 
tions, no doubt remain. While a freler translation 
might be preferred by some, it is believed the one 
given is always intelligible and explicit. There has 
been a slight rearrangement of subject matter and of 
paragraphing. The use of emphasis, — indicated by 
italics in English, — which is very frequent in the 
original, has been omitted. 

Eight errors in the original lithographed Tables 
of Fingerings, and a few typographical errors in the 
tables of acoustical numbers have been corrected; no 
other corrections have been found necessary. 

All of the original illustrations are reproduced; 
the diagrams have been redrawn with only such 
alterations as are noticed in the descriptive matter ; the 
musical illustrations have been copied photographically 
from the German edition and therefore appear exactly 
as Boehm left them. In this edition there have been 
added several jliagrams (Fig. 4 and the note diagrams 
in square brackets), pictures of six flutes (Figs, i, 2, 
9, 10, II, and 18), and three portraits of Boehm. The 
first portrait is copied from an old lithograph; the 
second is from the original photographic portrait by 
Hanfstaengl of Munich, presented to the writer by 



TRANSLATOR'S INTRODUCTION ix 

Miss Anna Boehm, a granddaughter of our Boehm; 
the third is copied from Welch's "History of the 
Boehm Flute." 

It was the writer's first intention to make some- 
what lengthy annotations to the original text ; but these 
notes soon became so extended, and further study 
developed so much material, that it has now been 
decided to prepare a separate book on the history and 
construction of the modem flute. However it seems 
best not to abandon entirely the first plan, and many 
annotations by the translator will be found throughout 
the work; all such added matter is enclosed in square 
brackets, [ ] . These annotations have been confined, , 
for the most part, to matters of fact ; while there may 
be differences of opinion upon some points, this is not 
the proper place for discussions which might lead to 
controversy. 

The writer wishes to express his thanks to 
Theobald Boehm and his sisters, of Munich, grand- 
children of the inventor of the flute; when the writer 
first visited them, some years ago, they gave approval 
to this English edition, and now they have very kindly 
expressed this sentiment in the letter, a portion of 
which precedes this introduction. These friends have 
also given other assistance which is highly appreciated. 
• He also wishes to thank his several friends who have 
placed their instruments at his disposal for study and 
illustration. 

Dayton C. Miller. 

Case School of Applied Science, 
Cleveland, Ohio, November, 1908. 



CONTENTS 
Part I — The Flute 

SECTION PAGE 

I. Introduction 1 

II. The Acoustical Proportions of the Flute 6 

III. Explanation of the Schema 30 

IV. The Material 39 

V. The System of Fingering: 

(a) General Description 33 

(&) The Git Key 35 

VI. Tables of Fingerings 39 

VII. Description of the Key Mechanism 45 

VlII. Care of the Mechanism : 

(a) Rtepaifs 52 

(6) The Keys 53 

(c) The Key Pads 56 

(d) The Springs 58 

(e) The Cork in the Head Joint 60 

IX. Treatment of the Flute in General 61 

X. The Embouchure 64 

XI. On the Blowing of New Flutes 66 

XII. The Bass Flute in G: 

(a) Its Musical Characteristics 67 

(6) Mechanism of the Bass Flute 68 

(c) Special Fingerings for the Bass Flute... 70 

Part II — Flute-Playing 

XIII. The Development of Tone 72 

XIV. Finger Exercises 75 

XV. The Method of PRAcriaNo > 77 

XVI. Musical Interpretation 80 

XVII. Conclusion 94 

Index 97 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

PORTRAITS 

Theobald Boehm, Aged 34 Frontispiece 

Theobald Boehm, Aged 60 facing page 32 

Theobald Boehm, Aged 76 facing page 78 

FIGURES 

no. page 

1. Boehm's Flute, Old System, 1829 3 

2. Boehm's Flute, New System, 1832 3 

3. Schema for Determining the Positions of Holes 21 

4. Detail of the Schema 27 

5. Full-Size Plan of Key Mechanism facing page 45 

6. Side View of Key 45 

7. Plan of Clutch 45 

8. Hinge-Tube and Axle 45 

9. Silver Flute by Boehm & Mendler facing page 50 

10. Silver Flute with Wood Head 

by Boehm & Mendler facing page 50 

11. Wood Flute by Boehm & Mendler facing page 50 

12. Spring Fork 53 

13. Screw Driver >. 53 

14. Tweezers 55 

15. Clamp for the Pads gg 

16. Pincers 5g 

17. Gauge for Setting the Cork gQ 

18. Bass Flute by Rudall, Carte & Co facing page 67 

19. Mechanism of Bass Flute gg 



THE FLUTE 
AND FLUTE-PLAYING 

Part I— The Flute 

UPON THE SYSTEM OF 

Theobald Boehm 

OF MUNICH 

I. INTRODUCTION 

It is now more than sixty years since I first began 
to play upon a flute of my own manufacture. [In 
1810, "at the age of 16 years he made for himself 
an instrument patterned after one with 4 keys, loaned 
to him by a friend. Then he began to blow the flute 
with gleeful enthusiasm in all his spare time, not 
especially to the delight of his friends and neigh- 
bors." — Zur Erinnerung an Theobald Boehm.} 
I was then a proficient goldsmith and was also skilled 
in the mechanic arts. I soon endeavored to make 
essential improvements in the keys, springs, and pads 
of my flute; notwithstanding all my efforts, equality 
oS tone and perfection of tuning were impossible. 



2 THE FLUTE 

because the proper spacing of the tone-holes required 
too great a spreading of the fingers. In order that the 
tone-holes might be made of proper size and be placed 
at the acoustically correct points, it was necessary to 
devise an entirely new system of fingering. I cofuld 
not remodel the flute to this extent without sacrificing 
my facility in playing which had been acquired by 
twenty year's practice. 

Notwithstanding all my success as an artist, the 
defects of my instrument remained perceptible, and 
finally I decided in 1832 to construct my ring-keyed 
flute, upon which I played in London and Paris in the 
following year, where its advantages were at once 
recognized by the greatest artists and by I'Academie 
des sciences. 

As compared with the old flute, this one was un- 
questionably much more perfect. The tone-holes, 
through my new system of fingering, were placed m 
their acoustically correct positions, and one could play 
all possible tone combinations clearly and surely. As 
regards the sounding and the quality of the lower 
and higher tones there was yet much to be desired; 
but further improvements could be secured only by a 
complete change in the bore of the flute tube. 

[Figures i and 2 are reproduced from Boehm's 
pamphlet of 1847, Ueber den Flotenbau und die neues- 
ten Verbesserungen desselben. Fig. i shows his flute 
on the old system, as made in 1829, while Fig. 2 
represents the new Boehm System Flute of 1832.] 



BOEHM'S EARLIEST FLUTES 



Fig. 1. Boehm's Flute 
Old System. 1889 



Fig. a. Boehm's Flute 
New System. 1832 



4 THE FLUTE 

The method of boring, with a cylindrical head, 
and a conical contraction in the lower part, which was 
first improved by Christopher Denner of Nuremberg 
(born in 1655, died in 1707), and later by Quantz 
[1697- 1 773], Tromlitz [1726- 1805] and others, was 
nevertheless far from being in accordance with acousti- 
cal principles, as the places of the finger-holes had been 
borrowed from the primitive Schivegel or Querpfeife. 
This conical bore was in use more than a century and 
a half, during which no one made improvements in it. 

I was never able to understand why, of all wind 
instruments with tone-holes and conical bore, the flute 
alone should be blown at its wider end ; it seems much 
more natural that with rising pitch, and shorter length 
of air column, the diameter should become smaller. I 
experimented with tubes of various bores but I soon 
found that, with only empirical experiments, a satis- 
factory result would be difificult of attainment. 

[The flute of 1832, therefore, remained unchanged 
for fifteen years. Boehm says in his treatise of 1847, 
mentioned below : "With regard to all the alterations 
and improvements which have been made in the flute 
[after 1832], whose value or worthlessness I leave for 
others to decide, I had no part in them ; from the year 
1833 to 1846 I gave no time to the manufacture of 
instruments, being otherwise engaged [in iron work] 
and for this reason my flute factory was given up eight 
years ago in 1839."] 

I finally called science to my aid, and gave two 
years [1846-1847] to the study of the principles of 
acoustics under the excellent guidance of Herr Profes- 



PURPOSE OF THIS TREATISE 5 

sor Dr. Carl von Schafhautl [of the University of 
Munich]. After making many experiments, as precise 
as possible, I finished a flute in the latter part of 1847, 
founded upon scientific principles, for which I received 
the highest prize at the World's Expositions, in London 
in 1851, and in Paris in 1855. 

Since that time my flutes have come to be played 
in all the countries of the world, yet my treatise, 
"Ueber den Flbtenbau und dessen neuesten Verhesser- 
ungen" [Boehm quoted from memory; the actual title 
is Ueber den Flotenbau und die neuesten Verbesser- 
ungen desselben'], published before that time [in 1847] 
by B. Schott's Sohne of Mainz, which contains com- 
plete explanations of my system with the dimensions 
and numerical proportions, seems to have had but little 
influence. Because of the many questions which are 
being continually asked of me concerning the advan- 
tages and management of my flute, it is evident that 
the acoustical proportions and key mechanism are not 
sufficiently well understood to enable one to help him- 
self in case of accidental troubles and derangements. 

There is need therefore of this work, which will 
be welcomed by all flute players, in which is given as 
complete a description as is possible of my flutes, and 
instructions for handling them, and which also con- 
tains instructions upon the art of playing the flute with 
a pure tone and a good style. 



II. THE ACOUSTICAL PROPORTIONS 
OF THE FLUTE 

All wind instruments with tone- or finger-holes, 
whose construction requires very accurate proportions, 
can be improved only through the investigation of the 
principles of the good as well as the bad of existing 
instruments, and through a rational application of the 
results ; the greatest possible perfection will be obtained 
only when theory and practice go hand in hand. When 
the calculation of the required data is undertaken, the 
questions to be first investigated are the dimensions 
and numerical proportions of the air columns and tone- 
holes of each separate instrument. 

For this purpose I had prepared in 1846 a great 
number of conical and cylindrical tubes of various 
dimensions and of many metals and kinds of wood, so 
that the relative fitness as to pitch, ease of sounding, 
and quality of tone, could be fundamentally investi- 
gated. 

The most desirable proportions of the air columns, 
or the dimensions of bore best suited for bi-inging out 
the fundamental tones, af various pitches, were soon 
found. These experiments show : 

I. That the strength, as well as the full clear 
quality of the fundamental tones, is proportional to the 
volume of the air set in vibration. 



BORE OF TUBE 7 

2. That a more or less important contraction of 
the upper part of the flute tube, and a shortening or 
lengthening of this contraction, have an important 
influence upon the production of the tones and upon the 
timing of the octaves. 

3. That this contraction must be made in a 
certain geometrical proportion, which is closely 
approached by the curve of the parabola. 

4. That the formation of the vibration nodes 
and tone waves is produced most easily and perfectly 
in a cylindrical flute tube, the length of which is thirty 
times its diameter; and in which the contraction begins 
in the u,pper fourth part of the length of the tube, con- 
tinuing to the cork where the diameter is reduced one 
tenth part. 

Since the dimensions most suitable for the forma- 
tion of the fundamental tones correspond closely to 
those of theory, a flute of these dimensions, the length 
of the air column being 606 millimeters and its 
diameter 20 millimeters, having a compass of about 
two octaves, would certainly be perfect as regards a 
full, pure tone, and ease of sounding. But in order to 
extend the compass to three full octaves as now 
required [in flute music], I was obliged, for the sake 
of freedom in the upper tones, to reduce the diameter 
to 19 millimeters and thereby again to injure to some 
extent the beauty of the tones of the first two octaves. 

[In a letter written in 1867 Boehm says : "I have 
made several flutes with a bore 20 mSllimeters in 
diameter, therefore one millimeter wider than usual; 
the first and second octaves were better, but of course 



8 THE FLUTE 

the third octave was not so good. I could, indeed, 
still play up to Cg, but from FgJ upwards the notes 
were sounded with difficulty, and if my lip did not 
happen to be in good order, I could not sound the 
higher notes piano at all. The flute, whether in the 
orchestra or in solo playing, is treated as the next 
highest instrument after the piccolo ; modem composers 
do not hesitate to write for it up to Cg ; therefore the 
bore of 19 millimeters diameter is certainly the best 
for general purposes."] 

[The silver flute with a wood head which is shown 
in Fig. 10 has a bore of 20 millimeters ; it is the only 
flute in C of this bore which the translator has ever 
seen. Its tone quality was directly compared with that 
of the flute shown in Fig. 9, having a bore of 19 milli- 
meters. The result of the comparison was to cor- 
roborate the opinions of Boehm as expressed above.] 

[Boehm later made the "Alt-Flote," commonly 
called the "Bass Flute," which is described in section 
XII ; the tube of this instrument has an inside diameter 
of 26 millimeters. Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Company 
make an "Alto Flute" in Bjj, having a bore of 20.5 
millimeters. These instruments have the beautiful tone 
quality in the lower octaves, referred to above.] ■ 

A second obstacle which compelled me to depart 
from the theory was the impossibility of making a 
moveable cork or stopper in the upper end of the flute 
so that its distance from the center of the embouchure 
might be increased or decreased in proportion to the 
pitch of each tone ; a medium position for it must there- 
fore be used which will best serve for the highest as 



SHAPE OF EMBOUCHURE 9. 

well as the lowest tones; this is found to be 17 milli- 
meters from the center of the embouchure. 

Next, the size and form of the mouth-hole 
(embouchure) must be determined. The tone pro- 
ducing current of air must be blown against the sharp 
edge of the mouth-hole, at an angle which varies 
with the pitch of the tone. When the air stream 
strikes the edge of the hole it is broken, or rather 
divided, so that one part of it goes over or beyond the 
hole, while the greater part, especially with a good 
embouchure, produces tone and acts upon the column 
of air enclosed by the tube, setting it into vibration. 

By this means the molecular vibrations of the tube 
are excited, producing a tone as long as the air stream 
is maintained; it follows therefore that the tone will 
be stronger the greater the number of the air particles 
acting upon the tone producing air column in a given 
time. The opening between the lips through which 
the air stream passes is in the form of a slit, and a 
mouth-hole in shape like an elongated rectangle with 
rounded corners, presenting a long edge to the wide 
air stream, will allow more air to be effective than 
would a round or oval hole of equal size. 

For the same reason a larger mouth-hole will 
produce a louder tone than a smaller one, but this 
requires a greater strength in the muscles of the lip, 
because there is formed a hollow space under the lip 
which is unsupported. More than this it is difficult 
to keep the air current directed at the proper angle, 
upon which the intonation and the tone quality for the 
most part depend. 



lo THE FLUTE 

By a greater depression of the air stream towards 
the middle of the hole, the tone becomes deeper and 
more pungent, while a greater elevation makes the 
tone higher and more hollow. Consequently the angle 
between the sides of the mouth-hole and the longitu- 
dinal section through the axis of the air column, as 
well as the height of these sides, has an important 
influence upon the easy production of the tone. In 
my opinion an angle of 7 degrees is best adapted to the 
entire compass of tones, the walls being 4.2 millimeters 
thick; and a mouth-hole 12 millimeters long and 10 
millimeters wide, is best suited to most flute players. 

After the completion of these experiments I 
constructed many thin, hard-drawn tubes of brass 
upon which the fundamental tone C3 



[^] 



and also higher notes could be produced by a breath, 
and easily brought to any desired strength without 
their rising in pitch. 

The hissing noise heard in other flutes not being 
perceptible served to convince me that the correct 
dimensions of the tube and its smooth inner sur- 
face permitted the formation of the air waves without 
noticeable friction. From this as well as from the fine 
quality of tone of the harmonics or acoustical over- 
tones, can be inferred the perfect fitness of my tube for 
the flute; and with this I began the determination of 
the shortening or cutting of the air column, required 
for producing the intervals of the first octave. 



