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MUSICAL THEORY. 3. 6rf. 

The main divisions of the work are five ; the Common Scale 
and Time, the Minor Mode and Transition, Musical Form, 
Expression, and Harmony. 

TIIE TEACHER'S MANUAL. 5*. 

The Art of Teaching in general, and especially as applied to 
Music. , 

HOW TO OBSERVE HARMONY. 2*. 

The whole series of chords employed in Modern Musin is 
described in progressive order, and by the use of biiigle chants 
car 1 1 in shown in its common connection. 

THE STAFF NOTATION. 6c/. 

A Practical Introduction, on the principles of the Tonic Sol-fa 
Method. 

HOW TO READ MUSIC. 1. 

Teaches Sight-singing by the Tonic Sol-fa system, then applies 
the knowledge gained to the Staff Notation, and teaches that 
thorough!/. 



THE 



STANDARD COURSE 

OF LESSONS AND EXERCISES 



8J0rrijc 

(FOUNDED ON Miss GLOVER'S "SCHEME FOR RENDERING PSALMODY CONGREGATIONAL," 1835)). 

WITH 

ADDITIONAL EXEECISES. 

BY 

JOHN CUEWEN. 



TENTH EDITION. 



Uontton : 

J. CUEWEN & SONS, 8 & 9 WARWICK LANE, E.G. 



PRICE THREE SHILLINGS AND SIXPENCE. 

Entered at Stationers' Hall. The right of translation reserved. 

1892. 



NOTICE 



Several friends have said to me " why do you not 
arrange your book in lessons ? It would be so 
convenient for us, every time we go to our class, 
to know exactly how much and how little we have 
to teach." I would gladly have done this ; but 
the different capacities, tastes, and circumstances 
of our pupils make it impossible. A School lesson 
and a lesson to an Evening class, a Reformatory 
lesson and a College lesson, differ exceedingly 
both in the manner of teaching and in the number 
of things which can be taught. I can only pro- 
vide a general method, some points of which are 
essential and some non-essential, leaving the teacher 
to adapt this method to the particular class he has 
to deal with. Such topics as Harmony, Pronuncia- 
tion, Musical Form, Voice Training, and the difficult 
parts of Time, Tune, and Expression may, however 
important, be reckoned as non-essentials, and will 
have to be omitted in many classes. 

Although I could not fix the exact amount of 
instruction and exercise which every class can 
receive lesson by lesson, I have divided the method 
into Steps. By a step I mean a certain stage of 
the pupil's progress at which he is expected to stop 
and examine himself, and bring the different divi- 
sions of his labours (tune, time and expression) 
abreast of one another. This is what is called, in 
the counting house, "taking stock," in the House 
of Commons, " Reporting progress." It is ascer- 
tained that ordinary students do learn a certain 
proportion of each branch of the subject con currently, 
and this proportion is given as nearly as possible in 
each step. One-sidcdness of study is most danger- 
ous and miserable to the student. A clever reader 
of tune who cannot keep time is constantly finding 
himself wrong, and annoying his neighbours, and 
a good timeist who is often singing out of tune feels 
himself to be unsatisfactory, and often stops the 
class to get his errors corrected. The steps, with 
their amplitude of questions at the end, enable all 
the members of a class to march together, to keep 
step. 

But the Lesson is a different thing from the Step. 

- A very dull class may require three or four lessons 

before they finish the first stage of progress and 



bring themselves up to the mark distinctly drawn 
by the examination at the close of the first step. 
Rarely have we found classes so quick and ready 
that they can accomplish the first step at a single 
lesson. The teacher studies the kind of class he is 
about to teach, and draws out the plan of his lessons 
accordingly. Until he knows his class more per- 
fectly he will seldom be able to do in a lesson 
exactly what he had planned to do, but be always 
goes to his class with a plan, having chosen the 
exercises to be done, and having anticipated in his 
own mind and pictured to his imagination, the 
blunders he will be required to correct, and the 
brief verbal explanations he will be expected to 
make. 

When a new topic is introduced, it occupies a 
larger portion of time than the other topics, and 
may at first do this even to the exclusion of others. 
But directly a subject has reached the "wearying 
point " in a class it must stop, even if it has occu- 
pied only a short time. At first the chief care will 
be given to the subject of tune, and not until the 
attention of the class gets near the wearying point, 
does the teacher introduce the first elements of time, 
as a variety. When the association of syllable 
and interval in d m s is fully established, and not 
till then, will much attention be given to the earlier 
time names. It is not wise to introduce a great 
number of neiv topics in one lesson. The Voice 
exercises should occupy a brief portion of each lesson 
at its opening. On all teachers, taking up our 
Method, I urge faithful attention from the begin- 
ning to three things the Pattern the Mental 
Effects, and the preparation for Certificates. The 
experienced teacher knows how to arrange the 
topics of his class, how to pass promptly from one 
to the other, how to keep up the interest, and how 
to secure an even progress in all the branches 
of study. For the inexperienced teacher, I have 
gathered together all the helps I could think of, 
in the " Teacher's Manual of the Tonic Sol-fa 
method."* 



Plaistow, 2nd July, 1872. 
* Price Five Shillings. 



JOHN CURWEN. 



a 2 



TUNE. 
Absolute pitch and pitching tiuies^ 3, 

Key relationship ^ 

Octaves .; .' go 

Mental effects -;;:}' 4 ' 15> 2 

Speed of movement and ditto > 

Names and signs - R 3 ' 7 

Pattern - ; . 

Solfaa-ingand l**-*8 " ' 
Modulator ...v, 8, 8, 11, 12, 24, 






Manual signs 
Ear exercises 
The scale 



^ 

] v - ^ 
*^' ^. 
"' 



. ~ 

Perception of Transition ......... 49, &o 

Distinguishing tones of 1st remove . 



INDEX OF TOPICS, 

Repeated and prolonged tones 99 

Melodic imitations and marked en- 

trance luo 

Subordination of parts and accom- 

paniment 

Imitative sounds 

Tones congenial to the sentiment or 

spirit of the tune 1, iv* 

Rapid passages - 

Effect of theExplosive and Pressure 

tones and the Legato & Staccato 

styles 

Unison, "Cadence, Distinguishing 

tones J" 

Dissonances ^-^""M 

of words. Effect of 



Mental effect of transition ..^'Jl 

The second remove "' " 

Chromatic effects 

Cadence transition 



Agility, strength, and downward 
extension 151, 1W 

HARMONY. 

A chord 

Relation of chords D & 8 20, 27 

The common intervals 21,36 

Positions and Constitutions of 

chords 2 ?-' 27 '* 8 

Dissonances and their resolution 21, 
36,69 

Chord 4S and doh against ray ... 21,27 
Chord "S, fah against soh, and the 

partial dissonance 36,46 

Relationship of F with D and 8, 

ambiguity ;" 4 , 5 ' *j 

Chords major, minor, or diminished 

Chord RAH and grave ray 

Chords T, L, M, and 7R 46, 47 

Mental effect* of Chords 47 

Cadences 48 ' 62> 

Apologies for dissonance . 



PRONUNCIATION. 

plying transition S I Collective reading Q l 5 'l ti I Sbffomatfc chords and their resolu- 

Extended transition Recitation on a monotone 35, 36, 4., tifm ....-.- "i" 5 

Memorizing adjacent keys ...... 60,T7 59,82 

Themodes ' <' ? The Consonants or articulation* ,, 

The modern minor ' 5 

The Grave ray .-v:::"" ! Importance of the Glide, in singing 

Modulation and transitional ditto.. 88 C {, ngonant 8 

The third remove ** Order of accents in speech and 

--*- -i- I Preparing recitations 35, 59, 63, Jd, 

The Vowels, their mechanism, aad 
dialectic varieties 136 to 1 

The Dipththongs 1*2 to 



TIME. 
Accent, pulse, measure 6, 7, 18, 



Chord relation in the Minor mode 

MUSICAL FORM. 
General principles and divisions of 

melody 

The Parsing of melody 70 

Relative motion of parts and imi- 

86 
LM 



Continued tones and half pulses ... 

Silent pulse. Pulse-and-a-haif tones 

Quarter-pulse tones 

'pulse tone P Two quarters and 
a half. Half and two quarters. 



Good klang and quality 



Svnconation ^i"."i i" 

Silent quarter-pulse. Thirds of a 

Sixths? Eighthsi "ktatihi"*,'of 

pulse : 

Time ear exercises .-... 

Rate of movement, sustaining and 
remembering it 83, 34, HO 



11" 



EXPRESSION 



Breathing for the sense 
The normal force of a piece.. 
Type marks for expression of 

General principles ....... ^"IvJ!? 

Tees of Force, with their 
binatiou and modes of de- 



.. 16 
80,98 



VOICE TRAINING. 

156 

2 

"{, 2, 3, 14, 26, 
46, 81, 95 
Control of breath... 2, 3, 14, 26, 45, 81 

Breathing Places ' 

Tuning of voices together 1 . ^ ^ 

/, 29. 106, 109 

Compass tflft 107 

The Registers 32,6b 1 iw 

Thin Register 

Thick Register 

Small Register lu 

Voice Modulator..... 

Examination of voices ... 81, 

Blending of Registers .- 

Optional tones &> }J 

Boys' voices o an 81 108 109 

Flattening \\ 

Choral contrivances * 



tations 

Parsmg fugal passages 

Hounds -" 

Chants 35, W, s* 

The Response, Chant, Hymn Tune 

144,146 



, 1 ^ 6to 148 
,,rioandCan- 

Uta .................................... 148 ' 148 



Chorus 

The Canon and Fugue ..._... 
Recitative, Opera, Oratorio i 



NOTAT ION . 
Of tune and octaves .............. 5, 29 

Of accent and measure ........... i 

Of vocal parts and musical sections 
Of repetition ...... ........ .. ..... ......... I 

Of sounding and silent pulses and 
theirparte ............... 6,7,18,34,64 





as 



The 



swell, appogiatura, turn 160. 161, ^ 
Training in class 160,151 



Of rate of movement 

Of chanting 

Of transition 

Of registers ~ 

Of the minor mode > ' 

Of expression ", 96, < 

Of consonantal sound* Ji 

Of vowel sounds 

Writing exercises " ""i 



FINQER-SIG-NS FOE TIME, 

AS SEEN FROM THE PUPIL'S (NOT THE TEACHEB'S) POINT OF VIEW. 




8AA. 



SAATAL 



Tiii 



MENTAL EFFECTS AND MANUAL SIGNS OF TONES IN KEY. 



NOTE. These diagrams show the hand as seen by pupils sitting on the left-hand side of the teacher. Ihe 
teacher makes his signs in front of his ribs, chest, face, and head, rising a little as the tones go tip, and falling 
at they go down. 



FIRST STEP. 



SECOND STEP. 



THIRD STEP. 




The GRAND or bright tone, the Major 
DOMINANT, making with Te and Kay the 
Dominant Chord, the Chord S, and with 
Fah also the Chord 7 S. 




TE. 

The PIERCING or sensitive tone, 
the Major LEADING TONE, making 
with Baya.nd.Fa h the weak Chord T. 



LAH. 

The SAD or weeping tone, 
the Major SUBMEDIANT, 
making with Doh and Me 
the Chord L. 



ME. 

The STEADY or calm tone, the 
Major MEDIANT, making with Soh and 
Te the rarely used Chord M. 





DOH. 

The STRONG or firm tone, 
the Major TONIC, making with 
Me and Soh the Tonic Chord, 
Jhe Chord D. 



RAY. 

The HOUSING or hopeful tone, v A TJ 
the Major SUPERTONIO, mak- rAH. 
ing with Fah and Lah the Chord The DESOLATE or awe-inspiring 
R, in which case it is naturally tone, the Major S UBDOJIINANT, 
eung a comma flatter, and may making with Lah and Doh, the Sub- 
be distinguished as Rah. dominant Chord, the Chord F. 



,% For fe let the teacher point his first finger horizontally to the left. For ta ditto to the right. 
"When seen by the class these positions will be reversed, and will correspond with the Modulator. For 
e let the teacher point his forefinger straight towards the class. 

NOTE. These proximate verbal descriptions of mental effect are only true of the tones of the scale when 
tung slowly when the ear it filled with the key, and when the effect is not modified by harmony. 



MENTAL EFFECTS AND MANUAL SIGNS OF TONES IN KEY. 
SECOND STEP. FIRST STEP. THIRD STEP. 




TE. 

The PIERCING or sensitive 
tone the Major LEADING 
TONE, making with Ray and 
Fah, the weak Chord T. 




RAY. 

The ROUSING or hopeful tone 
the Major SUPEETONIC, mak- 
ing with Fahand Lahihe Chord 
R in which case it is naturally 
sung a komma flatter, and may 
be distinguished as Rah. 



The 

GRAND or 
bright tone 
the Major 
DOMINANT, 
making with 
Te and Ray 




the Domin- 
ant Chord 
the Chord 
S, and with 
Fah also the 
Chord S. 



ME. 

The STEADY or calm tone the Major 
MEDIANT, making with Soh and Te the 
rarely used Chord M. 