LOCATION OF TONE-HOLES ii 

The simplest and shortest method is, naturally, to 
cut off from the lower end of the flute tube so much as 
will make the length of the air column correspond to 
each tone of the chromatic scale. To accurately verify 
these proportions, I made a tube in which all the 
twelve tone sections could be taken off and again put 
together, and which was provided with a sliding joint 
in the upper part of the tube to correct for any defects 
in tuning. 

Since a flute cannot be made to consist of many 
separate pieces, all the tone lengths must be combined 
in one tube, and these lengths may be determined by 
laterally bored holes; the air column may be consid- 
ered as divided or cut off by these holes in a degree 
determined by the ratio between the diameters of the 
holes and of the tube. 

The air column, however, is not as much shortened 
by a tone-hole as by cutting the tube at the same point. 
Even if the size of the hole is equal to the diameter 
of the tube, yet the air waves wilt not pass out of the 
hole at a right angle as easily as along the axis. 

The waves meet with a resistance from the air 
column contained in the lower part of the tube, which 
is so considerable that all the tones are much too flat 
when they come from holes placed at the points deter- 
mined by cutting the tube. And, moreover, the height 
of the sides of the holes adds to the flattening effect. 
The tone-holes must, therefore, be placed nearer the 
mouth-hole the smaller their diameter and the higher 
their edges. 



12 THE FLUTE 

Although one octave can be correctly tuned in 
this manner with small holes, yet for the following 
reasons it is greatly to be desired that the tone-holes 
should be as large as possible. 

1. Free and therefore powerful tones can only 
be obtained from large holes which are placed as 
nearly as possible in their acoustically correct positions. 

2. If the holes are small, and are considerably 
removed from their proper places, the formation of the 
nodes is disturbed and rendered uncertain; the tone 
is produced with difficulty, and often breaks into other 
tones corresponding to the other aliquot parts of the 
tube [harmonics]. 

3. The smaller the holes, the more distorted 
become the tone waves, rendering the tone dull and of 
poor quality. 

4. The pure intonation of the third octave 
depends particularly upon the correct position of the 
holes. 

From accurate investigations it is shown that the 
disadvantages just mentioned, become imperceptible 
only when the size of the holes is, at the least, three 
fourths of the diameter of the tube [i4j4 millimeters]. 
But in the manufacture of wooden flutes, the making 
of holes of such a size causes considerable difficulty. 
At first it appeared very desirable to make the holes of 
gradually increasing size from the upper to the lower 
ones; later this proved to be exceedingly disadvan- 
tageous, and I concluded that again a medium course is 
the best. Therefore I finally chose a constant diameter 



SIZE OF TONE-HOLES 13 

for all the twelve tone-holes from C3 to C4, which for 
silver flutes is 13.5 millimeters, and for wooden flutes 
13 millimeters. 

[Several Boehm & Mendler flutes, of wood and of 
silver, which have been measured by the translator, 
show exactly the diameter of holes mentioned above. 
The reason why graduated holes are disadvantageous 
is no doubt given in the following extract of a letter 
v/ritten by Boehm, in 1862, to Louis Lot, the cele- 
brated flute maker of Paris : "The flute-playing world 
knows that for six years I made all my silver flutes 
with graduated holes. * * * The graduated holes 
are, in my opinion, the best, but the difference is 
scarcely appreciable. I have discontinued making 
them on account of the greater difficulty in the manu- 
facture." The last sentence seems to state the three 
facts bearing on the question : the graduated holes are 
the best; their superiority is slight; the cost of their 
manufacture is greater. Today nearly all makers use 
two sizes of holes, and one eminent maker uses four. 

With these dimensions, in order to produce the 
correct pitch, the center of the CgJ hole must be moved 
5 millimeters above the point at which the tube would 
have to be cut off in order to produce the same tone. 
The amount of removal increases with each hole in the 
ascending scale, so that the Q hole [thumb key hole] 
must be placed 12 millimeters above the point of sec- 
tion of the air column. In this manner the correct 
positions of the holes are obtained, and the tuning of 
all the notes of the first octave is rendered to the ear 
as perfect as possible. 



14 



THE FLUTE 



The notes of the second octave are produced, as it 
were, by overblowing the tones of the first, by narrow- 
ing the opening in the lips, and by changing the angle 
and increasing the speed of the stream of air; this 
results in producing shorter ^tone-waves. 

In order to secure a greater compass of tones, it is 
necessary to use a narrower tube than the one best 
suited to the fundamental tone; or in other words a 
tube too narrow in proportion to its length. From this 
it results that the tones D4 and D^jf are of different 
quality from the next following, and it is first with 
the note E4 that the relation between length and width 
is again restored. 

For joining C^ and E4, therefore, the fliute should 
properly have three additional large holes for the tones 
Cif, D4 and D^J. But there is only one finger avail- 
able, and this must be used for the Qft hole which must 
be so placed that it may serve at the same time as a so- 
called vent hole for the tones D4, DtJ, Dg Ggfll and 
A5. Theory, however, requires octave-holes for D4 
and D^J, which would also serve as vent holes for the 
twelfths, Gb# and Ag, giving to all these tones a 
better quality, a purer intonation and a freer sounding. 

But since I was unwilling to make my system of 
fingering more complicated, it was necessary to deter- 
mine by experiment a size and position for the C^f 
hole which would satisfy all of these demands. The 
C4# hole, as well as the two small holes for the D^ and 
DiJ trill keys, must therefore be placed considerably* 
above their true positions, and must be made cor- 
respondingly smaller. 



CALCULATION OF DIMENSIONS 15 

For the exact determination of these, as well as 
for the other tuning proportions, I had a flute made 
with moveable holes, and was thus enabled to adjust 
all the tones higher or lower at pleasure. In this way 
I could easily determine the best positions of the upper 
three small holes, but it was not possible to determine 
the tuning of the other tones as perfectly as I desired ; 
for, endeavoring to produce an entire pure scale in one 
key, the tones were always thrown out of the propor- 
tions of the equal temperament, without which the best 
possible tuning of wind instruments with tone-holes 
cannot be obtained. 

Therefore, in order to determine with perfect 
accuracy the points at which the tone-holes shall be 
bored, one must avail himself of the help of theory. 
To form a basis for all the calculations of dimensions, 
and for the easy understanding of this, it seems not out 
of place to give as simply as possible an explanation of 
the fundamental acoustical laws. 

As is known, the acuteness or graveness of tones 
depends upon the length and volume of the sounding 
body, and is proportional to the velocity of vibration 
which can be impressed upon the body. For the entire 
extent of musical tones, these constant relative propor- 
tions have long been known with mathematical preci- 
sion; the following Table I gives these relations for 
all the tones of the equally tempered scale in the form 
of vibration numbers and string lengths. [The ratio 
of the number of vibrations of any tone in the equally 
tempered scale to the number of vibrations of the 
preceding tone is the twelfth root of 2; the numeri- 



i6 



THE FLUTE 



cal value of this ratio is 1.059463. As the numbers 
in this table are useful for various acoustical computa- 
tions, they have been recomputed by the translator, and 
several typographical errors in Boehm's figures have 
been corrected.] 





TABLE I 






EEIiATlVJil 


RELATIVE 


TONES 


VIBRATION NUMBERS 


STRING LENGTHS 


CaH-1 


2.000000 


0.500000 


B 


1.887749 


0.529732 


Bb or A# 


I.781797 


O.56123I 


A 


1. 68 1 793 


0.594604 


A\) or Gjf 


1.587401 


0.629960 


G 


1.498307 


0.667420 


Gb or F# 


1.414214 


0.707107 


F 


1.334840 


0.749154 


E 


1. 25992 1 


0.793701 


Eb or D# 


1. 189207 


0.840896 


D 


1. 122462 


0.890899 


Db or C# 


1.059463 


0.943874 


a 


1. 000000 


1. 000000 



Here is shown the geometrical progression in 
which the vibration frequency of Ca,, which is desig- 
nated the fundamental, is constantly increased through- 
out the scale, so that the number of vibrations of the 
octave, Ca,+i, has become double that of C^,; at the 
same time, shortening in equal progression, the string- 
length is reduced from i.o to 0.5. 

With these relative numbers it is a simple matter 
to calculate the absolute vibration numbers corre- 



TEMPERED SCALE 17 

sponding to any desired pitch, since any given vibration 
number bears to all the other intervals exactly the 
same proportion, as the relative number corresponding 
to this tone bears to the relative number of these other 
intervals. 

For example, to calculate the number of vibrations 
of the tone C3, knowing the absolute number of vibra- 
tions of the Normal A3 to be 435 vibrations per second, 
Ave have the following proportion : 

relative A3 : relative 03 = absolute A3 : absolute C3 
1. 68 1 793 : 1.000000 = 435: X 

435x1.000000 

.^ , =258.65. 

1-681793 

If now this absolute number 258.65 be multiplied 
by each of the relative vibration numbers of the above 
table, one obtains the absolute vibration numbers of 
all the tones in one octave of the normal scale from 
C3 to C4. In this way one avoids the division by num- 
bers of many places, which is necessary by the direct 
method of calculation. 

In a similar way one calculates measurements of 
length, as soon as the theoretical length of the air 
column in any given system, corresponding to the 
string length i. 000000, is determined. 

While the vibration numbers and theoretical pro- 
portions of lengths for all instruments remain always 
the same, yet the actual lengths of the air columns are 
very different, because each wind instrument has its 
own peculiar length in consequence of its tone forma- 



1 8 THE FLUTE 

tion. For example, an oboe and likewise a clarinet 
(on account of the flattening effect upon the tone of 
the tube and mouth-piece) are much shorter than a flute 
of the same pitch; and even in the flute the actual 
length of the air column is less than the theoretical 
length corresponding to the given tone. The same is 
true to a less extent of a simple tube or a mouth-piece 
alone. Hence it happens that a wind instrument cut 
in two in its middle does not give the octave of its 
fundamental, but a considerably flatter tone. 

In the case of the flute the flattening influence of 
the cork, the mouth-hole, the tone-holes, and the dimen- 
sions of bore is such that, altogether, it amounts to an 
air column of 51.5 millimeters in length, which in the 
calculation must be considered theoretically as existing, 
in order that the length of the air column shall exactly 
correspond to the length of the string of the monochord 
determined from the numbers and proportions of the 
table. 

It will be found that the actual length of air 
column (and therefore also of the flute tube) from the 
center of a C3 hole, bored in the side of a long flute 
tube, to the face of the cork 618.5 millimeters, and that 
the length of the first octave from Cg to C4 is 335 
millimeters, thus the upper portion is 51.5 millimeters 
shorter than the lower, aijd in calculating^ this 
quantity (51.5 millimeters), must be taken into con- 
sideration. 

By doubling the length of the octave one obtains 
as the theoretical air columh the length of 670 milli- 
meters, which serves as the unit of calculation, and 



LENGTH OF AIR COLUMN 



19 



from which, corresponding to the normal pitch, are 
obtained the following absolute vibration numbers and 
relative and actual length measures. [The numbers 
in this table have been recomputed by the translator.] 





TABLE II 






ABSOLUTE 


THBORETIOAL 


ACTUAL 


TONES 


VIBRATION 


AIR COLUMN 


AIR COLUMN 




NUMBERS 


LENGTHS 


LENGTHS 


C4 


517-31 


335.00 mm 


283.50 mm 


Bs 


488.27 


354-92 


303-42 


Bsb A3# 


460.87 


376.02 


324-52 


A3 


43500 


398.38 


346.88 


A.,b G4 


410.59 


422.07 


370.57 


G3 


387-54 


447-17 


395.67 


Gab F8# 


365-79 


473-76 


422.26 


F3 


345-26 


501.93 


450.43 


E3 


325.88 


531-78 


480.28 


Esb D3# 


307-59 


563-40 


511.90 


Da 


290.33 


596.90 


545-40 


Dab C3# 


274.03 


632.40 


580.90 


C3 


258.65 


670.00 


618.50 



Evidently for the practical application, 51.5 milli- 
meters must be subtracted from each of the theoretical 
lengths to obtain the actual lengths given in the third 
column, which determine the distances between the face 
of the cork and the center points for boring the tone 
holes. 



III. EXPLANATION OF THE SCHEMA 

In Table II there is given only one set of normal 
dimensions; since the normal pitch [now known as 
international or low pitch: A=435] is by no means 
in universal use, it is often necessary to have measure- 
ments corresponding to various given pitches, but the 
labor required to make the requisite dimension calcu- 
lations costs much time and trouble. 

These inconveniences have caused me to design 
a "Schema" in which the basis of all the calculations 
of measurements of length is graphically represented. 
In this diagram the geometrical proportions of the 
lengths of a string, corresponding to the reciprocals of 
the vibration numbers in the equally tempered scale, are 
represented by horizontal and vertical lines; while 
diagonal lines indicate the geometrical progression in 
which the length measures may be varied without dis- 
turbing their reciprocal proportions to the vibration 
numbers. 

This graphic method was suggested by the plan 
of a monochord, on which by means of a moveable 
bridge the stretched string may be gradually shortened 
to half of its entire length, thereby producing all the 
intervals of one octave. 

Now these proportions remain constant from the 
highest to the lowest musical tones, and the transition 



;?" 



,!S1__, 



o 




ffi 




s 


« 


o 


^ 


H 


fcj 






J3 


(U 










HH 


1 


o 


o 






en 


;5 






-■ti 


•M 


CO 




O 




" Ph 


a 


o 


!3 






fe d 


a 


bO 


2 




1;! 




c 






E 


T3 


0) 


C 






p 


^ 


tH 


c 







45 


Oi 




3 






■^ cq O 



22 THE FLUTE 

from one interval to the next can therefore be repre- 
sented graphically, and my Schema has been founded 
upon these considerations. With its help and without 
calculation, the centers of the tone holes of all wind 
instruments constructed on my system, as well as the 
positions of the so-called frets of guitars, mandolins, 
zithers, etc., may be easily and quickly determined. 

My diagram, Fig. 3, consists of three parallel 
horizontal lines of three different lengths, which start 
from a common vertical line, and are designated by 
A, B, and C. [In the original this diagram is given 
in half-size scale; it is here reproduced about one-fifth 
full size. In either case, for actual use, it would need 
to be accurately redrawn to full size. The dimensions 
shown on the diagram have been added by the trans- 
lator, to make its construction plain ; all the dimensions 
are contained in Table II. A portion of the Schema 
drawn to full size, with dimension added, is shown 
in Fig. 4, on page 27. J 

The central line represents the air column of a 
cylindrical flute tube, open at both ends, corresponding 
to the stretched string of the monochord, whose 
fundamental tone is C3 of the scale founded on the 
normal pitch A3 = 435 vibrations. The entire length 
of this air column, and therefore of the line B, for the 
fundamental tone C3 is 670 millimeters. The sectional 
lengths for the tones of the chromatic scale, calculated 
from the absolute vibration numbers for this pitch, 
and expressed in millimeters [see Tabic II], are given 
by the points of intersection of the line B with the 
vertical lines. 



GRAPHIC LOCATION OF HOLES 23 

There is thus represented a standard of measure- 
ment, expressed in millimeters, to be taken from the 
upper end of the diagram along the line B. This 
diagram gives the actual dimensions of my flute, 
measured from the cork, if from each relative measure 
is subtracted the 51.5 millimeters (represented by the 
small cross line) which was previously added to com- 
plete the theoretical air column [see page 18]. More 
than this, all the data for calculation are present, if 
beneath the points of intersection of the length meas- 
ures the absolute vibration numbers are written. 

Since these standard measures correspond only to 
the normal pitch, it is necessary to be able to lengthen 
or shorten the reciprocal distances of the tone-holes 
to correspond to varying pitches, with ease and with- 
out disturbing their reciprocal proportions. 

This can be accomplished without computation by 
means of diagonal lines on the diagram which pass 
through the points of intersection of the vertical lines 
with the line B^ both upwards and downwards to the 
points where the vertical lines end in the two parallel 
lines A and C. In this way are shown two new sets 
of measures, one corresponding to a pitch a half tone 
sharper, the other to one a half tone flatter. 