DOH. 

The STRONG or firm tone the Major 
TONIC, making with Me and Soh, the 
Tonic Chord, the Chord D. 




LAH. 

The SAD or weeping tone 
the Major SUBMEDIANT, making 
with Doh and Me, the Chord L. 




FAH. 

The DESOLATE or awe-in- 
spiring tone the Major SUB- 
DOMINANT, making with Lah 
and Doh, the Subdominant 
Chord the Chord F. 






TA. SE. ' FE. 

NOTE. These diagrams show the hand as seen ly the pupil, standing in front of the teacher. 
The proximate verbal description of mental effect are only true of the tones of the scale when 
sung slowly ivhcn the ear is filled with the key, and when the effect is not modified ly harmony. 



TONIC SOL-FA TIME CHART. 


d 1 T f 


BY JOHN CTTEWEN. 


: : 


(Copyright.) 


t . 


m l 1 


Wholes. Halves. Quarters. Thirds. 






:1 


:1 ,1 .1 ,1 


:1 (1 ,1 






rei 


'TAA 


tafatefe- 


taataitee 




I 


r \ 

1 


: 


:1 .1 ,1 


. 1 ( (1 




86 


de' 


-AA 


TAAtefe 


TAAtee 








g 








S 


doh 1 


SAA 


TAAfe 


taatai-ee 




7*1 te | 










i 




:1 .1 


:1 ,1 .1 


: (1 (1 




f 
E 


le 


TAATAI 


taftiTAi 


saitaitee 




PH 
O 




:- .1 


: ,1 -1 ,1 


* <~ < 




8- m 


lah lay * 


-AATAI 


aafatefe 


it^see 




od 


se 


: .1 


:1 ,1-1 , 


:1 , 






H r - 


soh, J. 


SAATAl 


tafateae 


tiuisai-ee 




< 




:1 


:1 . ,1 


:1 .I 




H 


ba fc 


TAAS4/ 


TAA.rfe 


taasditee 




Q d 


fah 


Eighths. -11111111 Sixths. -11 11 t 1 
.11,11.11,11 3 accents. 1 1 <1 1 <1 1 




2 *, i me 


tanafanatenefene tafatefetifi 




^ 










re 


Ninths, .ifl ifl ]\] Sixths. 1 1 1 1 f 1 
.lll ( lll ( lli. 2accents. ** .111 

taralatereletirili ' taralaterele 




W 

as * ; : 1 


r rahfay - 


NOTB. " Ai" i? pronounced as in maid, fail, &c. "Aa" 


H 

se, 


** de 


is pronounced as in father, "a" as in mod, " e " as in ld, 
and "i" as in lid. These time-names are copied from 


s, . 


doh 


11. Paris' s " Langue des durees." The minute divisions 


: : 


are seldom used except in instrumental music. In the 


ba, 


, - 


Tonic Sol-fa notation we often write two measures in the 






place of one in the common notation, thus expressing the 


*| 


ta, 


accent more truly. 






The flats of the scale, ta, la, ma, ra, are pronounced taw, 


m. 


^1 $ 


law, &c. ; and the sharps, de, re, fe, le, are pronounced 






dee, ree, &c. Ba (the sharp sixth of the minor scale) is 






pronounced bay. 




se. 


St. Co. 


r \ 


S | 



v ; 



DOH=Gb Dl> At> 



THE EXTENDED MODULATOR. 

EP BP F C GDA 



TT pi)v r ~lTh Tiii^~ :: ~ 


:+- :L-E__ t-j__ *^ 




1 ^E- ^ ~[ f- 8^ - ^-fJy ( g tf f gaipjjf g=pg*y ygq 


Lah = Ev Bb F 


O Q D A E B .FJ CJ <?J Z)J 


ie ba 


t< 
n i 


D. 


r 1 

r* 


D. 


s d 1 f 

se 


8 d 1 f 


se 


b 




t 


ba t PI 1 J S 


ba t PI 
f 


1 r s 

86 ba 


C' 
B 


DOH 1 

TE 


Ci 



f 

86 ba 

m 1 r s d f 


1 T* 
PI 1 X 

r* 


s d f 


fr 


ta 
le 


$ 


86 ba t, m 


s. 


ba *, H 


A 


LAH 


A 


r s d f 

r* 


r s d 

r 


f 


b 


la 

se 


9 


ba t, PI 1, r 


ba t, Pl__l, r" 


G 


SOH 


G 


d f 


d f 


86, 


b 


ba fe * 


t, m 1, r s, d 


t, n 1. 


r s, d 


F 


FAH 


F 


se . ba, t, 


se, 


ba, *, 


E 


ME 


E 


i, ,' d f . 


1, r s, d f, 


b 


ma 
re 


t 


se i ba, t, PI, 1, 


" e i ba. 


t, -n, 1, 


D 


EAY 

r' 


D 


s, d f, 

se, 


S, d f, 


se. 


b 


ra 
de 





ba, t, PI, 1, J, S, 


ba, *, PI, 1, ', S, 

te . ba, 


C 


DOH 

t, 


C 


f, 

8e i ba, 

m, 1, J, s, d, f, 



THE STANDARD COURSE 



TONIC SOL-FA METHOD OF TEACHING TO SING. 



FIRST STEP. 

To produce a good tone. To train the muscles which rule the lungs. Given a key tone, to recognize and produce 
itsfijth and third. To recognize and produce its upper octave and the lower octave of its Jifth. To recognize 

and produce the simplest divisions of time. 



VOICE TRAINING 

A singing lesson is a calisthenic exercise, and 
should be preceded, where possible, by such gym- 
nastic movements of the arms and shoulders as will 
exercise and strengthen the muscles of the chest. 

Good Tone. From the earliest exercise, the pupil 
should try to produce a good tone, that is, a tone 
clear and pure (without any admixture of breathi- 
ness), and of a pleasant quality. For this purpose 
constant, if possible, daily attention must be directed 
to three thiiigs: 1st, the "shock of the glottis;" 
2nd, the throwing forward of the voice ; and 3rd, 
the control of the breath. Purity of tone depends 
on the first and third of these, quality on the second 
and third. The lump in our throat called the 
larynx or " Adam's apple," is the instrument of 
voice. The glottis is the slit between those lips of 
the larynx (or vocal cords), which form its lower 
opening. When Garcia und other voice-trainers 
speak of the " shock of the glottis ;" and when Dr. 
Rush, Mr. Melville Bell, and other elocutionists 
speak of the clear "explosion" of vowel sounds, 
they refer to the firm closing, followed by the 
distinct opening of these lips of the larynx. The 
action of the lips of the mouth, in pronouncing 
strongly the letter p, in papa, will illustrate this ; 
and the " shock of the glottis " may be felt in a 

St. Co. (New.) 



slight cough, or in pronouncing clearly the letter 
g, as in game; or k, as in keep. This "shock" 
does not require force, but only definiteness of action. 
It must also be delivered with as little breath as 
possible. The word skaalaa, (aa as in father) which 
many voice-trainers use for their exercises, has this 
advantage, that its first syllable necessitates that 
clearly marked "explosion" of the vowel of which 
we speak ; but in using it, the s must be scarcely 
heard, and the k must be delivered sharply. 

Quality of voice (timbre, that which makes the 
difference between a hard wiry voice, a soft clear 
voice, a full rich voice, &c.) depends chiefly on the 
habit of throwing the air-stream forward in the 
mouth. Professor Helmholtz' experiments, as well 
as the practice of Garcia and others, support this 
view. The stream of vocalized air should strike 
against the palate as near as possible to the root of 
the upper teeth. Some vowels naturally favour 
this habit more than others. In English, ee, ai 
(as in fail, maid, &c.), oa (as in oar, coat, &c.), and 
oo, are all " forward " vowels, as any one may know 
by a few experiments with his own voice. The 
frequent use of these vowels, in vocalizing, in 
connection with a proper management of the 
breath, enables the voice-trainer " to form," says 
Madame Seiler, "out of a sharp, hard, and dis- 






FIRST STEP. 



agreeable voice, a voice sweet and pleasing." The 
open vowel art ^as in father) is commonly formed, 
by the English, the French, and the Germans, far 
back in the mouth ; hut " the Italians," says 
Madame Seller, " form no vowel so far front as 
their clear-sounding beautiful act." When we copy 
the old Italian voice-trainers in employing this 
vowel so useful in vocalizing, because it opens the 
mouth properly let us take care to throw it for- 
ward, and so give it the soft round Italian quality. 
It is unfortunate that our ee, ai, oa, and oo, do not, 
like the Italian aa, promote the proper opening of 
the mouth. 

The proper management of breath promotes 
a correct Mrikinir >!' the tnrs, as well as their 
purity and quality. Insufficient breath causes 
flatness of pitch, at the same time with thin and 
poor quality. The slightest unnecessary force of 
breath makes itself heard along with the vocal 
klanir, and causes mixture and impurity of tone. 
"Every tone," says Madame Seller, "requires, for 
its greatest possible perfection, only a certain 
qii..ntitv of breath, which cannot be diminished or 
iner, i-' <1 without injury." AN the liiva:h In-; to 
! received into the lunirs l>y tin- HUM ch.mu.-l 
through which it leaves them, it is obvious that the 
regular action of breathing must be interrupted 
when we speak or sing. Hence the necessity of 
care and management. Elocutionists as well as 
voice-trainers recommend that the lungs should be 
kept fairly full. Mrs. Elaine Hunt says : "Accustom 
yourself to take breath wherever you can, although 
you may not feel the necessity for it at the time. 
This is important to beginners, as it teaches them 
soon to take it without exertion, and less perceptibly 
to the hearer." Of course the sensible singer can- 
not take breath in any place in which his doing so 
would spoil the sense and continuity of the words, 
or of the musical phrases. There is no need of 
noisy effort to draw in the breath ; the nose and 
mouth being open, it is only necessary to expand 
tlii- rili- and the lungs are filled. In the beginning 
of his studies the singer should take breath at the 
end. and at some convenient place in the middle of 
each line of poetry. Gradually the muscles which 
hold the ribs distended sideways, as well as those 
underneath the lungs, by which alone the breath 
should be expelled, or rather expended, will gain 
strength. A long sustained tone should not be 
expected at first ; and the swell upon such tones, 
properly delivered, is, as Garcia, Rossini, and 
others shew, among the last attainments of vocal 

St. Co. (New.) 



power. Exercise steadily pursued, and nothing 
else can give to the muscles the requisite power of 
control. Voice, exercises should, for a long time, 
bo_sung, as the old Italian masters required, only 
effort to sing softly (or piano], with a 
full but not overcrowded chest, compels attention 
to the control of the muscles ; it also the better 
enables the pupil to perceive for ////*,//" what is 
meant hy purity and beautiful quality of tone. 
Until this perception is formed nothing is done. 
The pupil in a popular evening class, must, in this 
matter, rely chiefly on himself and his daily practice. 
It is but little study of individual voices which a 
class-teacher can give. Much, however, is done in 
classes by imitation and sympathy. Wo \\n\e, 
noticed thai every teacher who hi ins. 11 understand.-* 
what " a good tone" is, will have it in his class ; 
and when once the right habit is established there, 
new comers naturally and easily fall into it. 

Position. The singer should (a) stand with heels 
together or in the soldiers posture of " stand at 
ease.;" (b) with h ad erect, but not thrown hade ; 
(c) with shoulders held back, but not up; (rf) with 
lungs kept naturally filled not with raised chest, 
except on extraordinary occasions but with the 
ribs, never allowed to collapse, pressing against the 
clothes at each side, and the lower muscles of the 
abdomen drawn in ; (e j with the mouth freely open, 
but not in the fish-mouth shape 0, the lips being 
pressed upon the teeth, and drawn somewhat away 
from the opening, so as not to deaden the sound, 
the lower jaw falling, the palate so raised as to 
catch on its front-part the stream of air from the 
lungs. and the tongue flat, its tip just touching 
the lower teeth. These rules have to be carefully 
studied by the singer, and, at first, they will make 
him stiff and self- conscious ; but soon, and with 
care, the proper position will grow into a habit. 
Everything will be most easy, and the motto of the 
old masters will be realized " Pleasant face makes 
pleasant tone." The teacher " calls his pupils into 
position " by giving out as words of command 
"a," " 4," " c," "d," " e." At each order, the pupils 
take the position indicated by those letters as 
above, and the teacher watches to make sure that 
they do so properly. He makes a sign a motion 
with the fingers of his left hand to those who do 
not open the mouth sideways as much as he wishes, 
and another sign to those who do not keep their 
teeth about two finger-breadths apart. He shakes 
his head at those who do not make a "pleasant 
face," and so on. Garcia says : " Open mouths of 



^'IEOT STEP. 



an oval shape, like those of fishes, produce tones of 
a sorrowful and grumbling character ; those of 
which the lips project, in the form of a funnel, give 
a hard harking voice; very wide mouths, which 
exhibit the teeth too much, render the tone rough ; 
those which have the teeth too close, form shrivelled 
tones." These points must be attended to at the 
commencement and in the course of every early 
lesson. There is no other way in which the pupil 
can be saved from slovenly habits and coarse fiat 
singing. 