A flute made to the shortened measurements of 
line A, will be exactly half a tone sharper than the 
normal pitch, while one made upon the longer dimen- 
sions of line C, will be exactly a half tone lower than 
the normal pitch. Now as these diagonal lines may be 
looked upon as continuous series of tone-hole centers, 
which, in a geometrical progression, gradually approach 



24 THE FLUTE 

each other above, and in the same way recede from 
each other below, it follows that the relative propor- 
tions of the distances of these points remain continually 
unchanged, wherever the diagonal lines are intersected 
by a new line parallel to the line B. 

It is possible therefore, as shown in the diagram, 
to draw between the lines A, B, and C six parallel lines, 
whose pitch difference is one eighth of a tone; and at 
will many other lines may be drawn, the intersections 
of each of which with the diagonal lines will give 
correct dimensions. The only remaining question is 
which of these new lines will correspond to a given 
pitch. 

In order to answer this question one must first 
express the pitch difference between the given pitch 
and the normal, in millimeters, which will give the 
difference between the length of the air column of the 
given tone, and the length for the same tone in normal 
pitch shown on line B. This will also determine the 
position of a new vertical section line crossing the line 
B, corresponding to the given tone. 

If the desired pitch is higher than the normal, the 
vertical section line through the point on line B, corre- 
sponding to the new pitch, is to be extended upward 
toward A; while if the pitch is lower than the normal, 
the vertical line is to be extended downward toward C. 

In either case the intersection of the vertical line 
with a diagonal line is the point through which a new 
line parallel to B is to be drawn. The conversion of 
pitch difference into longitudinal measurement may 
be carried out as follows. The pitch to which an 



SCALES FOR VARIOUS PITCHES 25 

instrument is to be constructed may be given by a 
tuning fork, a tuning pipe, or by number of vibrations, 
and in the rules either an A or a C may be used. 

For example let there be given by a tuning fork 
an A3 of 430 vibrations which is 5 vibrations flatter 
than the normal A3 of 435 vibrations. In this case it 
is necessary merely to draw out the head joint of a 
normal flute until it is exactly in tune with the tuning 
fork (which naturally the ear determines), in which 
case the length drawn out will be found to be 4.63 
millimeters. If, however, the given pitch is higher 
than the normal, for example A3 = 445 vibrations, 
then, since the flute cannot be shortened, the head joint 
is to be drawn out till the tone Bjj is in unison with the 
A3 of the fork. The length drawn out will be found 
to be 13.40 millimeters; and since the distance between 
the centers of the Bglj and A3 holes of the normal flute 
is 22.36 millimeters, it follows that the air column 
corresponding to the A3 of the fork is shorter than that 
of the normal flute by 8.96 millimeters. 

If the pitch differences are given by vibration 
numbers, then the conversion into millimeter measures 
must be calculated. The vibration numbers are 
inversely proportional to the lengths ; and the vibration 
numbers A3 = 430 and A3 = 445 are to the normal 
vibration number A3 = 435, as the relative normal 
length 398.38 millimeters is to the required lengths. 
If now the numbers 435 and 398.38 are multiplied 
together, and the resulting product is divided by the 
numbers 430 and 445, the quotients are 403.01 and 
389.42 which then represent the numbers of milli- 



26 THE FLUTE 

meters in the relative lengths, to which the vibration 
numbers have been converted. If these measurements 
correspond to the given vibration numbers 430 and 
445, then the differences between them and the length 
of the normal A3, 4.63 and 8.96 millimeters, must 
correspond to the vibration differences of 5 and 10 
vibrations. 

Therefore a vertical section line drawn through 
the line S at a point 4.63 millimeters distant from the 
center of the A3 hole in the direction of A3IJ, will 
correspond to A3 = 430 vibrations ; and a section line 
8.96 millimeters distant from the A3 hole in the direc- 
tion of Asjf will correspond to A3 = 445 vibrations. 

[Boehm's original description of the Schema was 
published in the Kunst und Gewerbehlatt in Munich, 
October, 1868. In this account a diagram accompanies 
the preceding explanation, but it is omitted in "Die 
Flote." In Fig. 4 this drawing is given, with some 
elaboration. It shows, drawn accurately to full scale, 
a portion of the Schema. The ratio of the distances 
between the parallel lines A, B, and C is obviously the 
same as of the distances between any three successive 
vertical lines.] 

The desired points of intersection will, in the 
manner mentioned above, be obtained from the diag- 
onals leading upward or downward, and the results 
of this method of procedure will be found to be 
perfectly accurate. 

Since the relative proportions of the numbers of 
vibration and the measurements remain unchanged 



THE TUNING SLIDE 



27 



throughout the diagram, it is immaterial whether the 
given tone is an A, a C, or any other; and if the 
diagram is not sufficiently long for lower tones, it can 
be extended at will. 



Aiz4Ba9=AS 




37S.02-y< 

Fig. 4. 



3S8.3S-y 4SZ.07-> ' 

A Portion of the Schema 
Actual Size 



For each successive lower octave one has only to 
double all the dimensions ; the accuracy of the drawing 
controls itself, for any error made would be at once 
evident by the drawing of the diagonal lines. 

From this explanation it is evident that a flute 
can be in the most perfect tune at one pitch only, and 
that any shortening or lengthening above the tone-holes 
must work disadvantageoiusly upon the intonation; in 
the first case the higher tones as compared with the 



28 THE FLUTE 

lower are too sharp, and in the second case [drawing 
the tuning side], on the contrary, the lower tones are 
too sharp as compared with the higher. 

Obviously, these difficulties are no more overcome 
by a longer or shorter head joint, than by a simple 
drawing of the slide; this drawing out must not be 
more than two millimeters. Small pitch differences 
can, indeed, be compensated, so far as the ear is con- 
cerned, by a good embouchure. Accordingly I make 
the head joints of my flutes about two millimeters 
shorter than is required for perfect tuning, so that one 
may not only draw out the head to lower the pitch, 
but that he may make it somewhat sharper. However 
it is best in ordering a flute to specify the pitch as 
accurately as possible, and at the same time to mention 
whether the player directs his embouchure inwards or 
outwards, as this also produces a considerable effect 
on the pitch. 



IV. THE MATERIAL' 

That the tones of a flute may not only be easily 
produced, but shall also possess a brilliant and sonorous 
quality, it is necessary that the molecules of the flute 
tube shall be set into vibration at the same time as the 
air column, and that these shall, as it were, mutually 
assist one another. The material must possess this 
requisite vibration ability, which is either a natural 
property of the body, for example as in bell-metal, 
glass and various kinds of wood, or has been artifi- 
cially produced, as in the case of hardened steel springs 
and hard-drawn metal wire. 

Now in both cases the excitation of the vibrations 
requires the expenditure of energy proportional to the 
mass of the material. Consequently the tones of a flute 
will be more easily produced and the development of 
their full strength will require less effort in blowing, 
the less the weight of the flute tube. 

Upon a silver flute, therefore, the thin and hard 
drawn tube of which weighs only 129 grams, the 
brightest and fullest tone can be brought out and main- 
tained much longer without fatiguing blowing, than 
can be done on a wood flute, which even Avhen made 
as thin as possible still has double the weight, namely 
2275^ grams. [Boehm's silver flute, complete, weighs 
about 330 grams, being considerably lighter than those 
of most other makers.] 



30 THE FLUTE 

Any variation in the hardness or brittleness of 
the material has a very great effect upon the timbre or 
quality of tone. Upon this point much experience is at 
hand, for flutes have been made of various kinds of 
wood, of ivory, crystal-glass, porcelain, rubber, 
papier-miche, and even of wax, and in every con- 
ceivable way to secure the various desired results. 
Heretofore all of these researches have led back to 
the selection of very hard wood, until I succeeded in 
making flutes of silver and German silver, which now 
for twenty years have rivaled the wood flute. [Silver 
flutes were first introduced by Boehm in 1847.] Not- 
withstanding this it is not possible to give a decisive 
answer to the question "What is the best?" 

The silver flute is preferable for playing in very 
large rooms because of its great ability for tone modu- 
lation, and for the unsurpassed brilliancy and sonorous- 
ness of its tone. But on account of its unusually easy 
tone-production, very often it is overblown, causing 
the tone to become hard and shrill ; hence its advantages 
become of full value only through a very good 
embouchure and diligent tone practice. For this 
reason wooden flutes on my system are also made, 
which are better adapted to the embouchures of most 
flute players; and the wood flutes possess a full and 
pleasant quality of tone, which is valued especially in 
Germany. 

The silver flutes are made of a ^ fine alloy 
[United States coin silver is y^r fine; sterling silver 
is xVinr fine] ; and for the manufacture of wood 
flutes I usually employ either the so-called cocus wood, 



VARIOUS MATERIALS 31 

or the grenadille wood of South America. The first, 
of dark or red-brown color, is especially desirable 
because of its brilliant tone, notwithstanding that this 
wood contains a resin, which, in very rare cases, induces 
an inflammation of the skin of the lip. To obviate this 
difficulty, as well as to secure a very pleasant ringing- 
quality of tone in the high notes, many will prefer 
black grenadille wood. Ebony and boxwood are now 
used only for the cheaper grades of instruments. 

For my flutes only selected good and perfect wood 
is employed, and if a piece develops a defect during the 
working, it is at once cast aside, that no more time and 
labor may be lost. 

However, a flute which is entirely free from faults 
may become cracked by improper handling, against 
which no guarantee is possible. Both the cause and 
the means of preventing such accidents should be under- 
stood, and Iwill therefore return to this subject later, 
under the heading. Treatment of the Flute in General. 

[Boehm frequently combined two materials, mak- 
ing the body of silver and the head of wood. It was in 
his later years that he most strongly advocated this 
combination, though he had constructed such flutes in 
his earlier years, certainly prior to 1866. A silver flute 
with a wood head, the latter "thinned" and without 
metal lining, is shown in Fig. 10. Notwithstanding 
Boehm's recommendation, such composite instruments 
have not grown in favor. J 



V. THE SYSTEM OF FINGERING 

(a) General Description 

Having determined the dimensions and material 
best suited for the flute tube, it was then necessary to 
devise a system of fingering by which all scales, pas- 
sages and trills in the twenty-four keys could be 
played, clearly, certainly, and with the greatest possible 
ease. [The chronological order is not accurately 
stated, for the system of fingering was practically com- 
pleted in 1832, while the dimensions and material, as 
described above, were altered by the introduction of 
the cylinder bore silver flute in 1847..] 

This task I endeavored to accomplish in the fol- 
lowing manner : since the fifteen tone-holes of my flute 
tube could not be covered by means of the fingers, 
because the holes were too large and in some instances 
too far apart, it was necessary to furnish them all with 
keys, and these had to be so arranged that they could 
be opened or closed at will. 

For this purpose but nine fingers are available, 
since the thumb of the right hand is indispensible for 
holding the flute. The deficiency in fingers must there- 
fore be made up by mechanism, whose systematic 
joining makes it possible with one finger to close 
several keys at the same time. I have accomplished 
this by means of moveable axles, to which part of the 



SYSTEM OF FINGERING 33 

keys are fastened, and on which part of the keys are 
merely hinged; by means of clutches underneath, the 
latter may be made to act upon the axles. 

These axles may be lengthened as desired, so that 
the attached keys are manipulated at distances within 
reach of the fingers ; the means for accomplishing this 
had to be sought in the design of the key mechanism. 
After mature consideration of all the possible tone 
combinations and finger movements I made many 
sketches of mechanisms, in my efforts to find the best 
methods of key connections. In such matters only 
actual trial can determine which is best. I constructed 
three entirely different model flutes, and after careful 
trial of all the advantages and disadvantages that 
model of my flute which has since become well known 
proved itself in all respects the most suitable. 

I have retained the three foot keys for Cg}, Dg, 
DgJ, for the little finger of the right hand, in the form 
already well established, the two trill keys for D4 and 
D4# are brought into use only for the highest tones 
Bgjj and Eg; hence the number of keys to be arranged 
is reduced from fifteen to ten, to play which there are 
still eight fingers available. 

There now arises the question, "Which method 
of construction, that with open keys or that with closed 
keys, is the most serviceable?" 

I chose the open keys, to obtain the greatest pos- 
sible ease in playing, since these easily follow the 
movement of the fingers, and they require only weak 
springs for their quick raising ; on the contrary, closed 



34 THE FLUTE 

keys for stopping large holes air tight require strong 
springs, and their motions are contrary to those of 
the fingers. 

After the ten tone holes from E to C# were pro- 
vided with separate, easily moving keys, the eight 
fingers were placed upon them in the most practical 
arrangement permitting the natural holding of the 
flute ; then as many keys were closed as could be done 
with entire convenience ; there remained open only 
two holes for G and B [which when closed give FJ: 
and B\)] for which the missing fingers must be provided 
by a mechanical contrivance. 

For this two key combinations were necessary, 
namely the clutches for connecting the E, F, and F# 
keys with the lengthened moveable axle of the G key, 
and the clutches of the B^ and the F# keys connecting 
with the axle of the B key. 

As is shown in the following drawing (Fig. 5), 
the two keys G and B may be closed by means of the 
connected keys, without changing the lay of the fingers, 
and when the fingers are lifted the keys open of them- 
selves by means of their own springs; thus one can 
play them at will. 

In this way that very troublesome sliding from 
keys and tone-holes required on the old flute is entirely 
done away with, and one can certainly and easily play 
all possible tone combinations from low D3 to high A5. 
In my system each scale requires all the fingers, and 
consequently they are all equally exercised, thus a 
player is in a condition to play in all keys with equal 
purity, certainty, and ease. 



GJ KEY 35 

In the following table of fingerings, those desig- 
nated "irregular" may be used not only for facilitating 
certain passages, but may also be made valuable in 
many cases for enharmonic differences, such as between 
F# and Gb- 

The practicability of my system of fingering has 
long demonstrated itself not only in its use by artists, 
but also by beginning students who leam to play the 
scales and trills in all keys in much shorter time than 
was possible on the old flute. 

The changing from the old flute to the new is 
not nearly so difficult as most players imagine. Ordi- 
narily it requires only about two weeks for one to 
become familiar with the metjianism and the table of 
fingerings; and one will find compensation for the 
necessary trouble in the clear, smooth and easy pro- 
duction of the tones. 

(b) The G# Key 

Since the unlearning of the former fingering 
appears to be a great difficulty to many, artists and 
instrument makers have endeavored to adapt the 
fingering of the old flute, either wholly or in part, to 
my flute tube. For this reason there has been made in 
Paris, for many years, an alteration of my open G# 
key, which makes it like the closed G# key in its action. 
The use of this has spread somewhat, since it accommo- 
dates players of the old flute who can thus retain the 
former fingerings for G and G#. [Reference is here 
made, not to the usual closed Gfl: key, but to the 
"Dorus" G# key.] 



36 



THE FLUTE 



In the planning of my system of fingering, I made 
the GJf key to stand open, like all the rest, only after 
mature consideration of all the advantages and dis- 
advantages in acoustical, mechanical, and technical 
aspects. The open key is advantageous because its 
motion is the same as that of the little finger of the left 
hand, and because of the weak spring required, its 
"play" is very light and convenient. 

A combination of a closed Gjf key with an open 
A key would cause not only an entirely unnecessary 
complication in the key mechanism, and be a disadvan- 
tage from an acoustical aspect, but it would at the 
same time increase the difficulties of playing. 

In order that a closed G| key may stop the large 
tone-hole air tight it must be provided with a strong 
spring, and it follows that the opening of the san?" 
requires a correspondingly greater force in the little 
finger of the left hand, than the pressing down of an 
open key which is held up only by a weak spring. But 
of still greater importance is the strength required in 
the third or ring finger in closing the A key, since this 
finger must overcome not only the spring required to 
quickly raise both of the combined keys, but at the 
same time must overcome the strong closing spring of 
the G# key. [These arguments apply to the Dorus G# 
key, and, in a modified form only, to the duplicate 
closed G# key mentioned below.] 