Ex. 1. To train the muscles at the sides of the 
'lungs and under them. To be repeated at the open- 
ing of each lesson of the first step. 

The pupils standing, if possible, in single file, 
round the room (so that the teacher may approach 
each one and quietly signify any defect of position 
while the exercise is going on), the teacher raises 
his hand while the pupils take in breath slowly, 
and without noise. The pupils hold*their breath 
while the hand remains high, and let out the breath 
again through the mouth, and gradually as the 
teacher lowers his hand. The teacher counts " one," 
"two," "three," &c (at the rate of M. 60, or as 
slowly as a common eight-day clock ticks) , while he 
lowers his hand. The pupils say, by holding up 
hands, who held out as far as "three," "four," 
" six,' ' &c. The teacher is well satisfied with " four ' ' 
at first, and does not require even that from weak 
lungs. 

Ex. 2. To train the larynx for the production of 
pure vocal klang. To be repeated at the opening of 
each lesson in the first step. 

The teacher sings on the syllable ai (as in gain, 
pail, &c.) a middle tone of the voice, say G- or A. 
The pupils imitate that tone, commencing immedi- 
ately the teacher opens his hand, and cutting it off 1 
sharply the instant the teacher closes his hand. 
This done, he gives the vowel ai again, but immedi- 
ately changes it into the more open and pleasant 
aa ; changing, however, as little as possible the 
ai position of the tongue, so as to secure the " for- 
ward " Italian aa. The pupils imitate, attention 
being given exclusively to the position and to 
purity of the voice. This is done with various tones 
say with D, with F, and with A. 






FIRST EXERCISES IN TUNE. 

Pitch. By " pitch," we mean the highness or 
lowness of sounds ; the difference between the 
sounds produced towards the right hand on the 

St. Co. (New ) By means of the ribs, not the throat. 



piano and those towards the left, or between a 
squeak and a growl. We are not anxious, at present, 
to teach the absolute pitch of sounds. Our first and 
chief work is to teach the relation of sounds in a 
tune to what is called the key-sound of that tune. 

Key Tone. Everything in a tune depends on 
a certain "given" sound called its governing, 
or key -tone, from which all the other tones 
measure their places. At present the teacher will 
pitch the key-tone for the pupil. The modulator 
represents this key- tone with its six related tones, 
in the way in which they are commonly used. The 
pupil will learn to sing .them by first learning to 
perceive their effects on the mind, and not by 
noticing their relative distances from each other. . 

Pattern. The teacher never sings with his 
pupils, but sings them a brief and soft " pattern." 
The first art of the pupil is to listen well to the 
pattern, and then to imitate it exactly. He that 
listens best, sings best. "When it is the pupil's 
turn to sing let him strike the tones firmly, and 
hold them as long as the teacher pleases. As soon 
as the modulator is used, the teacher points on it 
while he sets the pattern, and also while the pupil 
imitates. 

Ex. 3. The Teacher asks his pupils for a rather 
low sound of their voice. He gets them to sing it 
clearly, and well drawn out, to the open syllable 
aa. He takes it for the key tone of a tune. He sings 
it, and immediately adds to it what is known as 
the fifth above. The pupils try to imitate the 
" pattern," singing (still to aa) the key tone and 
its nearest related tone. When, by patient pattern. 
and imitation, this is done, 

Ex. 4. The Teacher gives a different low sound 
of the voice for the key tone, and asks the pupils to 
give him that other related tone again. This he 
does several times, always changing the key tone. 

Names and Signs. Immediately that a thing is 
understood it is important to have a name for it, 
and sometimes a sign also. Any name or sign 
which is agreed upon between Teacher and pupil, 
will answer the purpose. But it is convenient to 
use the same names which others use. On our 
modulator and in our notation we call the key tone 
just given Doh, and the other nearly related sound 
Soh. For voice Exercises, in which the Teacher 
has to look at pupils while he gives them signals to 
guide their singing, it will be useful to employ the 
closed hand as a sign for Doh, and the open hand, 
pointing outwards, with the thumb upwards, for Sok. 



FIRST STEP. 



Ex. 5. The Teacher gives Doh and Soh (to the 
open aa") and, immediately after, another sound, 
different from Soh, which he knows as the third 
of the scale. The pupils imitate his pattern. The 
Tonic Solfa name for this sound is Me, and the sign 
is the open hand with the palm downwards, 

Ex. 6 . TheTeacher, by the above named manual 
signs, causes the pupils to sing (while he watches 
their position and the opening of their mouths,) 
to the open sound aa such phrases as the following, 
Doh, Soh, Me, Soh, Doh. Doh, Me, Soh. Soh, Me, 
Doh, Me, &c., &c. The Teacher changes his key 
tone with nearly every new Exercise, lest the pupils 
should be tempted to try and sing by absolute pitch, 
instead of directing their attention to the relation 
of sounds. 

Mental Effect. The effect felt by the mind as it 
listens to these three tones, arises first from their 
difference in pitch, one being higher or lower than 
the other, and secondly and chiefly from their 
agreeing well with each other, so that it is pleasant 
to hear them one immediately after the other, and 
pleasant to hear them sounded together. The 
science of sound shows how closely and beautifully 
these three tones are related to each other, in the 



number of their vibrations. Their agreement may 
be shewn by sounding together 1st Doh and Soh, 
2nd Doh and Me, 3rd Me and Soh, and 4th Doh Me 
Soh. When three tones are thus related, and 
sounded together, they are called a Chord. The 
pupils will be led to notice the different effect on 
their minds of the three tones of this Chord. As 
they form the Chord of the key tone, they are the 
bold, strong, pillar tones of the scale, on which the 
others lean, but they differ in the manner of their 
boldness, one being brighter, another stronger and 
more restful, another more peaceful, &c. The 
Teacher, having brought his pupils to a clear con- 
ception of these tones, apart from syllabic asso- 
ciation, now attaches to each of them its singing 
syllable, teaching by pattern, and pointing on 
the modulator the six following exercises. For the 
sake of solitary students, who cannot be thus 
taught, these exercises are printed, in the form of 
diagrams, with skeleton modulators at the side. 
The first letters of the syllables on the modulator 
are used to indicate the notes, and so point to the 
modulator in the mind's eye. A narrower type 
and somewhat altered form is given to the letter m 
(n), for convenience in printing. 



Ex. 7. KEYS D & F. 



Ex. 8. KEYS D & F. Ex. 9. KEYS D & F. 



SOH 



HE 



DOH d 





88 




Ex. 10. KEYS D & F. Ex. 11. KEYS D & F. 

s s 




DOH 

St. Co. (New.) 




Ex. 12. KEYS D & F. 
S 8 



n n n 



v 

\ 



FIRST STEP 



Octaves or Replicates. It is in the nature of 
music, that tones, which vibrate twice as fast or 
twice as slow as some other tone, should sound so 
like that other tone, and blend so perfectly with it, 
that they are treated as the same tone and receive 
the same name. They are the same in Relative 
position and mental effect, the difference of pitch 
being the only difference between them. Thus 
every sound has its " replicate " or repetition above 
and below. The two sounds are called octaves one 
to another, because if you count the tones of a scale 
from any sound to its replicate (including the tones 
at both ends) you count eight or an octave of sounds. 
"We put a figure one upward thus ('), as a mark 
for the upper octave, and downward thus (|), as a 
mark for the lower octave. If vre wish to indicate 
higher or lower octaves still, we use the figure 
( 2 ). The sign for a higher octave would be given by 



raising the hand which gives the sign, and for a 
lower octave by lowering it. 

Ex. 13. The Teacher gives a low sound of the 
voice for Doh, and patterns to the open syllable aa, 
d, n, S, d 1 . The pupils imitate. Again, by manual 
signs, the Teacher requires the pupils to sing which 
ever of these notes he pleases, while he watches the 
position and the opening of the mouth, in each 
exercise varying the key. 

Ex. 14. The Teacher gives a middle sound of 
the voice for Doh, and then patterns to the open aa, 
d, PI, S, Si, d. The pupils imitate. Again, watch- 
ing his pupils, he requires them, by manual signs, 
to make any of these tones he pleases, in each exer- 
cise varying the key. 

The Teacher sets for each of the following Exer- 
cises a Solfa pattern on the modulator. 



d' 



SOU 
ME 

DOH 



Ex. 15. KEY C. 

d'-d 1 




s s 



\ 



n 

/ 



Ex. 16. KEY C. 

d 1 d' d' 



Ex. 17. KEY G. 





FiHsf EXERCISES IN NOTATION. 
In the following Exercises, "Key G," " Key C," 
" Key A," tell the Teacher where to pitch his Doh. 
The letters point on the modulator in the mind's eye. 
The Teacher pitches the key tone. The pupils 
" sound the chord," singing (when they have a 
middle soxmd of the voice for Doh,) Doh, Soh ( , Me, 
Doh, and when they have a low sound, Doh, Me, 






St. Co. (New). 



Boh. As there is no indication of time, the tones 
may be made as long or as short as the Teacher 
likes. A gentle tap on the desk will tell the pupils 
when to begin each tone. During this Exercise it 
may be well to let the large modulator hang before 
the pupils, that they may glance at it when their 
mental modulator fails them. 



Ex. 1C. KEY G. 

s f d PI s 

Ex. 19. KEY C. 



s 



s m s n 



PIEST STEP. 

Ex. 21. KEY C. 

nsmd s m s d d 

Ex. 22. KEY A. 

S 



Ex. 1824. 



Ex. 20. KEY A. 



S 



n 



s d 
d 



FIRST EXERCISES IN TIME. 



Time and Rhythm. The word time is commonly 
sed in three different senses. Sometimes it means 
the deyree of speed at which the music is sung, as 
when we speak of quick time, slow time, etc. This 
we call " The Rate of Movement." Sometimes it 
means the arrangement of accents in a tune, as 
when we say " common time," " triple time," etc. 
This we call " The Measure." Sometimes it means 
the varied lengths of a set of notes standing to- 
gether, as when we speak of " keeping the time " 
in a certain phrase. These time -arrangements of 
brief musical phrases we call " Rhythms." The 
word Rhythm is also used in a general sense to ex- 
press the larger relations of time and accent, such 
as the number and kind of measures in a tune, and 
the proportion which is given to each " section " of 
the tune. 

Accent or Stress. The Teacher, by singing on 
one tone such an exercise as the following, 

KEY G. 



d :d 

wake, H- 



tld :d d :d : 
1 1 aw - ful dawn- 1 : /\\ 

leads his pupils to distinguish the difference be- 
tween a weak and a strong accent both in words 
and music. The Teacher will be careful not to let 
his pupils exaggerate the strong accent, so as to 
make a jerked tone instead of simply an accented 
tone. Accent is produced by the combined use of 
distinct ness (or abruptness) and/orre in their vari- 
ous degrees, and it differs in quality as one or the 
other element predominates. An upright bur ( | ) 
_>h \s> ill il tin' nut.' whii-h 1'iill.jws it is to ] Mini,' 
wit, she stronger accent. Two 'lots, thus, ;:)shew 
that the note which follows them is to be sung with 
t.hr wrak accent. 

Pulsea. It will be noticed that in music the 
voice is naturally delivered in successive beats or 
impulses, some having the strong and some the 

St. Co. fNew.i 



n s 



n d n 

Ex. 23. KEY C. 



s 



m 



m 



s 



weak accent. These we call Pulses. The Teacher 
illustrates this. The pulses move faster in some 
cases and slower in others, but the pulses of the 
same tune are equal in length one to the other. 
The Teacher illustrates this. The beginning of a 
pulse of time is indicated by an accent mark as 
above, and its end is shown by the next accent mark. 
In Tonic Solfa printing we place the accent marks 
in each line of the music, at equal distances, so as 
to measure time pictorially. 

Measure. In music the accents recur in regu- 
lar order, that is, if they begin thus, STRONG. 
weak, they go on in the same way, if they begin 
STRONG, weak, weak, they continue to recur in that 
order and so on. The Teacher illustrates this by 
singing tunes to his pupils, and requiring them to 
tell him which order of accents he uses. The time 
which extends from one strong accent to the next is 
called a measure. It is the primary form of a 
measure. If the tune begins on a weak accent the 
measure is reckoned from that, and extends till the 
same accent recurs again, This is the secondary 
form of a measure. 

Two-pulse measure. When the accents of a tune 
recur in the following regular order, STRONG, weak, 
STRONG, weak, and so on, or weak, STRONG, weak, 
STRONG, and so on, that tune is said to be in two 
pulse measure. The primary form of two pulse 

measure would be represented thus j I ' I 
and the secondary form thus | : ( 

Time Names. We call a single pulse (whatever 
be the rate of movement) TAA. 

Ex. 24. The Teacher causes his pupils to sing 
a number of primary two-pulse measures on one 
tone to the time-names, while he beats the time 
steadily. He does this till all have "got into the 



FIKST STEP. 



swing" of the rhythm (TAA, TAA, TAA, TAA, &c.) 
so that all the voices strike the beginning of each 
pulse perfectly together. Alternate measures are 
thejDLBungJby teacher and pupils, maintaining the 
same rate. They do this again with an entirely 
difie.rent rate of movement, only taking eare to 
keep up the rate of movement when once begun. 
In this exercise let the pupils be careful to sing 
each pulse fully to the end. The second vowel AI 
is often added to make him do so.* 

Ex. 25. The teacher in the same manner makes 
his pupils practise secondary two-pulse measures 

TAA, TAA, TAA, TAA, &0. 

Ex. 26. Sing Exs. 20, 22, and 23, beginning 
with the strong accent, and again beginning with 
the weak. 

Ex. 27. Sing Exs. 18, 19. and 21, beginning 
with the weak accent, and again beginning with 
the strong. 

Three-pulse Measure. When the accents of a 
tune recur at regular intervals thus, STRONG, weak, 
weak, STRONG, weak, weak, and so on (that is" 
like the accents in the words "heavewfy," "hapjoz- 
ness" and so on) or weak, STRONG, weak, weak, 
STRING, weak, and so on, (that is like the accents 
in the words " avaxing" " aTavndcDit," and so 
on) the tune is said to be in three pulse measure. 
The primary form of three pulse measure is this 
| : : || and the secondary this : | : || 
In the three pulse measure, when sung slowly, the 
second accent is not weak, but often nearly as strong 
as the first. For convenience, however, we always 
write this measure as above. 

Ex. 28. The Teacher will make his pupils 
sing TAA, TAA, TAA (primary three-pulse measure) 
on a single tone, while he beats time, first at one 
rate of movement and then at another rate, always 
sustaining, in each exercise, the rate at which he 
commences it. 

Ex. 29. The'teacher will do the same with TAA, 
TAA, TAA (secondary three-pulse measure). 

Ex. 30. Sing exercises 20 and 22 in the pir- 
mary three-pulse measure, making two measures, 
and the first pulse of the next, to each exercise. 

Ex. 31. Sing exercises 18 and 19 in secondary 
three-pulse measure, making for .each exercise, two 
measures and two pulses of a third measure. 

Continued Tones. When a tone is continued 
from one pulse into the next, we mark the continu- 
ation by a horizontal line, thus ( ) . The time-name 
for continuations is always obtained by dropping the 
consonant, thus, TAA, -AA, Sec. Pupils are apt to 






St. Co. (New). 



fail in giving their full length to prolonged tones. 

Half-pulses. When a pulse (TAA) is equally 
divided into two parts, we give it the name TAATAI. 
The sign for an equally divided pulse is a dot in the 
middle, thus ( [ , ; ), and thus (\ d .m : ) 

Beating Time. Pupils should never be allowed 
to "beat" time till they have gained a sense of 
time. 

Speaking in Time. The value of the Time- 
names depends on their being habitually used in 
time each syllable having its true proportion. 

Taatai-ing. "Wepropose to use this as a shortword 
for the phrase "singing on one tone to the time names, " 
just as we use " Solfaa-ing " to save the circumlo- 
cution " singing with the use of the Solfa syllables." 
In the early steps of any art it is better to learn 
each element separately. As the pupil has first 
learnt tune separately from time on the Modulator, 
so now, with the help of the Time Chart, he studies 
(True separately from tune. The rule of good teaeh- 
ing that, at the first' introduction of any distinct 
topic, that topic should occupy much more than its 
ordinary proportion of each lesson, will strongly 
apply in this case; for we have to establish in the 
memory an association of syllable and rhythm, just as, 
in teaching tune, we have already begun to establish a 
mnemonic "association of syllable and interval through 
mental effect. 1st. The teacher patterns and points on 
the Time Chart (just as he patterns and points on 
the Modulator) and the pupils imitate (taatai-ing on 
one tone) the first half of one of the time exercises. 
The Teacher's pointer will sufficiently well beat 
time as it strikes on the Chart. 2nd. Teacher and 
pupils Taatai the time-phrase alternately, the teacher 
singing softly, with clear accent and very exact and 
well filled time, but only pointing or tapping on the 
Time Chart when the pupils take their turn. This is 
done till the pupils " get into theswing," striking the 
accent well together and giving each tone its full 
length. 3rd. The second half of the exercise is taught 
in the same way by patternand alternating repetition. 
4th. The two parts are put together and patterned 
and alternated as above, but at a quicker rate, with- 
out pointing, the teacher beating time only when 
it is the pupils turn to sing. 5th. The pupils Taa- 
tai from the book as directed in Ex. 32. The other 
processes of Time-laaing, of Tuning the time- 
forms and of Taatai-ing in tune, are introduced a 
little later, when the time-names are familiar. 
Each process is only continued till the exercise is 
* Latpr on (p. 18) the AI may be omitted. 



WEST STEP. 



perfect. These many processes, each increasing in 
difficulty, give variety to the work of the learner 



and keep his attention fixed on an otherwise unin- 
teresting hut most important suhject. 



Ex. 32. First aftwZy repeated so at least three times and then quickly, and repeated so six times. 



il 

( J 



TAA TAA I TAA 

Ex. 33. Slowly and quickly. 

1 :1 II 

TAA TAA | TAA 

Ex. 34. Slowly and quickly. 

1 : 

TAA -AA 

Ex. 35. Slowly and quickly. 

1 :1 :1 



-AA 



1 : 



TAA 



TAA 



TAA 



TAA 



Ex. 36. Slowly and quickly. 

1 :1 

TAA TAA TAA TAA 



i TAA 



1 

TAA 



Time Laa-ing. The Teacher when 'all the above 
exercises have been properly learnt, with time names, 
will cause them to be sung again in the same way, 
but to the open syllable Laa. The time syllables 
are, like the Solfa syllables, valuable as mnemonics, 
and must be much used, especially in the early 
steps. But they must not be too exclusively used, 
lest our pupils should be able to sing correct time 
to nothing else. 

Ex. 37. Laa Exs. 32 to 36. 

TUXE. 

Tune Laa-ing. As soon as the memory-helping 
Solfa syllables have been rendered familiar, every 
tune should be Laad from the book. Some teachers 
mako a habit of Laa-ing from the modulator, directly 
after the Solfa pattern has been learnt. One study 
should be always before the teacher's mind while 
his pupils are Laa-ing, that of the blending and 
tuning of the voices. As all arc using the same 
syllable Laa (not law or loa} it is more easy to 
notice whether in unison (that is when all sing the 
same tones) the tones blend as into one voice, and 
whether, in harmony (that is when several melodies 
are sung together) the tones tune well with each 
other. 

Two-part Singing. It is at first very difficult for 
St. Co. (New.) 



TAA TAA 



1 

TAA 



TAA TAA 



1 :1 

TAA TAA 

:- II 

TAA 



1 
TAA 



=1 

TAA 



pupils to sing independently one of another. The 
simplest form of two-part singing is that in which 
one set of voices repeatedly strikes the same tono 
i^" tolls the bell"), while the other set sings the tune, 
as In exercises 38 to 41. These exercises should 
first be taught by pattern from the modulator, and 
then sung from the books, the Teacher beating the 
pulses by gentle taps on the desk. If the long 
tones are not held the proper length, they must bo 
sung to the time names. 

( Brackets are used both at the beginning and 
( ending of lines to shew what parts of the music 
may be sung together. 

Double Bars (||) are used to shew the end of a 
tune, or the end of what is called a musical " section," 
g< 'ii< Tally corresponding to a lino of poetry. Where 
the double bar occurs, the regular accent mark, 
whether strong or weak, is omitted. But it must 
nevertheless be understood and observed. 

Exchanging Parts. The exercises of this and 
the second step do not go too high for low voices, 
or too low for high voices. All kinds of voices can 
sing both the upper and the lower parts. At these 
two steps, therefore, as soon as an exercise is sun<r, 
and without a moments pause, it should be sung 
over again, those who have sung the higher part 



FIEST STEP. 



taking the lower, and those who have sung the 
lower taking the higher. It is obvious that these 
early exercises are best fitted for those classes in 
which the voices arc all of the same sort, that is, 
all men's voices, or else all women's and children's 
voices. If, however, the class is a mixed one, the 
exercises can well be used, although they will not 
be so pleasant. It is better in this case to let the 
voices be mixed for both of the parts; for variety, how- 
ever, ihe teacher may occasionally give the higher 
part to the ladies, and the lower to the gentlemen. 
Breathing Places. It will be soon felt that 



music naturally divides itself into short portions or 
phrases. Just before the opening of a phrase is, 
musically considered, always the best breathing 
place. The pupil will soon learn to select breath- 
ing places for himself ; but at the present step we 
have marked the most convenient breathing places 
by means of a dagger thus f. The endings of lines, 
however, are not marked, as breath should ahrayx be 
taken there. The pupil who sings on till his ribs 
collapse and his lungs are empty, </i//l then takes 
breath, produces a flat tone, and feels uncomfortable. 



Ex. 38. KEY D. f 



d :- 


n : 


s : 


d 1 


d :d 


d :d 


d :d 


d 


Ex. 39. 

d : d 


KEY D. f 

n : n 


s : s 


d 1 


d :- 


d : 


d :- 


d 


Ex. 40. 

r : - 

d :d 


KEY F. f 

s : 
d :d 


n : 
d :d 


d 
d 


Ex. 41. 

d :n 


KEY D. f 

s : n 


s : n 


d 


d :d 


d :d 


d :d 


d 


Ex. 42. 

d : n 


KEY D. Q 

n : s 


tiekly. 

s :d' 


d 


d : 


: 


n : 





Ex. 43. 

d :- 


KEY B. f 

Si : 


n : 


d 


HI : Pii 


n, : n, 


si : s. 


HI 


Ex. 44. 

d : n 


KEY F. Q 

s : n 


tticldy. 

d : PI s 


d :- 


s, : 


d : n 


s : n 


d : n 


s : n d 


n : 


d : 


ri : d 



t 



s 
cl 

d 1 
d 

d 1 
n 

n 
d 



St. Co. (New.). 



d : 

d :d 

s : n 

d :d 

n : d 

d : 

t 

s, : 

di HI t S| 

: n s 

: n 

: n d 

- :- d 



d :- 

d :- 

d : 

d : 



son 



ME 



EOH 



s : 



10 



II 1 - 



Ex. 45. Slowly, and quickly. 



.1 1 



TAATAI 



TAA 
KEY C. 

|d : n .s I d' : s .n ! s .n : s .n | d 

XEYC. 

Id 1 : s.n |d : n.s i d'.s : d'.s |n 



II 



Ex. 46. Slowly, and quickly. 



1 .1 

TAATAI 



FIRST STEP. 



1 .1 

TAATAI 



TAA TAA 

|d :n |s.n:d ! s.n : s.n s.n : d 
| n : d id.n : s |d.n: s.nld.n : s 



I .1 :1 .1 II : 

TAATAI TAATAI I TAA -AA 

KEY G. 

|d :si.d|n : d.d |n.d : n.d| s : 

KEY G. 

|d : S|.S||d : S|.n|d.d : s,.n|d : 



1 .1 

TAATAI 



1 .1 

TAATAI 



1 .1 

TAATAI 



|d' :s |n.s:d' | d'.s: n.s I n.s :d 
Id : s, |d.n:d | d.s,: d.s,| d.n : d 



Taatai-ing in Tone. Laa-ing on one tone helps 
to form that abstract idea of a rhythm which is 
desired. But such an idea is never truly established 
until the ear can recognize a rhythm as the same, 
through all the various disguises which different 
tune-forms put upon it. To learn the abstract, 
you must recognize it in many concretes, tho 
abstract idea "round" in tho concretes wheel, 
plate, full moon, penny, &c., &c. ; of "crimson" in 
a shawl, a feather, a flower, a punctured tinger, 
&c., &c. If we saw nothing round but a wheel, 
we could not form an abstract idea of " roundness." 
As a help to this distinct conception of rhythm, it 
is useful to taatai each time exercise on various 
tune forms. Tho Teacher 1st, tunes the time-form, 
solfaa-ing and teaching, by pattern, one of the 
phrases printed under the time exercises, 2nd, 



patterns tho same from the Modulator, as before, 
but taatai-iny, as ho points, instead of solfaa-iug. 
Tho pupils imitate. The time-names shew them the 
sameness of tho rhythm, while the modulator points 
them to tho difference in tune, 3rd, causes his 
pupils to sing tho same from the book. 

Ex. 47. Taatai in tune, all the tune-forms 
printed below Ex. 45 and 46, and any others, the 
Teacher may invent. 

The following exercises (introducing three-pulse 
measure without divided pulses, and taatai in two- 
pulse measure), should now be solfaad by pattern, 
from the modulator, taataid from the book, 
solfaad from tho book, and load from the book. 
Let each " part " be taught separately before the 
two parts are sung together. 



Ex. 48. KEY D. Quickly, and slowly. 



:d :d 
:- :d 



n : : 



d :- :- 



- :d 



: s 



: s 



: :n 

St. Co. (New.) 