It is easily seen that there is thus a loss in facility 
of playing in general, and, further, that all trills with 
these keys, and especially the trill Gfl with A, become 
much more difficult, than with the easy moving, open 



H KEY 37 

Standing keys. Moreover, in the frequent combinations 
of the tones G# or A\) with the lower tones F#, F, E, 
E\), and D, the little finger of the left hand must move 
in a direction contrary to that in which the fingers 
of the right hand are moving at the same time. 

That it is easier to make similar motions with the 
fingers of both hands simultaneously, rather than 
contrary motions, and therefore that playing with a 
closed G# key is the more difficult, no one will deny 
Yet there is another difficulty from an acoustical aspect ; 
because of the connection of the G# key with the A 
key, the A hole cannot be opened by itself, the Gjf hole 
being always open at the same time ; this causes the Eg 
to be too sharp, and its production is interfered with. 
The production of this tone is a little more certain, 
when the G# hole remains closed ; and in rapid alterna- 
tions, also in delicate slurring together of the E5 with 
other tones such as G4#, A4, Ag, A3, etc., the advantage 
is very perceptible. 

Finally, this complication of the mechanism is 
wholly superfluous, since each one of these two keys 
has its own proper finger, and each can be easily opened 
or closed in the most natural and simplest way in my 
system. The above mentioned difficulties appear to 
have long been apparent in Paris, since a special lever 
has been added so that the difficult trills may be made 
with the strong first finger of the ring hand. 

And yet again a second G# hole has sometimes 
been bored in .the flute tube and provided with an 
independent G}f key. [This is the closed G# key now 
in common use.] In both of these cases the mechanism 



38 THE FLUTE 

is rendered still more complicated. I have no objection 
to make, if amateurs, with little time or zeal for prac- 
tice, and who will be satisfied with playing in a few 
keys only, when changing from the old flute to the 
new, believe they will find the closed G# key the 
easier ; yet I hold that it is wrong to instruct beginners 
in this way, since they will learn to play in all keys 
more easily, and consequently more quickly, by follow- 
ing my finally completed system. 







VI. TABLES OF FINGERINGS 



REGULAR FINGERINGS 

of the oheomatic scale 
foe the newly constbucted flute of 

Theobald Boehm 



D 



ni 












-T^ 




t\- 


^c: 


k:~ 


IstFinger 
Thumb 
ZndFittgei 
3rcL " 
4th •> 

IstFinger 
2nd " 
3rd " 

4th *' 


• 
• 
• 
• 
• 

• 
• 
• 

• 
• 
• 


• 
• 

o 


• 

• 
o 
o 


• 
• 

• 

• 

• 

• 
a 
• 

o 
o 
o 


• 
• 
• 
• 
• 

• 
• 
o 

o 
o 
o 


• 
• 
• 
• 
• 

• 
o 



o 
o 
o 


• 
• 
• 
• 
• 

o 

o 

• 

o 
o 
o 


• 
m 
• 
• 
• 

o 
o 
o 

o 

o 


j4¥ 

• 
• 

• 

• 

o 

o 
o 
o 

o 
o 
o 


• 

• 

• 
o 
o 

o 
o 
o 

o 
o 
o 



40 



REGULAR FINGERINGS 



TFS 


"fir" 


tr^ 


III h- 


T 


^' 


i^^-^ 


#rWr 


tf.tr '^tfw'ptjj^ 


• 
• 

q 
o 
o 

• 
o 
o 

o 
o 
o 


• 
• 
o 
o 
o 

o 
o 
o 

o 
o 
o 


• 
o 
o 
o 
o 

o 
o 
o 

o 
o 
o 


-o 


o 
o 
o 

9 

• 
• 

o 
o 

o 


o 

• 
• 

• 

• 
• 
• 

• 
o 
o 


o 

• 
• 
• 
• 

• 
• 
• 

o 
o 
o 


4-4-^ 






• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• o 
o o 

o o 
o o 
o o 


• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

o o 
o o 

• o 

o o 
o o 
o o 


• • • • 

• • O 

• ooo 
o a o 

O O • 
O O O O 
O O O O 

O O O O 
O O O O 
O O O O 




lu!*:!;*] 


U'^y i 


ul>iw \\tk^ 


^ 


Y' 


4^ 


k^'-- 


H- 


nm- 


"=3 1 


:=-^= 


;~ ; ~ ; ~ ; ~ '.' Z 


• 
o 
o 
o 
o 

o 
o 
o 

o 
o 
o 


o 
o 
o 
o 
o 

o 
o 
o 

o 
o 
o 


o 

• 
• 
e 
• 

o 
o 
o 

o 
o 
o 


• 
• 
• 
• 

o 

• 

• 
• 

o 
o 
o 


• 
• 
• 
o 

• 

e 
• 
o 

o 
o 
o 


« 

• 
o 

• 
• 

• 

o 
o 

o 
o 
o 


• • 
• o 

o ■» 

• « 

• • 

o o 
o o 

• o 

o o 
o o 
o o 


o o 
o • 

• • 

• o 
o o 

o • 
o o 
o o 

o o 
9 o 
o o 


o • • • 

• • o o 
o o • • 

o • • o 
o • o o 

if ° • • 

o ^5 • • 
• • • « 

o O • • 
O o • • 



IRREGULAR FINGERINGS 

tut^fel'^ til 



41 



^ 



^,-f r ^r i ^fft 






o 
o 
o 



o 
o 
o 



o 
o 
o 

o 
o 
o 



o 
o 



o 
o 
o 



o 



o 
o 



o 



o 
o 
o 



o 
o 
o 



o 



o 



o 
o 
o 



o 
o 
o 



o 



e 

o 
o 



For facility in playing, the two B[)S 



can be taken with fingering for Bt], 



^ 



^ 



if the B key is closed by the thumb pressing on the B\) 
lever. 

The irregular fingerings may be used not only for 
facilitating certain passages, but also may be made 
valuable in many cases for enharmonic differences, 
such as between F# and Glj. 

[The use of the schleif-key on the ordinary flute 
is the same as with the bass flute, which is explained 
on page 70; see also page 50. J , 



42 



tr 



TRILL FINGERINGS 
ir tr tr t* tr tr tr tr tir tr tr tr 



• 
• 


? 


• 
• 
• 
• 
• 

• 


• 
• 
• 
• 
e 

• 


id 

• 
• 
• 
• 
• 

• 


• 
• 
• 
• 
• 

• 


• 
• 
• 
• 
• 

• 


• 
• 
• 
• 
• 

• 


• 

• 
• 
• 
• 

0fa 


1^ 

• 
• 
• 
• 
• 

0tr 


• 
• 
• 
• 
• 

0fo- 


• 
• 
• 
• 
• 

gib- 


• 
• 
• 
• 
• 

o 






« 


• 


• 


0fa 


0lr 


0<r 


• 


O 


o 


o 


o 






• 


0fr 


0tr 


• 


0tr 


O 


O 


• 


• 


o 


06 






0tr 


• 


o 


o 


O 


O 


O 


O 


o 


o 


o 


0kr 


0ir 


O 


o 


o 


o 


O 


O 


o 


o 


o 


o 





0tr 


o 


O 


o 


o 


o 


o 





o 


o 


o 


o 





fc^ 


- tr 


tr 


tr 


tr 


tr 


tr 


tr 


tr 


tr 

ma: 


^ 


^ 


^ 


W 


y^ 


¥^ 


n^ 


4f 


* 


— W 




-fpt 










• 
• 


• 

• 


• 
• 


• 
• 


• 
• 


• 
• 


• 
• 


• 
• 


• 
• 


• 
• 


• 

0tr 


• 

0tr 


0tr 

• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


0tr 


0tr 


0fr 


0tr 


O 


o 


O 


O 


o 


• 


• 


0b 


0fr 


0tr 


0fr 


O 


O 


o 


o 


O 


O 


o 


0<r 


0tT- 


?0tr 


o 


O 


O 


O 


O 


o 


o 


O 


O 


o 


o 


o 


O 


o 


o 


O 


• 


O 


0ir 


0tr 


• 


O 


o 


o 


O 


O 


o 


o 


O 


o 


O 


o 


o 


o 


O 


o 


• 


O 


o 


o 


o 


O 


o 


O 


o 


o 


o 


O 


o 


o 


O 


o 


o 


o 


O 


o 


O 


o 


o 


o 


O 


o 


o 


O 


o 


o 


o 


O 


o 


O 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


O 


o 1 o 


o 


o o 


o 


o 



The trills marked with a * are to be made with the B key 
closed by the thumb lever. [The ? indicates that the trilling of 
the corresponding hole is optional.] 



TRILL FINGERINGS 



43 



fMP 




^ 








rtfl 


ff\ 




tf] 


^ 




^ 


b4= 

o 
o 
o 
o 

o 
o 
o 

o 
o 
o 


_3 _ 


o 
o 
o 

o 
o 

. o 

o 

o 

'o 


• 
o 
o 
o 
o 

o 

o 
o 
o 


o 
o 
o 
o 
o 

o 

o 
o 
o 


o 
o 
o 
o 
o 

o 
#r 

o 
o 
o 


o 
o 
o 
o 
o 

o 

o 
o 
o 


o 

• 

o 
o 


o 

• 
• 
• 
• 

• 
• 

0tr 

• 
o 
o 


— 1 

o 

• 
• 
• 
• 

• 
• 

0t7- 

O 
O 
O 


• 
• 
• 
• 
• 

• 

0<r 

• 

O 

o 
o 


• 
• 
• 
• 
• 

• 

0<I 
?0fr 

O 
O 

o 


— 1- 

• 
• 
• 
• 
• 

• 

0tj 
O 

. O 
O 
O 


-4^ 
• 

• 
• 
• 
• 

0fr 

• 
O 

o 
o 
o 


Mr 


^ 


^f 


ffl 


At 


^ 


r^ 


fh 


^ 


(^ 




^f 


^f 


• 
• 
• 

: 

0/r 
O 

• 

— 
O 

o 
o 


• 
• 
• 
• 

• 

0fe 

o 

• 

o 
o 

o 


• 
m 
• 
• 
• 

0fr 


o 

o 
o 
o 


• 
• 
• 
• 
• 

o 


0h 

o 
o 
o 


• 
• 
• 
• 
gitr 

o 
o 

• 

o 
o 
o 


• 
• 
• 
• 

0fr 

o 
o 

• 

o 
o 
o 


• 
• 
• 
• 

o 
o 
o 

o 
o 
o 


• 
• 
• 

o 
o 
o 

o 
o 
o 


• 
• 
• 

O 

O 
O 

o 

o 
o 
o 


* 

• 

• 

0tr 
O 

O 
O 
O 

O 
O 
O 


* 

• 

• 

0fr 
O 

O 
O 

o 

o 
o 
o 


• 
• 
0*r 
O 
O 

• 
O 

o 

o 
o 
o 


• 
• 

0tr 

O 

O 

O 
O 

o 

o 
o 
o 



The trills marked with a * are to be made with the B key 
closed by the thumb lever. [The ? indicates that the trilling 
of the corresponding hole is optional.] 



44 



TRILL FINGERINGS 



J'ii^i^i^NJ'i.$;JiiJriJ'p^4?-'j'g»j'gjfg>Ji|#p'jiip''j'f 



I 



I 



I 



i 



I 



i 



0tr 
O 
o 
o 



• 

O 
O 
O 



0tr 
0ir 
O 
O 
O 



0*r 
D 
O 
O 
O 



0fe- 

O 
O 
O 



O 
O 

o 
o 
o 



0fr 






O 
O 



06 

O 

O 



itr 



tr Mtr 






Mir 



^^ i'q|ti'U^l|^i^^^4^4t#''# 



0tr 
O 



0tr 

9>tT 

o 



0fr 

o 



0tr 
O 



0ti 
O 



0ir 
O 



0tr 
O 



0tr 
0tr 
O 



0ir 

O 
O 
O 

O 
O 
O 



0tr 
0tr 



g XIII 



IV ^. 

30 29 



pQHl^|3]]ci^^ 




-^ 



#t=: 



A 

24 



^ 



^^ 



c'T 



m^ 



M/-- 



.vS- A-/*v. 

19 1817 



XT... 



.X 
/6 i5;j 



:c 



**< 



!r~t*" 



V 

-As. 



^ 



i fe-^i; 



£1 



o 




7 



, .yK..-/K-. 

13 12 



A..^K. 

11 10 



9 8 



=[lf= 




.yi\ A 

2S 27 



Scale m m Liiliml 



10 5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 SO 

Fig. 5. Key I/Iechanism 



too 



6 5 4 



./K. /K. 

3 2 



3:---4fe::^n' 



A 

1 



VII. DESCRIPTION OF THE KEY 
MECHANISM 

In order to give a clear idea and explanation of 
the key mechanism of my flute, I have represented it 
in full size, Fig. 5, projected on a plane, and below 
have shown a side view of the inner parts which are 
not visible to the eye. 

In the latter view are shown metal strips, which 
in the metal flute are soldered to the body, and in the 
wooden flute are screwed on, forming the supporting 
points of the mechanism. Below these strips, and 
exactly corresponding with the drawing above, the 
dimensions of the axles of the separate keys and 
clutches, as well as all the joints of the mechanism, are 
indicated by right angled lines and figures. 

The whole collection of keys is divided into four' 
parts which are designated in Fig. 5 by A, B, C, and D. 
Fig. 6 is a cross section of one key. Fig. 7 is a clutch 







. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. 

Details of Key Mechanism 

with its pin, and Fig. 8 represents one of the moveable 
hinge tubes slipped off from its axle. 



46 



THE FLUTE 



We will take first for the explanation of the 
mechanism the drawing of the key-group A. 

In the upper line the foot keys I, II, and III are 
represented, and in the side view beneath, the separate 
joints of the mechanism are shown, the lengths of 
which are indicated by the perpendicular lines below 
the metal strip, designated by the figures i to 7. 

The three pillars with spherical heads, a, h, c, 
which form the supporting points of the mechanism, 
are united to the metal strip and soldered, while the 
strip is soldered or screwed onto the foot joint. 

In the spheres a and b are threaded pointed screws 
which form the pivots on which turns a steel axle 
( from I to 5 ) the ends of which have conical holes. 

The C$t key, I, turns upon this axle; this key is 
soldered to the hinge tube i to 2, and by means of a 
loop it connects with the hinge 3 to 4 which carries 
the lever arm (Ct] lever), all being joined into one 
continuous piece. The D key II is likewise soldered 
to a hinge (2 to 3) and being placed inside of the loop, 
the two keys are slipped over the axle; the key II is 
then made fast to the axle by a small pin passing 
through both. On the upper end of the axle (at 4 
to 5) a lever arm is soldered, so that the axle and the 
D key move with it. These two keys are provided with 
springs which hold them open, and with rollers screwed 
onto the lever arms at right angles ; by pressing on the 
rollers one can at will close one key, or through their 
coupling at the loop, both may be closed together. 

The closed DJf key III is provided with a strong 
spring, and moves on an axis, screwed into the sphere 



KEY MECHANISM 4^ 

b, whose sharpened end (at 5) forms the pivot of the 
moveable axle. 

The springs for the keys I and II are firmly 
inserted in the little posts marked thus, *, and push 
against the hinges by means of small blocks which are 
soldered fast ; the spring for key III is fastened in the 
spherical pillar c. 

The key group B contains two moveable axles 
from 8 to 15 and from 16 to 20. The G key VII is 
soldered to the axle, at 14 and 15, which turns on 
the pivots of the spherical pillars d and e. Next to this 
key is the hinge tube 13-14 to which the F# key VI 
and a half of the loop clutch is soldered. 

The other half of the loop is fastened to the 
second moveable axle, and since the . two half loops 
touch one another, the two moveable axles may be 
coupled together. 

This F# key is played by the first or index finger 
of the right hand. 