: cl : d 1 



: s 

: n 









FIRST STEP 










1 


Ex. 49. KEY 

d : PI : s 


D. Quickly, and slowly. 

d 1 : : d 1 : s 


: PI d 




; 


: _ 




d 1 


d : : d 


n s 





: PI : - 


- :d d 




: 


: - 






i PI : s :d 


1 s : 





:- 8 :n 


:s d 




: 


:- 


- || son 


( n : :n 


PI : 





: PI : - 


: PI d 




: 


:- 


- 1 


Ex. 50. KEY 

: s, d : - 


G. Slowly,- 

- :d 


-and quickly, f- 

PI : d : n s 


: : s 




n 


. _ 




ME 


: si PI, : - 


- : BI 


d 


: : d n 


: : PI 




d 


; 






j : d s, : d 


: n 


S| 


: d : PI s 


:- is, 




d 


: _ 




DOH 


t : n, n, : - 


- : s, 


rii 


: si : d n, 


: : si 




Pii 


: ~ 







Ex. 51. KEY C 

id : n s 


'. Slowly, and qui 

: s t d .n : s .d' 


ckly. f 

s : PI : 


t 

s d' : d 1 


d 


.8 


d'.s 


S( 

n : 


d :d n 


: n d .d 


: n .s 


PI : d : 


PI PI ; PI 


PI .PI 


n .PI 


d : 


Ex. 52. KEY ( 

; : s, d : n .d 

> 


3-. Slowly, 

s, t:d 


and quickly. f 

PI : d s : PI 


t 
d : Si.d n 


:d 


s 


S| 


d || 


i ' S| pii ; ri|.n 


i pii .HI i Pii 


s, 


: d s, : s. 


HI : pi|.S| d .d 


:d 


PII 


S| 


PI, II 


Ex.63. KEY : 

d .PI : n d .PI 


D. Slowly, and qu 

: PI t s : s 


ickly. 

PI : t n .s : 


s PI .s : s t 


d 


i . 


s 


d 1 :- 


d :d d 


: d |d .PI 


: PI 


d : n : 


PI PI ; PI 


n 


.s : 


s 


n : 



MODULATOR VOLUNTARIES. 
A.t every lesson, the pupils will be exercised in 
following the Teacher's pointing on the modulator, 
without a pattern. The difficulty of this is, that the 
pointer cannot shew accent, but, in cases of diffi- 
culty, by means of the time names the teacher can 
explain any rhythm he wants. The pupils will learn 
to follow promptly, and to form the habit of holding 
the tones as long as the pointer stays on a note. 

St. Co. fNew) 



The movements of the pointer are most visible 
when it passes from note to note with a curve side- 
ways The Teacher can invent his voluntaries or 
take them from other Courses. But they should 
never include greater difficulties than belong to the 
step which the class has reached. See the " Hints 
for Voluntaries." These Exercises will prepare for 
the next. 






FIRST STEP. 



EAR EXERCISES. 

The Teacher will now give his pupils short musi- 
cal phrases, sung to figures, and ask them to tell 
him to which figure or figures d fell ? to which 
m ? to which s ? to which d ? to which s, ? 
He will also give them a key tone and chord, 
singing immediately to the sharply opening syllable 
skaa, either d, m, s, d 1 , or s ( , and requiring the 
pupils to tell him what tone he has sung. The 
answers to these exercises should not come from a 
few only of the class, but the Teacher will contrive 
(by subdividing the class or otherwise), that all 
shall feel the responsibility of thinking and preparing 
an answer, and all will be interested. See " Hints 
for Ear Exercises," It is a great advantage when 
the answers to these ear exercises can be written 
fty the pupil, and afterwards examined and regis- 
tered by the teacher or his assistants. 

POINTING FROM MEMORY. 

At the close of each lesson the pupils should take 
a pride in shewing their teacher how many of the 
previous exercises they can point and Sol-fa from 
memory. These Exorcises should be registered in 
favour of each pupil. Musical memory should be 
cultivated from the first, because it will greatly 
facilitate the progress of the pupil in future steps, 
and will be of constant service to him in after life. 

WRITING EXERCISES. 

Notation is best taught by writing, and the thing 
noted is more quickly and easily practised when the 
notation is clear and familiar to the mind. Hence 
the value of writing exercises. For the first step 
the teacher should bid his pupils draw on slate or 
paper four (or eight or sixteen) two pulse measures, 
in the primary (or secondary) form. The teacher 
may do the same on a black board to shew his pupils 
what is meant. When the measures are properly 
drawn out, the teacher will dictate the notes to be 
written in each pulse, or ho will write them on the 
blackboard for bos pupils to copy. These notes he 
may invent for himself, or copy from other courses, 
but they must always belong to the same "step." 

DICTATION. 

Dictation has always been difficult as soon as 
the time became at all complicated, but the time 

St. Co. (New.) 



names give us a means cf dictating, by very brief 
orders, one pulse at a time, " Rhythm," " Accent," 
and " Tune," at once. Thus, if we were dictating 
Ex. 52, we should first say to our pupils "secondary 
two-pulse measure." "Prepare for 8 measures." 
"TAA lower ,," "TAA d," " TAATAI m d," &c., or 
in Ex. 53 " TAATAI d m," "TAA m," &c. 

The Tonic Sol-fa music paper will be found very 
useful for dictation. By this means a whole class 
may be permanently supplied with copies of a tune, 
while in the process of writing they make ;i 
thorough acquaintance with the tune, and are thus 
prepared to sing it. The Sol-fa music paper is so 
ruled that the copyist can keep his pulses of equal 
lengths throughout the tune. He can allow one 
compartment to a pulse, or two. In either case he 
will not find it necessary to mark with the pen or 
pencil more than the strong accents. 

WRITING FROM MEMORY. 

Pupils should also be well practised in writing 
tunes from memory. Even where it is difficult for 
a whole class to point on their modulators from 
memory at the same moment, so as to be seen by 
the teacher, it is not difficult to engage a whole 
class at the same moment, in writing with closed 
books from memory, the tunes they have learnt. If 
every pupil has his number, and writes that number 
on the right hand upper corner of the exercise, in- 
stead of his name, assistants can be employed to 
correct the exercises, and to register a mark for 
every pulse properly written. 

SUPPLEMENTARY EXERCISES. 
The Teacher naturally desires to see that all the 
members of his class (except the careless and inat- 
tentive who have no claim upon him) have mastered 
the topics of each step before that stop is left. Some 
classes require longer practice on one topic, and 
some on others. For this purpose as well as with 
the view of gathering all eyes to one point in his 
elementary explanations, he is recommended to 
make good use of the black board, andthe "Standard 
Charts," pp. 1 to 5 (Tonic Sol-fa Agency). The 
"Wall Sheets," No. 1 (for time exercises), and 
Nos. 7 and 8 (for tune) may also be used as supple- 
mentary to the exercises of this step. 



FIRST STEP. 



13 



QUESTIONS FOR WRITTEN OR ORAL EXAMINATION. 



1 To what three practices must the 
pupil give daily attention in order to 
produce a pure and pleasant tone .' 

2 What two habits improve the 
purity of tone 1 

3 What two habits improve the 
quality of tone? 

4 Which are the forward vowels in 
the English language ? 

5 What three things are promoted 
by a proper management of the breath ? 

6 What mismanagement of the 
breathing causes flatness of pitch ? 

7 What effect on a tone arises from 
the use of too much breath 1 

8 Where should a beginner regularly 
take breath ? 

9 Where should we not take breath 1 

10 By the action of which set of 
muscles should the breath be expended ? 

1 1 What are the two reasons for sing- 
ing the early voice exercises softly ? 

12 Describe the best position for the 
body in singing for the head for the 
shoulders for the chest for the mouth 
the lips the lower jaw the palate 
the tongue. 

13 Describe the bad effects of any 
wrong positions of mouth or body. 

14 What do we mean by the " pitch " 
of sounds 1 

15 What is your idea of a key tone ? 

16 Why is it important to listen well 
to the pattern ? 

17 What is the name for the key tone 
of a tune, and what is its manual sign 1 

18 What are the names and signs (1) 
for the tone which is commonly known 
as the fifth above the key tone, and (2) 
for that which is known as the third 
above it 1 

19 From what two causes arise the 
different effects of the related tones 
Doh, Me, and SoU on the mind I 



57 Hold a steady tone, without taking 
breath, for five seconds. 

58 Sing any two of the exercises 38 to 
44, and 48 to 53, chosen by the teacher, 
to the open syllable Laa, correctly and 
rvithout oreathiness of tone. 

59 Sing to the open syllable Laa, the 
Soh to any Doh the teacher gives you. 

60 Sing in the same manner the lower 
Soh,. 

61 Sing in the same manner the upper 
Do ft'. 

62 Singin the same manner the J/e. 

63 Sing in the same manner the lower 

St. Co. (New). 



DOCTEINE. 

20 What is the name given to a set i 
of three tones thus related ? 

21 What is an octave or replicate, 
and its sign ? 

22 We can tell pupils what tones of 
the scale to sing, either by pointing on 
the modulator, or by giving them 
manual signs. What other way have 
we of doing so ? 

23 What do "Key G," "Key C," 
"Key A" mean at the beginning of 
a tune? 

24 What are the three common uses 
of the word "Time," and what distinct 
name do we give to each of the three 
things ? 

25 How is "Accent" produced? 

26 What is the sign for a strong ac- 
cent, and what for a weak ? 

27 What is the name we give to the 
time which extends between one accent 
(of either sort) and the next ? 

28 What is the time name for a one- 
pulse tone ? 

29 In what cases may pulses be dif- 
ferent in length one from the other ? 

30 In what circumstances are pulses 
the same in length one with the 
other ? 

31 What is the order of accents in 
the primary form of two-pulse mea- 
sure ? What in its secondary form ! 

32 What is the order of accents in 
the primary form of three-pulse mea- 
sure ? What in its secondary form .' 

33 Give the time names which re- 
present a primary two-pulse measure, 
and a secondary three-pulse measure ? 

34 How do you mark a two-pulse 
tone, and how do you name it ? 

35 How do you mark and name a 
three-pulse tone ? 

36 Why is it important, in elemen- 
tary teaching, to use distinct names 
for continuations ? 



PEACTICE. 

64 Taatai the upper "part" in one 
of the Exs. 51, 52, or 53, chosen by the 
teacher. 

65 Taatai in tune one of the Exs. 
51, 52, or 53, but not the same as in the 
last requirement, chosen by the teacher. 

66 Point on the modulator from 
memory any one of the Exs. 46 to 51, 
chosen by the teacher. 

67 Write down from memory an- 
other of these exercises. 

68 From any phrase (belonging to 
this stage) sung to figures, tell your 
teacher, or write down, which figure 
was sung to Me. 



37 What educational principle dis- 
tinguishes the early steps of any art ? 

33 How long should the pupils re- 
peat the first time exercises ( 

39 What is the difficult thing which 
the teacher has to maintain in the time 
exercises .' 

40 Why are the pupils at first not to 
beat time ? 

41 How is it that the Sol-fa syllables 
come to be mnemonics (or memory- 
helps) of tune, and the time syllables 
mnemonics of time 2 

42 What is the use of Laa-ing ? 

43 What is the meaning of a bracket ? 

44 What is the meaning of a double 
bar? 

45 What are the best breathing- 
places when music only is considered ? 

46 What is the sign for a pulse 
equally divided into two-parts ? What 
is its time name ? 

47 What do you mean by taatai-ing ? 
43 What is meant by taatai-ing in 

tune? 

49 How does the practice of taatai- 
ing help the mind to individualize 
to form a distinct conception of a 
rhythm ? 

50 In the practice of modulator vol- 
untaries, what two habits must the 
pupil form ? 

51 What difficulties must not be in- 
cluded in voluntaries ? 

52 Describe the two forms in which 
ear exercises can be presented ? 

53 Why should musical memory be 
cultivated ? 

54 What is the best way of teaching 
notation ? 

55 What advantage does the singer 
get from the practice of writing music ? 

56 How would you dictate the air of 
the first four measures of Ex. 53 ? 



69 Ditto Soh. 

70 Ditto Doh. 

71 Ditto Doh 1 . 

72 Ditto Soh t . 

73 Having heard the chord, tell, or 
write down which tone of the scale wa& 
sung to Skaa. Do this with two dif- 
ferent tones belonging to this step. 

74 follow to the teacher's pointing 
on the modulator in a new voluntary, 
containing Doh, Me, Soh, Doh 1 , and Soh,. 

TAA, TAA-AA, and TAATAI. 

75 Write from dictation, and after- 
wards sing a similar exercise. 



14 



Ex. 545. 



SECOND STEP. 

To train the voice in purity, beauty, and good accord. To distinguish the mental effects of d, m, s, t and r. 
To produce them. To distinguish and produce the medium accent and the four-pulse and six-put .< mi'timires, 
also the whole-pntse silence, the half-pulse sounds in three pulse measure, and the fourths of a pulse in their 
simplest form. To observe the reasons for breathing vlaces. To commence the study of chords, intervals, dis- 
cords, and passing tones. 



VOICE TRAINING. 