Next to this is the small hinge piece 12-13, which 
is fastened to the steel axle by means of a small pin. 
On this hinge piece there is soldered a side wing, 
against which presses an adjustable screw attached to 
the shank of key VI. This screw must be so adjusted 
that when pressing down the F# key VI the steel axle 
is turned and through this the attached key G VII is 
closed. 

If now the two other keys F V and E IV, which 
are played by the second and third fingers, are mounted 
in exactly the same fashion and are each coupled with 
the steel axle, then by pressing down either of these 



48,. THE FLUTE 

keys, separately or together, the G key VII will be 
closed each time ; thus four keys and consequently four 
tone-holes can be opened or closed at will by three 
fingers. It is by this contrivance that one of the lack- 
ing fingers is replaced. 

We come now to the upper half of this group. 

Upon the steel axle which turns between the two 
pivots at 1 6 and 20 there is soldered a hinge, which 
extends from 16 to 18 and upon which at 16 there is 
the half loop for coupling with the lower steel axle, 
and at 17 and 18 is attached a sphere which serves as 
an ornament. 

The A# key X is soldered to the hinge tube 18-19, 
and placed next to this sphere. This key is played by 
the middle finger of the left hand, and by means of its 
adjusting screw presses upon the wing of the hinge 
19-20, through which the B key XI is closed. 

Since this key is connected to the steel axle by a 
pin near 19, and is coupled at 19 with the A| key X by 
the clutch, and at the same time by the loop at 14-15 
it is coupled with the lower steel axle, this B key XI 
is itself closed by each pressing of the Aft key X and 
also by pressing the F# key VI. It is clear that by 
these couplings still another finger is ■ replaced, and 
consequently by means of this mechanism six keys can 
be played entirely at will by four fingers. 

Into the upper side of the spherical pillar f is 
screwed an axle, the point of which forms the pivot 
at 20. Moving on this axle are the two keys C XII 
and Cf XIII. The first is soldered to the hinge tube 
21-22 and is played by the thumb of the left hand. 



KEY MECHANISM 49 

The second, namely the CJ key, as well as its lever, is 
soldered to the hinge tube 22-23, and is played by the 
first or index finger of the left hand. 

The group C consists of two separate keys, which 
move on the axle screwed into the spherical pillar h. 
The G# key VIII, as well as its lever, upon which 
presses the fourth or little finger of the left hand, is 
soldered to the hinge 24-25. The A key IX which is 
played by the second or middle finger, is soldered to the 
hinge tube 25-26. 

The group D contains likewise only two keys, 
namely the two trill keys for D and D#. The D# key 
XV and its spring hook are soldered to the hinge tube 
29-30, and this tube in turn is soldered to the upper 
end of the long steel axle which turns on the pivots of 
the two spherical pillars k and /. On the lower end of 
this axle is the short piece of tube 27-28, which is con- 
nected with the axle by a pin; soldered to this tube is 
the DJt lever which is played by the third finger of the 
right hand. Between these two pieces is placed a long 
hinge tube which reaches from 28 to 29. Upon the 
upper end is soldered the D key and at the lower end 
the corresponding D lever, which is played by the 
second finger. Both keys are provided with strong 
closing springs at 29 and 30. 

Besides these keys there is still to be provided a 
lever next to the C key XII, which can be pressed with 
the thumb of the left hand, at the same time that the 
C key is closed, thus closing the B key XI also. This 
lever is provided with its axle and spring, and serves 
in many cases to facilitate the playing. [The spring 



50 



THE FLUTE 



is not shown in the original drawing. The B\) thumb 
lever is the invention of Briccialdi, an Italian flutist. 
It is Briccialdi's form of this lever that is in almost 
universal use today. Boehm later adopted the substi- 
tute B\) lever shown in Fig. 5. He seems never to 
have regarded it as an important part of the flute; it 
is used only incidentally in the Tables of Fingerings.] 

Further, as the drawings show, all the springs, 
with the exception of that for closing the lower DJ 
key III, are fastened in the little pillars designated with 
a * ; these springs press upon little hooks soldered to the 
hinge tubes, in such a way as to close the two trill keys 
D and DJ:, and to hold all the other keys open. 

These explanations all correspond to the flutes 
made by the firm "Th. Boehm & Mendler in Miinchen." 

[In addition to the mechanism as described above, 
Boehm always recommended the "Schleif" key, refer- 
red to in the original only under the Bass Flute (page 
70). It is literally a "loop" key; it determines the 
formation of a loop in the sound wave, giving freer 
speech and greater purity of tone, especially when 
playing pianissimo. Its application to the ordinary 
flute is the same as to the bass flute, which is shown in 
the supplementary Table of Fingerings, on page 71. 
The schleif-key, which is played by the left thumb, is 
shown in Fig. 9.] 

[Figures 9, 10 and 11 have been added to show 
the appearance of the several styles of flutes made by 
"Th. Boehm & Mendler in Miinchen," when these 
instruments had reached their highest development. 
The flute shown in Fig. 9 was made in 1875 for Dean 




ti 



Fio. 9. B'iG. 10. Fig. 11. 

Flutes made by Th. Boehm & Mendler 



FLUTES BY BOEHM & MENDLER 51 

H. B. Fine, of Princeton University. The flute is of 
silver with a gold embouchure, and is provided 
with the schleif-key, referred to above. Also this 
picture shows the cmtch, described on page 61. The 
flute shown in Fig. 10 was made in 1879 for Rev. 
Rush R. Shippen, of Brockton, Massachusetts. It has 
a silver body with a thinned wood head, referred to 
on page 3 1 ; the foot keys extend to B ti ; and the bore 
is 20 millimeters, reference to which is made on page 8. 
Fig. II shows a wood flute made in 1881 for Mr. 
Joseph Shippen, Attorney, of Seattle, Washington ; it 
is one of the last instruments made before Boehm's 
death. The mechanism of all these instruments is 
exquisitely proportioned and finished, and the tone is 
very easily produced and is pure and full in quality. 
The three flutes have the open GJf key, Boehm's B\) 
lever, Bt| trill, and gold springs. In general the 
mechanism corresponds to the drawing. Fig. 5 ; and 
the scales of all follow very closely the dimensions of 
the schema.] 



VIII. CARE OF THE MECHANISM 

(a) Repairs 

Even though kept from violent injuries, the flute, 
like other mechanisms, will occasionally need repairs. 

In practical use the keys move up and down a 
countless number of times, and all metals being subject 
to wear, the appearance of defects from this cause is 
unavoidable, even in the most solidly constructed 
mechanisms. 

A spring may break or lose its elasticity; the oil, 
with which the axles and pivots must be covered, will 
become thick and sticky with time, and especially by 
the entering of dust, hindering the easy movement of 
the keys; or it may be necessary to replace an injured 
pad. 

In all these cases it is necessary to remove the 
keys from the body and sometimes to take the mechan- 
ism to pieces. A person with some experience who has 
made himself familiar with the mechanism, and is pro- 
vided with the few necessary tools, will have no diffi- 
culty in doing this. Every flutist should be in a 
position, therefore, himself to undertake small repairs, 
and he should not trust his instrument to incapable 
hands. 



REPAIRS 53 



(b) The Keys 

The unscrewing and taking apart of the key 
mechanism is to be performed in the following manner. 

First, all of the springs, designated by a *, Fig. 5, 
in each key group in which one or more keys are to be 
taken away, must be unhooked. This may be accom- 
plished by means of the little fork represented in 
Fig. 12, with which the outer ends of the springs can be 



c 



_t 



Fig. 12. Spring Fork 

pushed far enough backwards to disconnect them from 
the little hooks. 

For the foot keys of Fig. 5, group A, turn the 
pointed screw a backwards so that the steel axle with 
the Cjj: I and D II keys attached can be taken out. For 
turning the screws a screwdriver of the form shown 
in Fig. 13 is convenient. 



C 



I 



Fig. 13. Screw Driver 

If the pin of the D key II, which projects a little 
below, be drawn out, both keys are loosened and can 
be pushed off the axle. [The translator would advise, 
unless there is urgent need, that these pins should 
not be removed. For the purposes of cleaning, it is 
sufficient to remove the several groups of keys from 
the body, and to clean these groups without separating. 



54 THE FLUTE 

them into single pieces.] By - unscrewing the small 
steel axles on which the rollers turn, these may also 
be removed from the lever arms. 

To remove the DJj: key III, unscrew the steel axle 
and draw it out of the hinge. 

By unscrewing the pointed screw d the lowef 
section 8 to 1 5 of group B may be taken out, and like- 
wise the upper section 16 to 20 by unscrewing the 
upper steel axle which forms the pivot at 20 ; the keys 
can be slipped off the moveable steel axles as soon as 
the pins through the clutch joints are pushed out. 

To remove the C key XII, partly draw out the 
steel axle which goes entirely through the CJf key XIII. 

In the group C the two keys G| VIII and A IX, 
in similar fashion, are taken off by withdrawing, 
partially or wholly, the steel axle which is screwed into 
the sphere h. 

For the removal of the two trill keys D XIV and 
D# XV of group D, loosen the pointed screw in the 
spherical pillar /. The D key XIV as well as its hinge 
can be drawn off the steel axle as soon as the pin 
through the lever arm at 28 (D# lever) is pushed out. 

When taking off and separating the key mechan- 
ism, it is best to lay each separate piece in its proper 
order on a sheet of paper ; this will much facilitate the 
putting together, and it will not be so easy to inter- 
change or lose anything. Each piece can then be 
readily cleaned and polished. 

All the surfaces may be cleaned with a cloth or 
chamois skin, and the inside of the hinge tubes with 
a small feather or a tuft of cotton which may be pushed 



CLEANING KEYS 55 

through the little tubes with a small stick of wood, etc. 
[or be drawn through with a fine copper wire] . 

After this cleaning the surfaces may best be pol- 
ished with a piece of fine glove leather [chamois skin] 
and a fine polishing brush with the application of a little 
rouge, such as is used by jewellers. 

When putting the mechanism together again, all 
the places at which rubbing occurs must be properly 
oiled. For this purpose watch oil is the best, but one 
may also use neats-foot oil or perfectly pure olive oil 
which has stood in the sun for a time and thereby 
been purified by sedimentary precipitation. 

The steel axles should be wiped with a little piece 
of cloth slightly wet with oil, and the pointed screws 
(pivots) are best oiled with the point of a wooden 
toothpick. One should not use more oil than is really 
necessary for the protection of the rubbing surfaces. 

In putting together and screwing on the mechan- 
ism, as is self-evident, one must in each particular 
follow exactly the reverse order to that which was 
used in taking the instrument apart. It is necessary 
in each key group first to join the pieces, after sliding 
them over the steel axles, by tightly inserting the pins ; 
the groups of separate keys are screwed on, and finally 
the springs are hooked. 





Fig. 14. Tweezers 
For holding the little screws, pins and springs, 
tweezers such as are shown in Fig. 14, are useful. 



56 



THE FLUTE 



For cementing leather or cloth [or cork] linings 
which have fallen off the keys, etc., a proper solution 
of schellac in alcohol serves best. 

(c) The Key Pads 

These pads are made from a strong cloth-like stuff 
of fine wool [felt]. In order that the pads may close 
the holes air tight, these felt disks are covered with a 
fine membrane (skin) ; this membrane is usually 
doubled, so that any accidental injury to the pad shall 
not become troublesome all at once. 

The pads are covered over on the back side with 
little sheets of card and a hole is punched through the 
center, so that they may be screwed fast in the key cups. 
It is hardly possible to make the key cups always come 
exactly to the edge of the tone-holes, the pads are 
therefore made of such thickness that there is left a 
little space, then by underlaying of card or paper disks 
this may be filled till the pad fits perfectly all around. 
The failure of the pad to close the hole at particular 
points can be remedied by using pieces of paper cut 
in crescent shape. 

The pads are held by screws, the nuts being 
soldered to the key cups, and under the heads of the 
little screws there are silver washers, which must be 
allowed to press the pad neither too tightly nor too 
lightly; in the first case little wrinkles are formed in 
the skin of the pad which interfere with the air tight 
closing, in the second case air can escape through the 
cup. 



ADJUSTING PADS 57 

If a washer is too loosely held by its screw, it may 
be set in vibration by certain tones, producing an 
audible buzz which is unexplainable to many. It has 
happened that flutes have been sent from distances of 
several hundreds of miles for repair on which there 
was nothing wrong except that one single screw was 
not sufficiently tight. 

The main point about the pads is that each separate 
key must close exactly air tight; then when the press- 
ing of one key by another is required, this can be 
completely regulated by means of the regulating 
screws applied by me. 

When one key acts upon another, as the E key 
upon the G key, one can determine by seeing light 
between the pad and its seat or by the pressure of the 
finger whether one key presses too hard or too lightly ; 
the regulating screw must be turned backward or for- 
ward until the two keys close together. 

In the case of the doubly connected keys, where 
the F# key works the G key and the B key together, 
first draw back the adjusting screw in the loop of the 
F key, and regulate the action of the G key, and then 
adjust the action of the B key. 

To prove that all the keys on the middle or foot 
joint close perfectly, stop the lower end with a fine 
cork, and blow into the upper end, while all the keys 
are closed with the fingers; one can then determine 
whether or not the air leaks out. By strongly blowing 
in tobacco smoke it will be easily seen which key leaks. 
But, a more certain way is to draw out the air, after 



58 THE FLUTE 

which the fingers are removed; if then all the keys 
remain closed of themselves, it is a sure indication 
that no air leaks in. 

Fig. 15 is a clamp made of steel wire with which 
the keys can be pressed upon the flute until the pads 
become perfectly seated. 




Fig. 15. Clamp for the Pads 

Upon removing a pad which is still useful, one 
should designate its correct position in relation to the 
key stem by a mark, so that upon replacing it, it will 
come exactly into its former position. 

I have given these explanations so minutely, 
because the certain speaking and pure quality of tone 
of a flute depends in a great measure upon a perfect 
key closing, and this again upon a good padding. Well 
made pads, which I have in stock, can easily be sent in 
letters as "samples without value." 

(d) The Springs 

Of all metals, steel, undoubtedly, is the best for 
making springs. The genuine English darning or 
sewing needles of fine cast steel, well hardened, per- 
fectly polished, which can be had in all required lengths 
and thicknesses, the best fulfill all the requirements of 
good key springs. 

Their preparation is quite simple. When it is 
necessary to replace a broken spring by a new one. 



REPLACING SPRINGS 



59 



select a needle of the proper length and of exactly the 
same thickness as the broken one, accurately fitting the 
hole in the spring post, so that it may be drawn in tight 
without being drawn through. When a proper needle 
is found, lay it on a thin piece of sheet iron, and hold 
it over an alcohol flame long enough for it to become 
uniformly of a beautiful blue or dark violet color. It 
thus loses its too great brittleness, and it can be easily 
bent as much as is necessary for obtaining the required 
tension, without danger of breaking. The needle may 
then be notched with a file at the right length and the 
superfluous end broken off. For this a fine sharp edged 
file is useful. The bending and inserting of the springs 
is accomplished by means of small pincers, Fig. i6. 




Fig. 16. Pincers 



If steel springs break, it is almost always because 
of rust, which readily forms in damp air or from the 
perspiration of the fingers. A sudden breaking of a 
spring while playing is very disagreeable. To prevent 
this, I have sometimes made springs of hard-drawn 
gold wire, which cost only 4 Thalers extra ; these are 
next to steel springs in elasticity, and for many years 
have proven themselves very durable. 



6o THE FLUTE 

(e) The Cork in the Head Joint 

Since the perfect tuning of the octaves depends 
upon the proper closing of the air column by the cork, 
it is necessary to smear it well with tallow each time it 
is drawn out for wiping the head joint. 

If the cork fits too tightly, it can be made a little 

smaller by rolling between two smooth surfaces such 

, as a table top and a small board. Conversely the cork 

may be made shorter and consequently thicker by 

means of a cabinet maker's screw clamp. 