The teacher calls his pupils into position just as 
he did at the beginning of every lesson in the first 
step. Every lesson of the present step should open 
Nvlth the following three exercises. It is exceed- 
ingly important that the pupils should cultivate Jor 
themselves a good position in singing. It will then 
become an easy habit. 

Ex. 54. CHEST EXERCISE, to strengthen the 
muscles under the lungs and on its sides, and give 
them control over the slow emission of breath. 
The same as Ex. 1, except that the breath should 
be breathed out more slowly, and that a sound may 
accompany it. Some will now be able to continue 
the tone while the teacher slowly counts ten, say 
for ton seconds. The weak -chested must not be 
discouraged. This exercise daily practised will be 
life and health to them. 

Ex. 55. VOCAL KLANG EXERCISE. The same 
as Ex. 2, except that instead of using only one 
tone the pupils will sing the Tonic chord. They 
will sing, in obedience to the teacher's manual signs 
d m s d 1 d s m d. The manual signs enable the 
teacher to watch the posture of his pupils, and the 
pupils to watch the commands and intimations of 
the teacher. This exercise will be sung slowly (say 
at M. 60) and also softly, for the sake of studying 
beauty in the quality of tone. When in any exer- 
cise, the teacher feels that he has secured that good 
quality, he occasionally ventures on a middle force 
of voice, but always strives to maintain the same 
good quality. In mixed classes of men and women 
this exercise will, of course, be sung in octaves, as 
the voices of men and women are naturally an 
octave apart. The importance of this simple exer- 
cise, and the difficulty of obtaining a perfect and 
pure unison of voices in it are strongly i-nforced by 
Fetis (see " Choir and Chorus Singing," page 9). 

The exercise is 1st, Bol-faad once, 2nd, sung once 
to the forward syllable lai. 3rd, sung three times to 
the forward and pleasant Italian syllable laa, and 
4th, sung once to the best English syllable for the 
sharp accented delivery of tones koo, striking four 
sharp koos to each tone. The first step of this pro- 
cess puts the ear in tune : the second places the 

St. Co. (New.) 



tongue properly, and so prepares the mouth for the 
real Italian aa : the third gives the best form of 
mouth for the production of a beautiful sound : and 
the fourth strengthens the voice by vigorous (not 
forced) action, and favours that downward motion 
of the larynx on the delivery of short and accented 
(though not loud) tones which has to be formed 
into a habit for after use. The exercise, having 
been thus six times sung in Key C, the same pro- 
cess will bo repeated in Key D. 

Tuning Exercises can now be added for the pur- 
pose of teaching voices singing different parts to 
study one another, and to chord well together. To 
some extent this is done in every exercise, but it 
requires also separate study. The teacher divides 
his women's and children's voices into three "parts," 
(1st, 2nd, and 3rd) and causes them first to sol-faa 
and then to lai and laa, the following exercise. 
When this is done to the teacher's satisfaction he 
utters the word " change " and those who have 
sung the first part take the second, the second the 
third, and the third thefirst. At the word"change" 
againthesameprocessisrepeated. Tho teacherthen 
divides his men's voices in a similar manner and 
carries them through the same six-fold exercise. 
The teacher, in this exercise, watches his pupils 
.first, to ensure the holding of their books easily, 
not cramping the chest, as high as possible (so as 
just to see their conductor over the top) and with- 
out bending the head, second, to secure a uniformly 
clear, soft tone, making a signal to anyone whose 
voice is so prominent as to stan i out from the rest, 
and third, to maintain the perfect tuning into each 
other of all the parts of the chord. The distinct 
entry of each " part " is meant to assist the percep- 
tion of "just" or exactly true intonation. See 
Fetis, page 9. It is not every class that has the 
thoughtfulness and courage to take this exercise at 
the beginning of the second step, but it should be 
attempted. The division of voices is a severe test 
of independence, and therefore useful. Some sing- 
ers will never be independent till you compel them 
to try. For some time the accord of tho voices will 
be very rough and imperfect, but soft singing and 
listening will amend the fault. 



SECOND STEI'. 



15 



Ex. 56. KEYS F and Gf. 

1st. / 



2nd j 
3rd. I 



n : 



x 

s 


- -. 


[Silent pulse, t 

n :- 


ee 
S 


P ris.] 


n 


: n 




d 


: 




; 


d 


:d 




d 


; 




: 



: s 



n : 



d : s, 



TUNE. 

Mental Effects. It is of small importance what 
names the pupil gives to the mental effect of the 
different tones, but it is all-important that he him- 
self (not his teacher, nor his class-mates) should 
give those names, or if he cannot find a name, that 
he should at least form for himself a distinct idea 
of each mental effect. Let him listen carefully, 
therefore, while his teacher sings to the class such 
" exercises for ascertaining the mental effect" as 
those below. () The teacher first sings the exer- 
cise to consecutive figures, telling his pupils that 
he is about to introduce a new tone (that is, one 
not d m or s) and asking them to tell him on which 
figure it falls, (b) When they have distinguished 
the new tone, he sings the exercise again laa-ing 
it and asks them to tell him how that tone " makes 
them feel." Those who can describe the feeling 
hold up their hands, and the teacher asks one for the 

Ex.57. KEY B?. Effect of .R0y, high in pitch. 

|d :s, |n :d |r : |d : II 

Ex. 58. KEY B!?. Ditto. 
: s, |d : : n I r : : s, |d : || 

Ex. 59. KEY F. Effect of Ray, low in pitch. 

: si |d :n :d |r : : n |d || 
Ex. 60. KEY D. Ditto. 
|d :s |n :d |r : in : || 

Collective Beading. The following exercises 65 
to 70 (including leaps of r and t without any nevr 
difficulties of time) will now be taught, in the same 
manner and with the same processes as Ex, 48 to 
53- with this addition, that after the tune has been 
Load correctly and easily, the words will be studied. 
Ttie Teacher reads the portion of words from one 
breathing place to another, giving clear vowels and 
sharp consonants, the pupils imitate collectively. 
Vowels are ways of emitting the breath ; conso- 

St. Co. '^wj 



description. But others, who are not satisfied with 
words, may also perceive and feel. The teacher 
can tell by their eyes whether they have done so. 
He nurttiplies examples (like those in "Studies," &c., 
which he may point on the modulator) until all the 
class have their attention fully awakened to the 
effect of the new tone, (c) This done he tells his 
pupils the Sol-fa name and the manual sign for the 
new tone, and guides them by the signs to Sol-fa 
the exercise, and themselves produce the proper 
effect. The signs are better, in this case, than the 
modulator or the notation, because with them the 
teacher can best command the attention of every eye, 
and ear, and voice, and at the first introduction of 
a tone, attention should be acute. 

The manual sign for ray is the upturned hand, 
open, and shewing the palm ; that for te is the 
upturned hand, pointing with the forefinger. 



Ex. 61. KEY D. Effect of Te, high in pitch. 

Id :n |s :t It i Id 1 :- || 

Ex. 62. KEY D. Ditto. 

|d :n |s :t |t :s Id 1 :- || 

Ex. 63. KEY F. Effect of Te, low in pitch, 

|d :s |n :t, 1 1, :- Id :- |j 

Ex. 64. KEY F. Ditto. 

:s, |d :n |s : |t, : Id || 

nants ways of interrupting it. Both require definite 
positions and movements of the lip and tongue. 
Many uneducated persons are lazy in their use of 
both organs. The object of the teacher will be to 
shew by pattern that marked and clear utterance 
which is the beauty of speech. Musical tones can- 
not be prolonged on consonants ; the vowels are 
therefore the more important to the singer. The 
elocutionary studies of " accent," and " inflection," 
need not occupy the time of the class, because there 



16 



SECOND STE?. 



iu no inflection in a musical tone, and the music 
necessarily decides the accent. A simple monoton- 
ous delivery of vowels and consonants will therefore 
be sufficient for the teacher's present purpose. The 
pupils will enjoy this exercise in proportion as their 
teacher criticises their pronunciation with care. A 
closer study of the subject will follow in the fourth 
step. 

Breathing Places have, thus far been chosen to 
suit the natural division of a line of music into 
" phrases." But the sense of the words i* more 
important than the marked distinction of phrases. 
It therefore over-rules all. Let the pupil notice 
that in Ex. 65, we take breath before each cry of 
" fire." This is a case of " breathing for emphasis," 
and illustrates an important rule for taking breath. 
In Ex. 67 let him notice that the musical phrasing 
would place the breathing place between " I " and 
"love," but the poetic phrasing does not allow us 
to disconnect any parts of a word or any two 
closely related words. ' ' Morning bells I ' ' would not 
sound well, there fore the division "Morning bells" t 
" I love to hear." This is a case of " breathing for 
sense." In Ex. 69, the musical phrases of the first 
line nat'irally divide bet ween m and r, each being two 
measures in length. This breathing place is quite 
suitable for the first and third verses, but it would 
cut a word in two if it were used for the second or 
the fourth. In the third line the musical division 
suits the first and second verses, but if adopted for 
the third and fourth verses would make the nonsense 
"Shall foster and" t "mature the grain," and 
"The angel reap-" f "era shall descend." The 
practice of dividing the " announcements " for 
Collective Reading at the breathing places, is of 
great use in calling attention to this important 

Ex. 65. KEY O. A round for four parts, 
t t 



subject. In every exercise of this step there 
should be with the collective reading a discussion on 
the correctness or doubtfulness of the breathing 
places here marked, but the teacher will di-ciilc 
for the whole class, so thatthe breathing may be with 
one consent. A delightful effect of unity and clear ex- 
pression is produced by this unanimity of breathing. 

Bounds. Ex. 65, is a Round for four "parts." 
The first "part" commences the Round alone, and 
goes on steadily repeating it until stopped. When 
thojirst "part" is going to strike the note under 
the asterisk (*) the second " part " strikes the first 
note of the Round, and so on. The third " part " 
follows the second, as the second imitated the first. A 
clap or some other signal of the teacher's hand tells 
you when to stop a Round. It should first be learnt 
from the modulator by the whole class as one part, 
and should not be sung as a "round" till the third 
step, unless the class has been very well practised 
in maintaining the rate of movement. When the 
whole class can sol-fa it " by heart," watching the 
teacher's beat and keeping most exact time with 
the stroke of his hand, let the class be divided 
into four parts, and each part tested in the power to 
sing separately. Even when this is fairly done, 
the parts will still find it difficult to " hold 
their own," as soon as the other parts enter. 
The difficulty of maintaining the rate of 
movement is very much increased when the 
Round is in three-pulse measure or contains 
divided pulses. It is this difficulty which 
makes the Round so valuable an exercise in 
time keeping. 

Da Capo pronounced Daa Caapoa [oa as in 
coal] and abbreviated D.C. means " return to 
the beginning." 



(is, : s. 


d :d 


s, : s, 


d :d 




r : 


n : 


r : rt : 




















1 1 Seot-land'e 


burn - ing 


Scot-land's burn - ing, 


Look 


out, 


Look 


out, 


t t t 


t t D.C. 


^^ 

Us :- 




s : 


.--- 

s : : 


ti : r d : d ti : r 


d :d 




















M Fire! 


Fire ! Fire ! 


Fire! 




Pour on 


wa - ter, 


pour on 


wa - ter. 


Ex. 66. KEY D. A round for four parts. 




t * t 


t D.C. 


hd :r 


n : d 


n : s 


> ~ 


d'.d'rt.t 


d'.s : n.d 


s : a 


d :- 


\ 
















1 1 Sing it 


o - vcr 


with your 


might, 


Never leave it, 


Never leave it 


U 'tis 


right. 



St. Co. (New.) 



SECOND STEP. 
Ex. 67. KEY C. A round for four parts. 



17 



d :s 

]\Iorn-in: 



t 

s : s 
bells I 



n : s 
love to 



d> : 

hear, 



d' :r' 

Ring -ing 



n'.d':d' 

merri-ly, 



Ex. 68. KEY E. 



"GONE IS THE HOUR OF SONG." 

Round for four parts. 



d 1 :d'.d 

Gone is the 



hour of 



S 



: s .s 



Now let us 



s : s 

say to 



s : t 

loud and 



all, good 



B.C. 

d 1 :- 

clear. 



J. C. 



n : 

night. 



: n .n r : r 



Sweet sleep & plea - sant dreams, Good night, 



: n 



: d .d s, : s. 



Once more to all, good night ! 



B.C. 

d :- - :- 



Ex. 69. KEY G. 



SOW IN THE MORN THY SEED." 



A. L. C. 



Words by James Montgomery. 