J 



Fig. 17. Gauge for Setting the Cork 

That one may always place the cork exactly at the 
correct distance of 17 millimeters [about -fj inch] 
from the center of the mouth-hole, it is best to have a 
mark on the projecting end of the cork screw, and for 
verification to have also an accurate measuring stick 
such as is shown in Fig. 17. 



IX. TREATMENT OF THE FLUTE 
IN GENERAL 

For a flute to remain in good condition as long as 
possible, it must be handled with care and cleanliness. 
Generally one has only himself to blame for the larger 
repairs required, for cracks in the wood or breaks in 
the mechanism are usually the result of carelessness 
and neglect of cleanliness. Such accidents are easily 
prevented. If the cork coverings of both joints of the 
middle part of a wood flute are well rubbed with pure 
tallow, they will then remain soft and will tightly close 
the joints against moisture; and the application of 
undue force when putting the parts together will 
become unnecessary. For the same reason, the draw 
tube of the head joint, and the socket tube on the lower 
end of the middle joint of a silver flote must always 
be covered with tallow. 

The middle joint should never be grasped in the 
middle, but always on the upper end, to prevent injury 
to the key mechanism; and similarly the foot joint 
should be taken by the hand on the lower end. 

The three pieces should be so put together that the 
flute may be held in a natural position. The mouth 
hole, the centers of the upper holes on the middle joint, 
and the axles of the foot keys should coincide in one 
straight line. The crutch should be inserted and so 



62 THE FLUTE 

turned that the weight of the flute rests between the 
thumb and index finger of the left hand, then the 
movements of the fingers will be much freer than when 
the thumb is used for holding the flute. [In Fig. 9 
a flute is shown with the crutch in position.], 

[The translator agrees with Rockstro, who, in his 
treatise on "The Flute," says: "The crutch is a cum- 
bersome and unsightly appendage, and is useless to 
those who have properly constructed flutes, and who 
know how to hold them. It seriously cramps the action 
of the left hand fingers, especially the thumb, while it 
is unproductive of a single advantage. Happily it is 
now almost obsolete."] 

Further one should be certain that the flute is so 
held in the hand that no water can flow into the tone- 
holes, since moisture covered pads easily stick to the 
edges of the holes. 

When the flute is layed down out of the hand, the 
crutch should be turned at right angles to the flute 
tube so that it will form a firm support for the flute 
when it rests upon a horizontal plane, the flute tube 
inclining- downwards. 

If a pad should become accidently wet and for this 
reason, or because of dirt, should stick, push a strip 
of printing paper under the pad and again draw it out 
while gently pressing down on the key. In this way 
the moisture and dirt will be rubbed oflf the smooth 
skin of the pad, and remain hanging on the rough 
surface of the paper. 

If one takes the further slight trouble, each time 
the flute is layed down, to wipe the perspiration of the 



CARE OF FLUTE 63, 

fingers from the keys, the oxidation of the metal will 
be retarded, and the flute will remain clean and bright 
for a long time. 

The most important matter in the care of flutes,, 
especially of new wooden ones, is the wiping out of the 
tube. The warping out of shape of the wood, which 
alters the proportions of the bore, and causes most of 
the cracks, is the result of moisture, which collects in 
the flute tube during the blowing. This produces an 
unequal expansion ; the consequence of which is often 
the formation of superficial ridges, and frequently the 
complete bursting of the wood. 

Consequently after each blowing the flute tube 
must be wiped perfectly clean and dry, for which pur- 
pose one had best use an old silk or fine linen handker- 
chief and a thin swab stick of the length of the middle 
joint. P'old one end of the corner of the cloth over 
the stick and push it through the flute, till the upper 
end can be taken hold of. Then by slowly drawing 
the cloth through, all the drops of the liquid will be 
taken up by the first part of the cloth while the follow- 
ing part which is yet dry will completely remove any 
remaining moisture. 

, Upon repeating this operation many times the 
bore will become polished, facilitating the full and easy 
production of tone; and this also makes it entirely 
superfluous to oil the flute tube, which is both disagree- 
able and injurious to the pads. 



X. THE EMBOUCHURE 

The open air column of a flute tube is exactly 
comparable with a stretched violin string. As the 
string is set into transverse vibrations by the bow and 
thus is made to sound, so the longitudinal vibrations 
of the air column of the flute are produced by the 
blowing. 

Further, as the clear quality of tone of the violin 
depends upon a proper manipulation of the bow, so 
also the pure flute tone depends upon the direction in 
which the air stream is blown against the edge of the 
mouth-hole. 

Depending upon whether the air stream deviates 
more or less from the horizontal in a right angled 
direction, there originates from the fundamental tone 
of the flute tube, with all the holes closed, the so-called 
aliquot or harmonic overtones; e. g., for the funda- 
mental tone C3, the aliquot tones are C4, G4, Cg, Eg, 
Gg, (Bgb), and Cg. 

Each octave therefore requires a different direc- 
tion of the air stream, and when the correct one is 
found, not merely will a fine quality of tone be brought 
out, but by increasing the force of the air blast, the 
tone may be brought to the greatest possible strength 
without any deterioration in quality or pitch. 



THE EMBOUCHURE 



65 



Indeed, by overblowing, each tone can be made to 
break over into higher tones, in which only a portion 
of the quantity of air is violently forced in the right 
direction. Not only through the air thus wasted, but 
also because of a poor embouchure, the tone loses in 
purity, and there is produced at the same time a buzz- 
ing and nishing noise. 



XI. ON THE BLOWING OF 
NEW FLUTES 

Experience teaches that all wood wind instru- 
ments are affected by the manner of blowing so that 
they become either better or worse with regard to the 
tones and their production. The tuning proportions 
remain unaltered, although the player can accustom 
himself to blow single tones higher or lower. 

The reasons for this have never yet been satis- 
factorily explained. But it is known, that even after 
all swellings and deformations of the wood are removed 
from the flute tube as much as possible by the most 
•careful swabbings, there still remains evident the 
influence of the manner of blowing. The best flute 
loses an easy speech by overblowing and its bright 
clear quality of tone by a bad embouchure, and con- 
versely gains in speech and tone by a correct handling 
and a good embouchure. 

The formation of a good embouchure is therefore 
not only of the utmost importance for flute playing in 
general, but especially for the blowing of new flutes. 
Consequently a knowledge of the origin of the tone 
must be helpful. 



m 



Fig. 18. 
Bass Flute by Rudall, Carte & Co. 



XII. THE BASS FLUTE IN G 

(a) Its Musical Characteristics 

In closing [in the original this section appeared 
at the end of the "Conclusion"] I feel that I ought to 
mention one of the most recently perfected, and there- 
fore little known, developments of the flute, to the con- 
struction of which I was led by the great facility of 
vibration and easy speech of my silve,r flute in C; 
I refer to the "Alt-Flote" in G [Bass Flute] which is 
pitched a major fourth below the flute in C. 

[Fig. 1 8 shows the Bass Flute in G as made by 
Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Company.] 

The long felt need for deeper, stronger, and at the 
same time more sonorous flute tones has not been 
satisfactorily provided for either by the former "Flfite . 
d'amour" or by the extension to the foot of a C flute, 
since the tones thus obtained are weak and uncertain, 
and their combination difficult and entirely unpracti- 
cable. There must be created an entirely new instru- 
ment in the family of flutes of deeper pitch, similar to 
the basset-horn and the English horn. [See page 8.] 

In the calculation of the proportions of the air 
column, I gave preference to the deeper tones; the 
speech is easy and certain, and lends itself to a sur- 
prisingly strong crescendo; hence the bass flute is 
suitable for playing in the largest room or in the salon. 



68 THE FLUTE 

I had made as early as 1847 flute tubes giving an 
easy and certain speech for the tone Ej 



but the difficulties connected with the construction and 
playing led me to choose the tone G2 



W 



as the fundamental for my bass flute. 

Because of the great facility of modulation of the 
full, sonorous tones of this flute, it is adapted to music 
in the song style, and for accompanying a soprano 
voice. A player will, after a very little practice, be in 
a position to bring out genre effects which are impossi- 
ble upon the C fliute. 

[Very little music has ever been published for the 
bass flute; but there is a part for it in at least one 
modem symphony. Boehm arranged several solos for 
it, the manuscript of which seems to have been lost.] 

(b) Mechanism of the Bass Flute 

Being made with G for its fundamental tone, 
there is required no alteration in the system of finger- 
ing, since the upper half of the key mechanism can be 
arranged to be played very conveniently by the left 
hand, through extensions of the axles, as shown in 
Fig. 19, and the lower half requires only slight altera- 
tions. [A clutch required to connect the A# and B 
keys is not shown in the original drawing.] 



MECHANISM OF THE BASS FLUTE 



69 







a 



m 



•g 

(U 



n! 






70 THE FLUTE 

A very conveniently arranged "schleifklappe" 
[literally, "loop-key"], marked 5" and with a * in 
Fig. 19, may be opened by the thumb; it serves to 
give freer speech and greater purity of tone to the 
notes D4, E,b, D^, D4, E^b and A^. 

The trill key, marked D and ** in Fig. 19, is a 
substitute for the long D trill key in all cases where this 
would be used on the C flute. 

[The mechanism of the flute shown in Fig. 18 is 
arranged as shown in Fig. 19, except that there are trill 
keys for D and D}f, to be played by the fingers of the 
Tight hand as on the ordinary C flute, and there is no 
schleif-key. This construction for the trill keys is the 
one now usually employed.], 

(c) Special Fingerings for the Bass Flute 

All the fingerings of the C flute from C3 to Ag are 
applicable to the bass flute; but since the C3 sounds 
as G2, of coitrse the bass flute music must be written 
a fourth higher, that is, be transposed. [The tables of 
regular fingerings for the C flute are given on page 39.] 

There follow two supplementary tables of finger- 
ings; the first shows the application of the schleif- 
key, *, Fig. 19; the second table indicates the special 
uses of the D trill key, **, Fig. 19. [As mentioned 
above, the bass flute is usually constructed with trill 
Iceys placed as on the C flute, in which case the finger- 
iings for the latter are directly applicable.] 



FINGERINGS FOR THE BASS FLUTE 71 



-^♦111 


i 


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CV 


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• • 


• ' 


*l 1 1 h 


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• 


• 


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r ii5« 


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03* 


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a, ^ 

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Part II— Flute-Playing 



XIIL THE DEVELOPMENT OF TONE 

Upon the supposition that the student has had 
elementary musical instruction relative to notes, time, 
keys, etc., such as may be found in any printed Flute 
Instntctor (especially in that of Hugot and Wunder- 
lich, Jos. Aibl, Munich) I will proceed to the flute 
playing itself, and shall begin with what I believe to 
be the essential requisite, the tone formation. 

Although a good embouchure depends for the 
most part upon a normal formation of the lips and 
teeth, yet, if one does not have a proper appreciation 
of beautiful tone quality, that is if he does not have a 
proper tone sense, this, as well as a faulty embouchure, 
can be considerably improved by exercising in the 
following manner. 

Since a gradual transition in all things is best, by 
passing from the easy to the more difficult, so one, in 
blowing a new flute, should not begin with the higher 
and lower tones which are more difficult to produce; 
but he should begin in the middle register, in which 
the tone C^ is best produced by a beginner. 

When one has found the proper embouchure by 
which this tone can be clearly sounded in the delicate 




Theobald Boehm 

Aged 76 
At the time this book was written 



DEVELOPMENT OF TONE 



73 



pimOj one should gradually, without raising the pitch, 
swell it to a forte, and then bring it back again to the 
faintest pianissimo. 



I 



When this is fully accomplished one passes in the 
following manner to the tone lying next. While 
sounding the C4 with a beautiful, clear, and pure tone, 
close the C key by a quick motion [of the thumb] ; yet 
without making alteration in the embouchure or in 
the force of the wind. 



The B thus obtained should remain unaltered in 
quality and purity of tone. Then sound the B alone. 



and, after breathing again, proceed to ^b- 

^ ^ 1 ^^ II 



Continuing in this way and with the least possible 
alteration of the embouchure, gradually, certainly and 
without exertion proceed to the lower tones and in a 
similar manner practice the tones from C4 upwards to 
the highest. Since each tone is always developed out 



74 FLUTE-PLAYING 

of the preceding tone, which is as perfect as possible, 
all of the tones will remain equally perfect in quality, 
strength and purity. 

As soon as one obtains a certainty in the 
embouchure, he should next practice all the major and 
minor scales; then thirds, fourths, fifths, sixths, 
sevenths, and octaves ; the embouchure will thus become 
accustomed to the making of increasing intervals, and 
soon one will be in a position to take the greatest skips 
with the proper embouchure, and consequently with 
certainty. 



XIV. FINGER EXERCISES 

Since the certain production of the tone depends 
not only upon the embouchure, but also upon a quick 
and smooth movement of the fingers, in this exercise 
all the tones should be slurred together, for in staccata. 
playing one observes less easily whether all the fingers, 
move up and down precisely together. 

A portion of one's attention is always lost in read- 
ing notes, therefore, it is very important to play "by 
heart" as much as possible, so that the formation of the 
embouchure and tone may have the undivided attention. 
To do this will, of course, be difficult for the untrained 
musician. The best method for impressing upon the 
memory the proper sequence of tones in the scales and 
chords of all keys, is first to learn by heart the tones 
of one scale or one chord in only a single octave ; then 
one will soon learn to play the flute in all keys and 
through its entire compass. Furthermore I have come 
to the conclusion from my own practice as well as froni 
my many years of experience as a teacher, that pupils 
advance most rapidly who take the trouble to practice 
patiently the complicated finger changes of a single 
difficult phrase until it can be played smoothly and 
clearly. One acquires in this way, so to speak, wealth 
which can be layed by, and which is always increasing 
by additions. 



76 FLUTE-PLAYING 

When a short phrase is found difficult,- it is 
evidently a waste of' time to repeat the entire passage 
containing the "stumbling block" in the greater part 
of which one has already acquired facility ; one should 
practice a few troublesome notes till the difficult tone 
combination is mastered. 

By such a judicious use of time I have brought 
many scholars in a year's practice to a thoroughly 
correct interpretation (execution) of a piece of music 
which others with far greater talent, but without 
patience and perseverance, would never acquire. 

An answer is needed to the question which is so 
frequently put to me, "What and how should one first 
practice in learning my flute?" Notwithstanding this 
work makes no claim to the title of a Flute-School, yet 
this is an appropriate place for the answer and the 
many interested flute players will welcome it. 



XV. THE METHOD OF PRACTICING 

Above all one should endeavor, at each time of 
beginning practicing, to secure a good embouchure, in 
the above described manner, for without a clear tone, 
nothing can be well and beautifully played. The tone 
is the voice without which one cannot even begin to 
sing. 

When the embouchure has become good and 
certain, one should study the scales and chords in all 
the keys, for these are the foundation of all passages, 
and when one has once learned to play them with 
precise finger movements (which can be easily deter- 
mined by the ear) all the other tone figures will be 
quickly and easily disposed of. 

As has been said, it is only a waste of time to 
repeat anything that can already be played without 
stumbling. Difficult finger movements, on the con- 
trary, must be gone over very slowly at first, so that in 
the slurred tone combinations no interpolated tones are 
audible, and no lack of purity is noticeable. Especially 
one must train the fingers to a perfectly smooth move- 
ment by the trill exercises, so that no one tone pre- 
dominates; and that no bleating or so-called "bocks- 
triller" is produced. 

To secure this smoothness, there must be no 
perceptible cramping tension of the muscles, in either 



78 



FLUTE-PLAYING 



the hand or arm, this cramping results from an entirely 
unnecessary expenditure of force. 

If one only forms the idea that a thing is not 
difficult, it becomes much easier. 

Further, many flute players have the bad habit of 
raising the fingers not only much too high, but also to 
unequal heights, whereby complicated finger move- 
ments become unnecessarily difficult; since when 
several keys are closed at the same time, if one finger 
must m.ove much farther than another, it is perfectly 
evident that they cannot reach the end at the same time. 