: s, 

To 
O'er 

: si 

Shall 
The 



:d 


n 


: n 


n : r 


d : 


- :t, 


r : 


n 


r :d 


ti :- 


1. Sow 
2. The 

:d 


in the 
good f the 

d :d 


morn f thy 
fruit - f ul 

s, : s, 


seed, 
ground, 

m, : 


At 
Ex- 

: s, 


eve fhold 
pect not f 

t, :d 


not thy 
here nor 

si :n. 


hand ; 
there ; 

s, : 


3. Thou 
4. Thence, 


canst not 
when the 


toil f in 
glo - rious 


vain : 
end, 


Cold, 
The 


heat,f and 
day of 


moist and 
God f is 


dry, 
come, 


d :d 


t, :d 


m 


: n 


r 


: s 


s : n 


r : r 




d : 


doubt and 
hill and 

HI : n. 


fearf give 
dale,t by 

s, :n. 


thou no 
plots, 'tis 

Si : d 


heed, Broad 
found Go 
t : S ( 


cast it f 
forth, then, f 

n : d 


o'er the 
ev - 'ry - 

d : t. 


land, 
where. 

d : 


fos - terf 
an - gel 


and ma - 
reap - ers f 


ture the 
shall de - 


grain, For 
scend, And 


gar - ners -\ 
heav'n cry 1 


in the 
" Har-vest 


sky. 
home.' 


Ex. 70. 


KEY B. 




" FRET 


NOT THYSELF." 


i s, : 


R| 


: si 


d 


:t, 


:d 


n 


:r :d 


d :- :- 




t, : 


I Fret not 

( PI, :d, 


thy. 

: HI 


selff 
HI 


tho' thy 

: r, : n, 


way be fall 

d, : r, : n, 


drear 

s, : : - 




y 

s, : 


C" : 


d 


: n 


r 


:t. 


: r d : n : r 


r : : - 




d 


\ bright-er 

( d :d 


to - 

:d 


mor 
t, 


- row fis 

: t : t, 


dawn -ing fto 

d : Si : Si 


cheer 
s, : : - 




thee. 

d 



R.P. 

: r 
A 



St. Co. (Xcw.J 



Cease thy complaining f thy thoughtless t repining, 
Tho clouds may be black, f but the sun is still t shining. 
Though thou art hemm'd in f by mountains f of sorrow, 
Stand still f a broad path f may be open'd f to-morrow. 



18 



SEC01TD STEP. 



TIME. 

The Medium Accent. Pupils will easily be 
brought by examples and illustrations to notice that 
in addition to the strong and weak accent, there is 
also a medium accent to many tunes. The intro- 
duction of the medium accent makes two two-pulse 
measures into a four-pulse measure, and two three- 
pulse measures into a six-pulse measure. This mark 
| is used for the medium accent. 

It will be noticed that several of the exercises 
already sung, require (when not sung slowly) this 
medium accent, in place of every alternate strong 



accent. Let the pupils try Ex. 66 and 69, singing 
them quickly and lightly. They will soon perceive 
the natural necessity for a medium accent. The 
teacher, however, must not expect too great a nicety 
of distinction at first. The finer points, both of 
time and tune, require much practice. 

Four-pulse Measure. When the accents of a 
tune are arranged in the order strong, weak, 
MEDIUM, weak (as in the words "mMUWTAry," 
" plan^TAry "), and so on. it is said to be in the four- 
pulse measure. The pupils will taatai on one tone, 
as below, while the teacher beats, first slowly, then 
quickly. 



NOTB. When the pupil has learnt to hold his tones to their full length, and where nearly all the pulses are undivided, 
it will be sufficient* to call a pulse TAA, omitting the AI. 



II 



A primary four-pulse measure. 

TAA TAA TAA TAA 



A secondary form. 

:1 II 

TAA TAA 



U 



Six-pulse Measure. When the accents of a tune 
are arranged in the order strong, weak, weak, 
MEDIUM, weak, weak (as in the words ' ' spi ri tu AL i ty," 



H 



A primary six-pulse measure. 



A secondary form. 



H 



Silent Pulse. It is more difficult for pupils to 
appreciate time in silences than in sounds. There- 
fore the silent pulse was not introduced in the 
first step. The name for a silent pulse is SAA. In 
taatai-ing, after the first time of gtAng through an 
exercise, or as soon as the rhythm is perti-ctly 
learnt, the silence-syllables should be less and loss 
heard. M. Paris uses only the one word " Hush " 
for all the silences. In dictation, as well as for the 
purpose of first marking and measuring them dis- 
tinctly to the mind, we find the advantage of a 
.-oparate name for each silence corresponding with 

St. Co. (New.} 



Another form. 



U 



Another form. 

U :1 

TAA TAA 



:1 



1 

TAA 



"immutability "), and so on, it is said to be in six- 
pulse measure. The pupils will taatai on one tone, 
as below, while the teacher beats slowly. 



Another form. 



Another form. 



1 

TAA 



the names we use for sound. Silences are denoted 
in the Tonic Sol-fa notation, by the simple absence 
of any name for sound. Even if an accent mark 
is placed at the end of a line, a silent pulse is sup- 
posed to follow it. 

Pulse and a half Tones are very common and 
easily learnt. They are named and written as be- 
low. 

Quarter Pulse Tones are more easily learnt 
when the pulse is divided into four distinct quarters 
than when it is divided into a half and two quarters 
two quarters and a half or a three-quarter tone 



SECOND STEP. 



19 



and a quarter tone. Therefore the " four quarters ' ' 
are introduced in this early step. They are thus 
named, tafatefe [a is the short vowel for aa, and e is the 
short vowel for aij] Thus the vowels still divide the 
pulse as hefore. If the time-names are to become 
aids to the memory, we must again repeat that even 
in speaking hoth teachers and pupils should form 
the careful habit of uttering them in their proper 
time. Thus, TAA should be as long as TAATAI, and 
" tafatefe " should occupy no more time than either ; 



neither TAA nor TAI should have longer utterance 
one than the other ; and tafatefe should form foui 
exactly equal lengths. In the Tonic Sol-fa nota- 
tion a comma divides a half pulse into quarters. 

Let the Exercises 7 1 to 75 be (a) taught by pattern 
and repeated, see page 7. The exercise may be 
divided into two patterns if necessary. It should 
be sung at at least two distinct rates, (b) Alter- 
nated, see p. 7. (c) Laad, see p. 8. (d) Taataid 
in tune, see p. 10. 



Ex. 71. 




II 1 -. : 


8AA 


KEY G. | d : 


Id 


KEY F. | s : 


U 


KEY A. | d : 


Ir 


Ex. 72. 




Si 1 : 


1 


C 1 TAA 


TAA 



TAA SAA 

|d :d.r|n :d 
is :n.r Id : n 
In :ti.r Id : s. 



SAA 



1 


: 1 .1 


1 : 1 




TAA 


TAATAI 


TAA TAA 


KEY A. 


Is, : It, 


: Id :s|.t(|d 


: r 


KEY F. 


Is : |n 


: Ir :t,.d|r 


: n 


KEY F. 


In : |s 


: In :r.tdr 


:d 



: 1 . 1 1 : - . 1 1.1:1 



KEY G. |d :si | :d.r|n :-.d|t ( .d:r II 
KEY F. |n :d | :r.dls :-.n|r.d:t, || 
KEYG. |r :s I :r.t||S| :-.ti|d.r:n || 

Ex. 73. 

1 : - .1 : 1 .1 1 .1 : 1 

TAA -AATAI TAATAI TAATAI TAA 
KEY G. 

I d : - ,t ( : d ,r | n ,r : d : | n .r -. d : s ( 

KEY F. 

Id :-.r :n.s|t,.r:d : |t,.r:d : s, 

KEY A. 

In :-.r :d.t,|r.d:d : |r.d:v, :d | 

St. Co. (New.) 



TAATAI TAA 



KEYB. |d :ti | :r.d!s ( :-.dm.r:d I, 
KEY F. | n :r | :d.nis :-.t||r.d:d || 
KEYF. |n :d | :s.nin :-.rjn.s:s I 



8AA 



1.1:1 : 1 || 

TAATAI TAA TAA 



KEY A. 

Id : -.s :n.d|s,,t,:r : |s,.ti:r : t ( if 

KEY A. 

In :-.d: t,.d|n.r:n : |d.t,:d : s, || 

KEY G. 

j s. : -.t,: r.t.l d.n : n : |n.s:s :n II 



20 



SECOND STEP. 



Ex. 74. 








1 : 


1 


1 .1 : 1 1 .1 : 1 .1 


1 . 


1 : 


1 


TAA 


TAA 


TAATAI TAA TAATAI TAATAI TAATAI 


TAA 


11,1.1,1 : 

1 tafatefe 


1 .1 

TAATAI 


1,1.1,1 : 1 .1 1,1.1,1 : 1 .1 

tafatefe TAATAI tafatefe TAATAI 


1 .1 : 

TAATAI 


1 

TAA 


KEY G. 

I 5 ' ! 


si 81 .n : d S| .n : d .s ( 


8, 

1 


.n : 


d 


s,,si.si,s, : 


Si .t i 


t ,t ( .t| ,t| : ti .r d ,d .d ,d : d .n 


r 


.t, : 


S| 


KEY G. 

|. : 


s 


s .n : d s .n : d .n 


s 


.n : 


d 


1 s ,s . s ,s : 


s .n 


n ,n .n ,n : n .d r,r.r,r:r .t, Id 


.n : 


s 


Ex. 75. 








1 TAA 


1 .1 

TAATAI 


1 : 1 1 .1 : 1 .1 

TAA TAA TAATAI TAATAI 


1 t 

TAA 


1 

TAA 


11 : 

1 TAA 


1,1.1,1 

tafatefe 


1.1 : 1 1,1.1,1 : 1,1.1,1 

TAATAI TAA tafatofo tafatefe 


1 .1 : 

TAATAI 


1 

TAA 


KEY G. 

1 J f J 1 


:d | r .t,: r .t, | r : s, |d :n,r.d,r | m .d : d |r,d.t,,d 


:r,d.t,,d 


r .t, : 


KEY E. 

d :t..r|d 


:m |t,.r:d m|r :s |d :t,,d.r,t,|d .m: n |t,,d.r,t, 


:d,r.ni,d | r .s : 



TUNE. 

The Two Principal Chords. As the tones d m and 
s, sung together form a chord, so do the tones 8 1 and 
r I . Tile first we call the chord of Do h, the second the 
chord of Soh. We always write chord-names in 
capital letters, D, S. These two chords considered 
separately and in themselves, are exactly alike. 
Their tones are precisely at the same distances of 
pitch one from the other, and if the chord S, or the 
successive tones t r' were heard without the 
sound of any previous chord of D, or succession of 
d m 8, they would produce precisely the same effect 
npon the mind. But as soon as we place two such 
chords at a certain interval one from the other wo 
establish a new set of relations, and so enrich the 
mental effect. It is no longer one chord and its 

St. Co. (New.) 



u 

interval relations which the ear perceives, but 
two chords and their relations to each other, so 
strong and rapid is the power of mental association. 
That chord, in a tune, which is the first to occupy 
the ear, rules the chords which follow. Thus in 
Exercises 57 to 64 we were careful to " establish the 
key " by making d m s heard before we could make 
the mental effects of t and r felt. This relation 
between D and S, that is between any chord and 
that other which starts from its own highest tone, 
is a peculiar and very important one. It is called 
the relation between Tonic (D) and Dominant (S). 
It is the chief element in key-relationship. These 
two chords alone are sufficient to make music. 
Many a single page of brilliant classic music con- 
sists of the chords D and S. 



Ex. 76. 



SECOND STEP. 



21 



Thirds, Sixths, and Tenths. Most classes and 
all self-teaching pupils will be glad to study the 
harmony (or the sounding together of tones) as 
they sing, and they will sing the better for doing 
so. Intervals or distances between tones, are 
generally counted step -wise on the scale always 
including the two extremes. Thus the distances 
between d and r or m and f are called a second, 
those between d and m or r and f are called a third, 
and so on. By counting, in this way, on the 
modulator, it will be seen that from d to the m 
next above is a third, from d to the m next below 
(ffij) is an inverted third, or a sixth, and from d to 
the higher octave of it am above (ml) is a tenth. 
So also from 1 ( to d is a third (a minor or lesser 
third) from 1 to d is a sixth, and from lj to d' is a 
tenth. What are the intervals between m and s ? 
m and S| ? m and si ? These intervals (which 
are the third in various positions) form the sweetness 
of all harmony, and are therefore, abundantly used. 
In Exercise 69 find twelve thirds and six sixths. 
In Exercise 80 find a sixth followed by a tenth. 

Octaves and Unisons. Exercise 69 has its first tone 
and its last, in both parts, the same, that is in identical 
unison. At the beginning of the last line of words 
it has an octave between the parts. These unisons 
and octaves do not give the true feeling of harmony, 
that is, separateness with agreement, and they 
sire seldom used on a strong pulse where they would 
be much noticed, but they are useful x a the flow of 
the harmony allowing the parts to pass through 
them to something sweeter or stronger, or bringing 
them to a close on the key tone. Two such inter- 
vals, one following the other, would make the 
harmony disappear. Therefore, such a succession 
is, as the pupil will notice, carefully avoided. In 
speaking of unison above, we have referred to absolute 
unison, but the word unison is also commonly used 
to indicate the singing of the same tones, by male 
and female voices, an octave apart, as in our " Vocal 
Klang Exercises." 