The raising of the fingers too high has another 
disadvantage, since in rapidly closing the keys a very 
audible and disagreeable clap or rattle is produced, and 
at the same time the key receives a blow and the 
mechanism a reaction which clearly work disadvan- 
tageously to them. On the contrary, if the fingers are 
held directly over the keys a forcible closing of them 
will be nearly or wholly inaudible, and there will be 
produced only a pressure without rebound. 

The fingers therefore should be held at equal 
heights, and no higher than is necessary above the 
keys. To secure this, and especially as most players 
do not realize how high they have raised their fingers, 
I advise all my pupils, when practicing the scales, to 
stand before a mirror. They are then in a position to 
see not only the finger movements and the whole man- 
ner of holding the flute, but also to detect many 
bad habits, such as distortion of the features, and 
unnecessary movements of the head, arms and body. 



METHOD OF PRACTICING 79 

If one cannot express his feelings through the 
style of tone, he surely is not in a position to do so by 
head or body movements. A calm, firm attitude cer- 
tainly presents a much more pleasing appearance to the 
hearer than visible exertions, or affected, sentimental 
movements. 

Since bad habits are very difficult to overcome, 
they ought to be removed in their beginnings ; it is very 
short sighted to economize in the beginning, for in the 
end the best teacher is also the cheapest. It is impossi- 
ble for everyone to find a good teacher, and in all the 
flute-schools known to me the methods of style are 
treated in a very superficial manner ; therefore, I believe 
that my views upon this subject, founded upon many 
years of experience as an artist and teacher, should 
be given. 



XVI. MUSICAL INTERPRETATION 

He who, like myself, has been fortunate enough 
to have heard, for more than fifty years, all the great- 
est singers and songstresses of the time, will never 
forget the names of Brizzi, Sessi, Catalani, Velluti, 
Lablache, Tamburini, Rubini, Malibran, Pasta, etc. It 
fills me with joy to remember their artistic and splendid 
performances ; they have all come forth from the good 
old Italian school of song, which today, as in the past 
hundred years, gives the foundation for a good voice 
formation, and leads to a correct understanding of 
style, which is an essential for the instrumentalist as 
well as for the singer. 

The interpretation of a piece of music should 
evidently give to the hearer what the composer has 
endeavored to express in notes. The player himself 
,must therefore, in order to be intelligible, first clearly 
comprehend the sense and spirit of the composition. 

But the means which the composer has at hand 
are not always sufficient to clearly convey his ideas. 
All the customary designations of the tempo from 
largo to prestissimo being without metronomic deter- 
minations give rather indefinite ideas; and the articu- 
lations, accents, and' nauences of the tone strength, 
especially in older or carelessly copied music, are desig- 
nated at the best in a very faulty way and often not at 



MUSICAL INTERPRETATION 8i 

all. Much is left therefore to the discretion and indi- 
vidual comprehension of the performer, in which 
respects, as is known, even thorough musicians will 
differ considerably. 

In the orchestra, naturally the view of the director 
is followed and the flutist who plays each note accord- 
mg to the dictated directions, clearly, with a good and 
pure tone, has accomplished much, and his playing is at 
all events correct. 

In solo playing, on the other hand, where the 
player himself appears, the overcoming of technical 
difficulties is mainly accomplished by a surprising 
amount of practice, after which the genuine artist 
should endeavor to bring out a definite expression of 
feeling. It is much easier to win applause by a brilliant 
execution, than to reach the hearts of the hearers 
through a cantabile. 

For example, to play well an adagio with all the 
possible colorature, the player must not only be a 
perfect master of his instrument, but must also have 
the power to transform his tones, as it were, into words, 
by which he will be able to give his feelings a clear 
expression. He must learn to sing upon his instru- 
ment ; in singing one is easily led to a correct interpre- 
tation by the words of the text, for a clear idea of the 
meaning is connected with the words through the 
feelings expressed in tone. 

If the composer under the influence of the words 
of the poem has been enabled to express his feelings 
in tone, and to form his melodies upon the laws of 
rhythm and declamation, so also the thoughtful instru- 



82 FLUTE-PLAYING 

mentalist can perceive the correct interpretation of the 
music of an aria or song in its text. 

He will learn by the study of good song music 
when and why a note should be played staccato, or be 
slurred with the next following; and when an accent 
or a crescendo or diminuendo in the tone strength, is 
necessary to bestow upon the music an expression 
corresponding to the words ; and when a breath can be 
taken without breaking the correct declamation. 

The text will clearly show him the phrases and 
will indicate to him the points for which the full 
strength of the tone must be saved, for producing the 
greatest effects, as is done by the points of highest 
light in a good painting. 

The following examples will serve as a clearer 
explanation of what has been said, as well as to 
explain the portamento di voce which is indispensible 
to a good style of cantabile. 

Since it is only possible to indicate the declamation 
or correct expression of the words of a text on an 
instnument by means of articulation, that is by striking 
the notes according to the meaning or syllable-begin- 
nings of the words, it is important to learn the 
necessary art of tonguing and its proper application. 
This is indicated in three different ways, namely a 

short staccato by little lines {[ t t) > l^^s staccato 

by points I ^ p ^ j ! and an entirely smooth staccato 

by points over which there is a slur ( f f f ) » indi- 



TONGUING 



83 



eating that the tone is to have merely a new impulse, 
but that the air stream is not to be interrupted. 

This tonguing should sound as softly as the 
second syllable "de" [te] for example, in speaking the 
word "Beide" [6i.ie] ; which serves very satisfactorily 
for the making of separate syllables ; and in many cases 
the expression can be further increased, as is indicated 
in the following example. 



LarghettO. fSingitimme.) 



Zanberflote. 



DieBsBildniss iatbezauberndschOiiivieiiochkeiaAu-ge je ge - sehn! ich fOhleG, ich fuhl es, wiediess 




Gat-ter-bfld mein Hera mit neu-er Regung fllllt, mein Herz m it neu-erRegung fQllt. 



[The musical illustrations have been photographi- 
cally reproduced from the German edition. The line 
above the words is the music for the voice, while the 
line below indicates the interpretation for the flute.] 

The correct articulation follows here of itself 
from the declamation of the words. 

By means of the soft tonguing of the four notes 
Eb, D, C, and Bb of the first bar, as well as the notes 
D, C, Bb and Ab of the third bar, there is given to the 
words "ist bezaubernd schon," and "kein Auge je 
gesehn," considerably more expression than if they 
were entirely slurred together. The breathing places 
are indicated thus : ^ 



84 



FLUTE-PLAYING 



' Further it is evident that it is not allowable to slur 
any note over to the first note of the next measure, 
since it almost always happens that the note falling in 
the so-called strong part of the measure must be 
tongued, in order that the word depending upon it 
may receive its proper accent. The slurring of a note 
to the following measure is always a fault, unless it is 
justified for some special reason, as in dance music or 
comic songs, where it may be used to produce a piquant 
or bizarre effect. For example : 



But in song music this tying over from the weak 
to the strong beat of a measure is allowable only when 
employed as syncopation, as in canon or fugue, to bring 
out an increased expression. For example in the fol- 
lowing illustration where the word "nur" is repeated 
in the third measure, the anticipation of the E by a 
quarter note constitutes a s}Ticopation, by means of 
which the effect is increased. 



Urgo. 



(Siagttimme,} 



Ang nJoseph". 



Nurmei-ne Kin-derlUB glaeklichBtetfiMiiiiiDarinef-De ElD-derluss 
Bsodaheu-retuinieB en-bms, exauu mapHttelBendB 16b heimiix,i«ii(lBiiE 
(Flili.) 



The following example will furnish, through a 
reading of the text, a clear idea of the rhythmic and 
declamatory significance of each note. 



MUSICAL INTERPRETATION 



85 



The methods of interpretation which I have here 
given for playing on the flute, will serve as guides by 
which anyone may learn to correctly judge why and 
in what manner a note should be tongued or intoned, 
so that it shall give the sense and expression of the 
word for which it is a substitute, or whether it should 
be considered merely as a syllable without significance, 
and should therefore be slurred together with other 
notes. 

Upon the repetition of a strophe, on the contrary, 
where the theme would become somewhat monotonous 
in the absence of words, the player may be allowed 
to take some license, and add little ornaments in suit- 
able places; especially in bright and light melodies. 
In the last of the following songs, "Das Fischer- 
madchen," for example, a heightening of the expression 
will result, if the ornaments are performed not heavily, 
but lightly and gracefully. 



[JM.a — ^4-, — li — K — w-i — r- 


Der Undenbaum. fiehobert. 

3 


Siiii-,jir"''\' JN J 

Am Bnmaao tor dem Thore, 


da Bteht ein Lia-deDbaum, ich tr&ointin Bei-oeni Sch&tten w 

V 3 V V 


muir'sm^ 


M^r^i^t±:Hr-^ J|J im 




86 



FLUTE-PLAYING 



In the preceding song the triplets, and also the 
sixteenth notes of the third and seventh bars of the 
following, may be slurred ; however, in my opinion, a 
soft tonguing gives a more definite effect. 



Ziemlich langsam. (Singstimne.) 



Trockene Blamen. 



Scbabflrt 




web, als ob ihr wQsstet, vie mir ge-scbeb?ibrfiltlmlein tUe, vie 
3>a V 




MasBig {Siogilimme.) 



St&ndchen. 



Lei-ee fle-hen mef-ne Lie-der durch dieNachtzu dir, id dea sUI-len ^I&bec • nit • d«r 

(Flote.) ~- 




Liebchen,koinmzamir. FlQaterndscblfuike Wipfel nn-acliefl in dea Han-dei Licbt, in deeUon-dea 



y^:^ ^\.Jl \ ^^^^^^=^ ^^Z^MU^:=i=^ 



Lieht; dea Ter - ra - then reindlicbLauBcben furchte Hoi - de nicht, larffbte Hoi • de nicbt 



The triplets may also be slurred together, in the 
above song. 



COLORATURES 

Das Fischermadchen. 



87 



Gtwas geschwind. {Singiiitime;.) 



Da KbO-DH Fi-schei^m&dcheo trei-be den KtXm an'B Laod, komm za mir mid w - be < 




1 Haod in Hand, wir bo -sen Hand in Hand. 



The great wealth of beautiful German songs of 
Mozart, Beethoven, Schubert, Mendelssohn and others 
are almost inexhaustible sources of studies tor the 
formation of a correct interpretation and a good style. 

From«the words of the poems of the popular songs 
of other nations, such as Scottish, Irish, Swedish and 
Slavish, one may also learn a good interpretation. 

One should begin with songs which are simple 
but full of expression in word and melody, then one 
will soon learn to comprehend compositions,, which, as 
Beethoven's "Adelaide," are written in the highest 
dramatic style, and form a transition to the arias for 
the inteqjretation of which a knowledge of all the arts 
of ornamentation and colorature is necessary. 

All coloratures may be considered a diversifi- 
cation of a single note, whose time value is partially 
or whollv consumed in executing the ornaments. 



88 



FLUTE-PLAYING 



The simplest ornament is the accented appoggia- 
tura which moves either upwards or downwards, and is 
designated by a small note; and for equally divided 
notes it takes one-half of the time value of the principal 
note, and for unequal division it takes one-third. 

'Scbreibweise. AnBRihrnhg. 

[The musical ornaments are first given "as 
written," and then "as played" ; in some instances the 
name or interpretation seems to be incorrect.] 

The double appoggiatura, consisting of two or 
three small notes, is to be treated in a similar manner. 
This may form a tripet, as in the examples : 



The double appoggiatura is to be distinguished 
from the "schneller" or half-mordent, in which the 
first of the two small notes is always the same as the 
principal note; for example: 

^^ felfrlf I I ^m^ w ^^ 

The true mordent (gmppetto) is a group of three 
or four small notes which move within the compass 
of a minor third, and consists, both in ascending and 
descending, of a note first above and then below the 
given note. For example : 



THE TRILL 



89 



A very effective, and at the same time the most 
difficult vocal ornament is the trill, a thoroughly good 
execution of which is, at the present time, unfortu- 
nately, very rarely heard. The trill consists in the 
alternation of two adjacent tones, a major or a minor 
second apart, which are to be smoothly and rapidly 
repeated. Following the best old Italian school of 
song, the trill should commence upon the principal note, 
and not upon the auxiliary note; the two notes must 
have equal tone strength, and exactly equal time value, 
and the alternation should be slower in Adagio, and 
more rapid in Allegro. For a final cadence, or a 
fermata, it should gradually increase in speed, and 
there should be a swelling out and a diminishing of 
the tone strength. Further, every trill must end with 
a resolution which is formed of the principal note pre- 
ceded by the next lower note. The "Pralltriller" 
[inverted mordent] is the only exception to this rule. 
For a cadence trill the ending may have a variety of 
forms, according to the taste of the performer. 




$o 



FLUTE-PLAYING 



According to my idea, all trills not resting upon 
the note of the harmony, such as the last preceding 
mordent trills, and trills consisting in the multiplica- 
tion of an appoggiatura, should begin with the auxiliary 
note, and proceed by means of a final resolution. 

All trills must begin slowly, and very gradually 
become more rapid, a perfect equality of the tones 
being maintained throughout, and the production of a 
so-called bleating or "bockstriller" must be avoided. 

Equally useful are the ornaments produced by 
runs, which are also developed by the diversification 
of a fundamental tone and which must therefore be 
played exactly within the time and in the manner 
of expression of this note ; either with equal tone value 
(tenuto) or with increasing strength (crescendo) or 
diminishing strength (diminuendo). For example: 



[i±jMmi0m^ f^ r r f I' < III' ^f»#:gtef^ 




Since the time of Mozart, especially by Rossini, all 
the vocal ornaments have been accurately written out 
by composers, hence one will find in operas and concert 
arias a large selection of tasteful and effective colora- 
tures, which will serve as models for practice. 



ARTS OF COLOR ATURE gj 

Many arias also contain the most beautiful melo- 
dies for the studjr of cantabile which in aesthetic 
respects will remain the best examples, and for the 
reading of which the flute player must have all the 
qualifications which characterize the genuine artist. 
These qualifications are an intelligent comprehension 
of the composition, a deep feeling and a cultivated 
taste, cdrrectly timed breathing, and a perfectly formed 
tone, for without these a good interpretation of a canta- 
bile with portamento (gliding voice) is impossible. 

Although the proper portamento di voce, namely 
the gliding over from one tone to another while speak- 
ing two different syllables, is adapted to the human 
voice alone, and consequently seldom seems good -and 
appropriate on string instruments, yet it is sometimes 
desired to imitate it upon wind instruments with tone 
holes. On account of defective execution, however, 
the effect is often repulsive and suggests cat music on 
the roof, rather than a beautifully sung cantilena. 

The significance, often misunderstood, of the word 
portamento, seems to me to consist in a development 
of the legato derived from the Italian cantare legato 
in which all the intermediate tones are delicately and 
smoothly connected together, like a series of pearls by a 
connecting thread, the latter being figuratively repre- 
sented by the air stream. For example : 




The following extract from the aria of Donna 
Anna in Mozart's "Don Juan" serves as a combination 



92 



FLUTE-PLAYING 



of the above described song-studies, since the cantibile 
of the Larghetto ends with simple runs and mordent 
ornaments, and the Allegretto contains mordent trills, 
roulades, and a closing trill, and has practically all of 
the arts of colorature. 

In the lower line, designed to be played upon the 
flute, all of the legato places are designated by sliur 
marks, the moderate articulations by points and the 
sharply tongued notes by lines. The places where 
breath should be taken are designated by large breath- 
ing signs, and the places where it may be taken if 
necessary by small signs. [In the original edition 
there are no staccatissimo lines, and the breathing 
signs are all alike.] The explanation of the trills which 
occur has already been given above. 



Larghettn. {Smgtlmme.') 



Don Juan. 




ARTS OF COLORATURE 



93 




XVII. CONCLUSION 

I BELIEVE that I have now pointed out the surest 
way in which one may learn a correct and elegant 
style of playing, so that one may be prepared to delight 
himself and others not only with difficult compositions, 
but also with simple and beautifully played songs. 

Moreover, attention to my instructions will lead 
to a correct technical execution ; for this there has been 
printed as a supplement to this work and published 
by Jos. Aibl in Munich, "12 Uebungsstiicke in alien 
Tonarten," forming a transition to the following 
earlier composed studies in which are to be found 
pretty nearly all the practicable difficulties for the flute. ■ 
[The "12 Practice Pieces" are published by G. Schir- 
mer, New York, in the "Library of Musical Classics."] 

1. ;^tudes pour egaliser le doigte dans toutes les 

gammes, op. 15; Falter & Sohn, Munich ; 
Rudall, Carte & Co., London. 

2. 24 Caprices-;&tudes, op. 26; B. Schott's 

Sohne, Mainz; Richault, Paris; Rudall, 
Carte & Co., London. 

3. 24 :&tudes pour la Fldte seule ou avec accom- 

pagnement du Piano, op. 37; B. Schott's 

Sohne, Mainz. 

[As indicating the extent to which Boehm himself 

achieved the style of playing which he advocates, two 

extracts from criticisms of his concert performances 

are given : "His playing shows a tender, elegiac senti- 



BOEHM'S LAST COMPOSITION 95 

ment, a beautiful, romantic longing; his singing upon 
his instrument is inspired by the deepest feeling. His 
mastership in seizing all nauences, the melancholy 
pathos of his style, wins him the first place among the 
flutists of Europe. One hesitates to breathe for fear 
the tenderness and soulfulness of the blended tones will 
be disturbed and the magic spell will be broken." "The 
playing of Herr Boehm is firm, especially pure and 
technically efficient, with a beautiful, tender, and yet 
very full tone. The very difficult task in Drouet's 
'Variations' he gave with so much finish and good 
taste that we owe the artist our thanks for an evening 
full of enjoyment."] 

[Boehm wrote over sixty compositions for the 
flute, including original pieces in various styles, and 
arrangements of the classics, with both piano and 
orchestral accompaniments. One of his best composi- 
tions is also his last, the ";&ldgie," opus 47. Schafhautl, 
in his "Life of Boehm," speaks thus of it : "His swan- 
song bears the very characteristic title of ':§;iegie.' It 
is written in the key of A[j major; a sweet melancholy 
rises through forty bars to a bitter lamentation, only to 
sink back by degrees to a peaceful resignation. It is 
the aged man, who, already ailing in his eighty-seventh 
year, once said : 'I would that I might yet live to the 
ninetieth year; but as God wills.' The :Sl6gie is com- 
posed for full orchestra. The orchestra raises the 
composition to a work of true magnificence, speaking 
here and there, in a most eflFective way, what the sing- 
ing flute-voice only indicates." Boehm died in 1881, 
in his eighty-eighth year.] 



INDEX 



Academie des sciences, 2. 
Accents, 80, 84, 85; see Tonguing'. 
Acoustical proportions of flute, 6 ; 

see Air-column, Tone-holes. 
Acoustics, science of, 4, 15, 19. 
"Adelaide," 87. 

'sAdjusting the keys, 47, 48, 57; 
I joints of the flute, 61. 
AiBL, publisher, 72, 94. 
Air-column, diameter of, 7, 8, 14, 

68; see Bore; length of, 7, 11, 

15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 68; see 

Tone-holes. 
Alt-Flote, see Bass flute. 
Alto flute in B-flat, 8. 
Appoggiatura, 88. 
Articulation, 80, 82, 83, 84, 85, 92. 

B-flat lever, 41, 49, 51. 

Basset-horn, tone quality of, 67. 

Bass flute in G, 8, 67; fingerings 
for, 70, 71; mechanism of, 50, 
68, 69; music for, 68. 

Beethoven, 87. 

Blowing New Flutes, 66, 72. 
;"Bockstriller," 77, 90. 

BoEHM, Miss Anna, (grand- 
daughter), III, IX. 

BoEHM, Theobald, (grandson), 

III, IX. 

BoEHM, Theobald, advances 
made by, vii; compositions of, 
68, 94, 95 ; "Life of," 95 ; death 
of, 95; experiments of, 4, 5, 6, 
10, 15, 32, 33, 67; first flutes 
by, 1, 2; makes improvements, 
1, 4; engaged in iron-work, 4; 
style of playing, 94; receives 
prizes, 5 ; portrait, aged 34, 
facing title page ; portrait, aged 
60, facing page 32; portrait, 
aged 76, facing page 72. 



BoEHM & Mendler, 13, 50. 
Bore, conical, 4, 6; cylindrical, 6, 
7, 33; diameter of, 7, 8, 14, 51. 
Boxwood flute, 31. 
Breathing, 83, 91, 92. 
Briccialdi, his B-flat lever, 50. 
Brizzi, a singer, 80. 
Broadwood, letter to, vi. 

C-sharp hole, 14, 15. 

Care of flute, 52, 61, 62, 63. 

Catalani, a singer, 80. 

Cement for cork, 56. 

Clarinet, length of, 17. 

Cleaning flute, 53, 54, 55, 62, 63. 

Closed vs. open keys, 33, 35. 

Clutches, 33, 34, 45, 68. 

Cocus-wood flute, 30. 

Coloratures, 87, 90, 92. 

Compositions, Boehm's, 68, 94, 95. 

Conclusion, 67, 94. 

Contents, Table of, XL 

Cork (stopper), effect of, 18; 
fitting, 60; moveable, 8; posi- 
tion of, 9, 60. 

Cork gauge, 60. 

Cork joints, to keep in order, 61. 

Cracking of flute, 31, 61. 

Crutch for flute, 51, 61, 62. 

Cylinder bore, vii, 6, 7, 32. 

D and D-sharp trill keys and holes, 
14, 15, 33, 49; for bass flute, 
70, 71. 

Denner, early flutist, 4. 

Development of tone, 72. 

Diagram {schema), 20, 31. 

"Don Juan" (music), 91, 92. 

DoRUS, his G-sharp key, 35, 36. 

Double tonguing, 83. 

Drouet, his "Variations," 95. 



98 



INDEX 



tbonite (rubber) flute, 30. 
Ebony flute, 31. 

tUgie, Boehm's "Swan-Song," 95. 
Embouchure (lips), 9, 14, 28, 30, 

64, 66, 72, 75, 77. 
Embouchure (mouth-hole), 9, 10, 

18, 51, 61. 
English horn, tone quality of, 67. 
Equally tempered scale, 15, 20. 
Exercises, Finger, 75, 94. 
Expositions, London and Paris, 5. 

Falter & Sohn, publishers, 94. 

Fine, Dean H. B., 51. 

Finger Exercises, 75, 77, 94. 

Fingers, raised too high, 78. 

Finger-holes, see Tone-holes. 

Fingerings, for bass flute, 71; 
irregular, 35, 41 ; regular, 39 ; 
for schleif-key, 71 ; System of, 
vil, 32; Tables of, 39, 42, 71; 
Trills, 42, 71. 

■"Fischermadchen" (music), 87. 

■"Flotenbau," pamphlet of 1847, v, 
VI, 2, 4, 5. 

Elute, alto in B-flat, 8; bass, see 
Bass flute; Boehm's early, 1, 
2; Boehm's later, 50; Blowing 
New, 66; History of, Welch's, 
ix; old system, 2, 3, 34, 35, 38; 
Proportions of, 6 ; Rockstro 
on, 62; Treatment of, 61; 
weight of, 29. 

THJLte d'amour, 67. 

Flute-Playing, Part II, 72. 

Poot-keys, 33, 46, 51, 53, 61, 67. 

G-sharp key, closed vs. open, 35; 

Dorus closed, 35, 36; duplicate 

closed, 37. 
German silver flute, 30. 
Glass flute, 30. 

Gold embouchure, flute with, 51. 
Gold springs, 51, 59. 
Graduated holes, 13. 
Graphic location of holes, 20. 
Grease for joints, 61. 
Grenadille wood flute, 31. 



Gruppetto, 89. 

Guitar, location of frets of, 22. 

Habits, bad, 78, 79. 

Hanfstaengl, photographer, viil. 

Harmonics, 10, 64. 

Head joint, cylindrical, 4; para- 
bolic, 7; wood on silver body, 
8, 31 ; for changing pitch, 28. 

Holes, see Mouth-holes, Tone- 
holes, Vent-hole. 

HuGOT, "Flute Instructor"' of, 72. 

Illustrations, List of, xii. 
Interpretation of music, 80, 87. 
Intonation, 1, 12, 27 ; see Quality. 
Introduction, author's, 1; Trans- 
lator's, V. . 
Irregular fingerings, 35, 41. 
Italian school of song, 80, 89. 
Ivory flute, 30. 

"Joseph" (music), 84. 

Key Mechanism, 45. 

Keys, adjusting, 57; C-sharp, 14, 
15, 49; cleaning, 62; D and 
D-sharp trill, 14, 15, 33, 49, 70, 
71 ; G-sharp, open vs. closed, 35 ; 
G-sharp, Dorus, 35, 36 ; G-sharp 
duplicate, 37; general descrip- 
tion, 32, 45; open vs. closed, 
33, 35; removing, 52, 53, 54; 
repairs to, 53; ring-key, 2, 3; 
schleif-key, 41, 50, 70, 71; sec- 
tion of, 45; testing adjustment 
of, 57. 

"Kunst und Gewerbeblatt," 27. 

Lablache, a singer, 80. 
"Life of Boehm," 95. 
"Lindenbaum" (music), 85. 
Lips, made sore by wood, 31; see 

Embouchure. 
Loop, part of action, 47, 48. 
Loop-key (schleif-key), 41, 50, 70, 

71. 
Lot, Louis, a flute maker, 13. 



INDEX 



99 



"Magic Flute" (music), 83. 
Malibran, a singer, 80. 
Mandolin, location of frets of, 33. 
Materials, best, 30; combined, 31; 

various, 39, 30. 
Mechanism, of bass flute, 68, 69; 

care of, 53, 61; Description of, 

32, 45. 
Medals to Boehm, 5. 
MiEHUi,, 84. 
Mendelssohn, 87. 
Mendler, Boehm &, 13, 50. 
Method of Practicing, 77. 
Molecules, vibration of, 9, 39. 
Monochord, 18, 30, 33. 
Mordent, 88, 89. 
Mouth-hole, 9, 10, 18, 61. 
Mozart, 83, 87, 90, 91, 93. 
Music by Boehm, 68, 94, 95. 
Musical Interpretation, 80. 

Oboe, length of, 17. 

Oiling flute, 55, 61, 63. 

Old system flute, 1, 3, 3, 34, 35, 38. 

Open vs. closed keys, 33, 35. 

Open G-sharp key, arguments in 

favor of, 35, 36, 37. 
Ornaments, musical, 85, 88, 90; 

see Coloratures, Trill, etc. 
Overblowing flute, 14, ,30, 65, 66. 

Pads, adjusting, 56, 57; how 

made, 56; replacing, 56, 58; 

sticking, to prevent, 63; testing 

adjustment of, 57. 
Papier-mS.che flute, 30. 
Parabolic head joint, 7. 
Pasta, a singer, 80. 
Phrasing, 82. 
Pitch of flute, 25. 38. 
Porcelain flute, 80. 
Portamento di voce, 83, 91. 
Portraits of Boehm, facing title, 

32, 72. 
Practice pieces, by Boehm, 94. 
Practicing, Method of, 77. 
"PralltriUer," 89. 
Proportions, Acoustical, of flute, 

see Air-column, Tone-holes. 



Quality of tone; upon what it 
depends, 6, 9, 10, 14, 66; of 
particular flutes, 8, 51; of bass 
flute, 68; as affected by mater- 
ial, 29, 30. 

QuANTZ, 4. 

Querpfeife, 4. 

Regulating screws, 47, 48, 57. 

Repairs, 52. 

Respiration, 83, 91, 93. 

Richault, publisher, 94. 

Ring-keys, 3, 3. 

RocKSTRO, "The Flute," 63. 

Rossini, 90. 

Rubber (ebonite) flute, 30. 

RuBiNi, a singer, 80. 

RuDALL, Carte & Co., 8, 67, 94. 

Rythm, 85. 

Scale, of A=435, vibrations of, 17, 
19, 22 ; locating holes by calcu- 
lation, 15, 16, 17, 25; locating 
holes by diagram, 20; locating 
holes by trial, 11, 15; locating 
holes for various pitches, 17, 
30, 33; lengths of air columns, 
11, 19; relative frequency of 
tones, 16; relative lengths of 
strings, 16; practicing, musical, 
73, 74, 75, 77; Tables of Fing- 
erings for chromatic, 39. 

SchafhAUTL, 5, 95. 

Schema, 30, 21, 27. 

ScHiRMER, publisher, 94. 

Schleif-key, 41, 50, 70, 71. 

"Schneller," 88. 

Schott's SOhne, publishers, 5, 94. 

Schubert, 85, 86, 87. 

Schwegel, 4. 

Science and the flute, vii, 4, 5, 8, 
15, 19. 

Screws, adjusting, 47, 48, 57. 

"Serenade," Schubert, (music), 86. 

Sessi, a singer, 80. 

Shake, see Trill. 

Shellac, for cementing, 56. 

Shippen, Joseph, 51. 

Shippen, Rev. Rush R., 51. 



lOO 



INDEX 



Silver flute, 8, 13, 29, 30, 31, 32, 

51, 61. 
"Singing" on the flute, 77, 81, 89, 

91 95. 
Slurs^ 77, 84, 85, 86. 
Solo playing, 81. 
Springs, action of, 47, 50; gold, 

51; gold vs. steel, 59; making, 

58; replacing, 59; unhooking, 

53. 
"Standchen," Schubert, (music), 

86. 
Stopper or cork, 8, 9, 18, 60. 
String lengths, tempered scale, 16. 
Swab, how used, 63. 
Syncopation, 84. 
System of Fingering, vii, 32. 

Tamburini, a singer, 80. 

Tempered scale, see Scale. 

Theory applied to flute, vil, 4, 6, 
7, 8, 15, 19. 

Timbre, see Quality. 

Tone, how produced, 9, 10, 29, 64. 

Tone Development, 72. 

Tone-holes, location of, 11, 13, 15, 
16, 17, 18, 19, 22; graphic loca- 
tion of, 20, 21; for various 
pitches, 20, 23 ; large vs. small, 
11, 12; size of, 12, 13, 14, 32; 
graduated sizes, 13, 13; for 
D and D-sharp trills, 14, 15; 
small for C-sharp, 14, 15 ; effect 
of sides of, 11, 18; vent holes, 
14. 



Tone-quality, see Quality. 

Tonguing, 80, 82, 83, 84, 85, 92. 

Transposing, of scale, 23; by bass 
flute, 70. 

Treatment of Flute in General, 61. 

Trills, 89, 90; fingerings for, 42, 
71 ; keys, see Keys. 

Teomlitz, early flutist, 4. 

"Trockene Blumen" (music), 86. 

Tube, weight of, 29; see Air-col- 
umn, Bore, Materials. 

Tuning slide, 27, 28, 61. 

"Ueber den Flotenbau,'' pamphlet 

of 1847, v, VI, 2, 4, 5. 
"Uebungstiicke," by Boehm, 94. 

Velluti, a singer, 80. 

Vent holes, 14; see Schleif-key. 

Violin, 64. 

Wax flute, 30. 

Weight of flute and tube, 29. 

Welch, "History of the Boehm 

Flute,'' IX. 
Wind instruments, 6, 17, 18, 22, 66. 
Wood flute, 12, 13, 30, 31, 51, 63, 

66 ; care of. 61, 63, 66. 
Wood head joint, 8, 31. 

WUNDERLICH, 72. 

"Zauberflote"' (music), 83. 
Zither, location of frets of, 22. 
"Zur Erinnerung an Theobald 
Boehm," 1. 



^1 



]