Eifths and Fourths. In Exercise 69 there are 
two fifths (s, to r in both cases) and in Exercise 70 
there is a fourth s, to d. The two tones of a fifth 
agree with one another more perfectly than those of 
any other interval except the octave, but they have 
not the sweetness of the thirds. Their agreement 
is somewhat hard and cold, though strong and sure. 
They are, therefore, not very much used in two- 

8t. Co. (New.) 



part harmony, and two of them in succession are 
the dread of all composers. Fourths are the inver- 
sions of fifths (as sixths are of thirds) but are very 
much less acceptable to the ear. They have neither 
the perfect agreement of the fifths, nor the sweet 
agreement of the thirds, and are much avoided in 
two-part harmony ; even bald unisons and octaves 
being prefered to them. Where used they are 
found on a weak (and therefore, less observed) pulse 
or on a strong pulse in places where they suggest 
to the mind certain familiar habits of chords to be 
hereafter explained. 

Discords. Octaves, fifths, fourths, and thirds are 
concords. Seconds, as f against 8, or d against r, 
whether close together or separated by octaves 
(that is, whether seconds, or sevenths, or ninths) 
are discords. They sound harshly together. But 
a Discord may be so sweetly introduced, and so 
pleasantly brought to a close, and the "part" 
which contains it may move so smoothly that 
it is made agreeable. This is because the ear 
naturally notices the motion of the two melodies as 
well as the actual consonance or dissonance of the 
moment. Thus, in Exercise 69, we have, on the 
fifth pulse counting from the last, or the fifth-last 
pulse, d dissonating against r, but it is so "prepared" 
by its own previous "sweet" consonance witti m, 
and so smoothly " resolved" by going down stop- 
wise to t,, and there satisfying the ear with another 
sweet consonance, that it cannot be called unpleasant. 
It is only unpleasant when singers are afraid of it, 
and so put themselves out of tune. Hence the 
advantage of knowing what you sing. Find a 
similar discord at the close of Exercise 78. A note 
undergoes preparation when it is heard in a previous 
chord as a consonance ; it undergoes resolution when 
(being a discord) it moves down one step. 

Passing Tones. As we have observed that the 
weak pulse is less noticed by the ear than the strong 
pulse, so is the second or weak part of a pulse less 
noticed than the first part. Therefore, things may 
bo allowed there which the ear objects to else- 
where. Thus in Exercise 79, second score, third 
measure, second pulse, we find an apology for the 
dissonant r, because it is on the weak part of a 
pulse, and because it moves smoothly step-wise from 
one tone of the scale to the next. Find other ex- 
amples of the same " part-pulse passing tone " in 
the same Exercise 79 

Ex. 76. Name, pulse by pulse, the harmonic 
uJlervals of Exercises 69, 70, 77, 78, 79, and 80. 



22 



SECOND STEP. 



Let the Exercises which follow, be taught with 
the same process of Pattern from the Modulator, 
first one part and then the other taatai-ing in tune 
every difficult rhythm Sol-faa-ing from the book 
laa-ing from the book collective reading of words 



study of breathing places and singing to worda, 
as before. Before each exercise, when the key -tone 
is pitched, let the pupils sol-faa by the manual signs 
the ttco chords, thus d m a, a t r> d 1 , or in middle 
keys d S| m, i t t, r d. 



Ex. 77. KEY A. 



WHEN LANDS ABE 



: s 

When 

: s. 



:d 

When 



d : - .d|n : r 

lands are gone f and 

HI i - .HI! S| : S| 



and 



ii ;-.i 

lands are 



r 
gone 



: d |r : r 

mon - ey's spent, Then 



d :d 



: - .n | n 



2 In youth t the time we thus employ, 
Is counted as t the richest joy. 



t, 



mon-eys spent, Then 



Then 



GONE. 
n : - .n Is 

learn - ing is 

d : - .d 1 1, 

s :d r 
loam - ing is 

t, : d Is, 

learn - ing is 

3 When little else t old age can cheer, 
These harvests are t most rich and rare. 







2. P. 


: r 


n 


: r 


' d ) 


tmost 


ex 
d 


- ccl 

: si 


- lent. I 

|pli 


: - .r 


n 


: r 


Id 


tmost 

: - .s, 


ex 

8, 


- eel 


- lent. 

Id 


tmost 


ex 


- eel 


- lent. 



Ex. 78. KBY B). M. 72. 


FARMER JOHN. 


' 
s. 


d : S| | n, : d| 


s, : s, |s, : 


s 


t| :t| |d :d t ( 


(2'. Hard 
3. Con - 

^ s, 


hale old man t is 
work - er, too, t is 
tent - ed soul \'\& 
d : s i | r.i : d, 


Far - mer John, A hap - py man is he; 
Far - mer John, He la - hours ev - 'ry day, 
Far - mer John, Light- heart - ed, gay, and free ; 

si : s, |si : s, s, : s, |n, : d, si 


: s. 


d : s, |n, : d. 


s, : s, |s, : s. 




n : n |r : r d : 


He 
And 
In 

: s, 


ris - es, t with the 
as he ploughs, tor 
win - ter cold, t or 

d : s, |n, :d. 


lark t at morn.And 
sows the seed, He 
sum - mer bright,He 


sings right mer - ri - ly. 
sings his cheer-ful lay. 
whis- ties mer - ri - ly. 
d, : d |t, : s, d : 


| Tralala la la, la, la, 
[181,81.81,81! S| 18, | t. 


: 


s, ,S|.S| ,S| : s, .d | n 
Tralala la, la, la, la, 


, in .n : r .r |n ,n 


n /i : r .r d 


.d :d .t, |d II 


Mia la la la, t Tralala la la, Tra la 

'Id, .d : t, .t, |d ,d .d ,d : t, .&< n, 


la la la la. 

.HI : TI ,T\ |d| 


St. Co. (New). 









A. L.C. 



s, 
Tra 

.s, 



SKCOND STEP. 



Ex. 79. KEY F. M. 

( s .s : s : n 


76. Words by Fletcher. 

n .r : r : 


d .d : d : PI 


A. L. G. 

r .r : r : 


1. Little flow'r with 
2. Basking in the 

n .n : n : d 


starry brow, 
gladsome beam ; 

d .t : t, : 


Slumb'ring in thy 
Or, be- side some 

d .d :d :d 


bed of snow ; 
murmuring stream, 

Si .s, : t, : 


3. Thee no wind nor 
4. Type of truth, and 

s .s : s : n 

Or with light - ly 
Gently bow - ing 
n .n : n : d 

Nor the slee - ty, 
Close may sor - rows 


storm can tear, 
emblem fair, 

n .r : r : 

tinged ray, 
from thy nest, 

d .t, : ti : 

sweeping rain, 
hem it round, 


From thy love - ly 
Virtue strug - gling 

d .d : d .r : n .r 


mountain lair ; 
through despair, 

d : : 

way. 
breast. 

d : : 

plain, 
ground ; 


Winter gone & storms a- 
Greet the water's sil- ver 

d .d : d .d : d .t. 


Root thee from thy native 
Troubles bend it to the 


r .r : r : n 


r .d : 


t, : 


d .r : n : s 


n .d : r ; ' 


Peeping from thy 
Or mid fis - sure 

t| .ti : t[ : d 


couch of green, 
of the rock, 

s, .s^ : s, : 


With thy mod - est 
Hidden from the 

d .d : d : m 


simple mien, 
tempest's shock, 

d .d :t, 


Winter's cold, nor 
Yet the soul with - 


summer's heat, 
in is calm, 


Blights thee in thy 
Dreads no an - guish, 


snug re-treat ; 
fears no harm ; 


s .s : s : n 


n .r : 


r : 


d .d :d .r : 


n .r 


d :- : 


How I love to 
Vie with snow - y 

n .n : n : d 


see thee lie, 
li - ly's bell, 

d .t, : t, : 


In thy low se - re -ni- 
Queen and fai- ry of the 

d .d : d .d :d .t, 


ty. 

dell. 

d :- : 


Chill'd by snow or 
Conscious that its 


scorch' d by flame, 
head may rise, 


Thou for ev-er art the 
Planted 'neath congenial 


same, 
skies. 


Ex. 80. KEY D. M. 60, twice. 

n : : I n : r : n 


COME, GENTLE MAY. 

S t "~* """" ^~* ~~ 

May, 
May, 

May, 

n : : | : : 

n : s : s |n : s : s 

Win-ter, cold win - ter f has 
Chil-dren are long - ing f for 
Deck with thy beau - ty t each 

d : t, : t. d : n : n 


d 1 : 


A. L. C. 

: It :r' :t 


1. Come, gen 
. 2. Come, flow' 
3. Come, love 

d : : |d :t 


- tie 

r y 
iy 
, :d 


Come, gen - tie 
Come, flow' - ry 
Come, love - ly 

n : : r : ti : r 


d- :- :- |- :- 

May, 
May, 
May, 

n : : | : - 


d 1 : 

ling 
ver 
wav 

n : 


: n is : : \ 

er'd long 
dant fields, 
ing bough, 

- : d it, : : 



St. Co. 



St. Co. (New.) 



SECOND STEP. 



t :t :t Id 1 :- :s 

Now let thy balm - yt 
Deck'd with thy flow'rs t so 
Bring us the haw - thorn' sf 

r : r : r I n : : n 



s 

breez - 

bright 

whit 

n : 



: n I r : : 



es play ; 
and gay, 
cn'd spray ; 

:d It, :- 



d 1 :- 


: n Is : - 


birds' 


sweet song : 


res 
ng 


ence yields ; 

'rest thou? 


n : 


:d |t, :- 



) ling - 
I" ^ 



Come, 
Come, 
Come, 

d :- 



Beating twice to the measure. Let Ex. 80 be 
patiently taataid, while the teacher beats every 
pulse, never pausing and never hurrying. Only 
thus can the exact lengths of sound and silence be 
appreciated. But when six-pulse measure moves 
more quickly than this should do, each pulse is 
regarded by the ear as a third of a pulse, and t 
whole measure as a two-pulse measure with ample 
use of " thirds." In this case the conductor beats 
only twice in a measure. 

Modulator Voluntaries are used at every lesson. 

Ear Exercises, like those in "Hints for Ear 
Exercises," and if possible, ear exercises in which 
the pupil writes the answer, will also bo as con- 
stant as the lesson hour. If tho teacher finds that the 
pupils do not discover which is r easily, he docs 
not either tell them or let them guess, but he 
reminds them again of the mental effect ot r, and 
illustrates over again the high rousing r and the 
low prayerful r, and then again tests them. 
After the Sol-fa prelude, the pupils must bo very 
careful to note to which tone figure one f 
They do not possess a sufficient clue unless they 
catch the first note. The teacher should be very 
careful to make his own pattern clear. One way 
in which a teacher keeps all his class at work is 
to cause all that can answer to hold up their hands, 
and then to select those whose answers he wishes. 
Another way is to give the proper answer and ask 
all who wore right to hold up hands. 

In time ear exercises the teacher 1st taataii with 
accent two plain measures, then continuously loan 
a rhythm of two measures on one tone, which he 
requires his pupils to write or taatai. 2nd, he sol- 
fau a short rhythm, and requires his pupils to 
taatai it fw tune. Many of the old exercises and 
some of the "Hints for Ear Exercises will give 
him ready materials. 
St. Co. (XcwJ 



n : r : n 

tie 



- ry 



gen 

flow' 

lov 

d : t, : d 



n : s : s In : s : s 

Fill all the woodsf with the 
Longing for plea-sure f thy 
Beau-ti - ful May-time,twhy 

d : t, : t, Id :n :n 
s : : 1 s s 

May. 

May. 
May. 

in : 



Dictation. Notation, and with it, clear percep- 
tion, will be cultivated by Dictation Exercises. 
The second part of Ex. 77, second score (or line), fifth 
measure (always counting the first part of a mea- 
sure as one) would be dictated thus: "TAA lower 
t," "-AA-TAir" "TAAr" SAA " "SAA" &c. 
>.x. 78, third score, first measure, would be dictated 
thus: "tafatefe lower s, s, s, s," "TAATAI lower 
s, lower t," "TAA -AA r." 

Pointing from Memory and Writing from 
Memory will still be practised diligently, as rccom- 
mcndedatpage 12. The teacher who can appoint half 
an hour before or after the regular class meeting 
for memory pointing, memory writing, and dictation 
exercises finds the interest of his class and the 
accuracy of its knowledge ten folded. At the close 
of every- lesson, one or two of the exercises should 
bo chosen for the memory exercises bf tho next 
meeting. Tho pupil should copy that exercise six 
or ten times from tho book, until he finds by testing 
himself that he can write it from memory. In tho 
presence of the teacher, even at first, ten minutes 
is sufficient for writing from memory on clear paper 
without book. Meantime the teacher may walk 
about his class to give advice or information In 
less than five minutes the quickest have their exer- 
cisesready. The teacher glances over them andmarki 
them as suggested at page 12,andthe secretary credits 
the marks in favour of each pupil, in tho class book. 
The teacher can make remarks on the common 
errors, or shew them on the black board. 

Elementary Certificate. Pupils now begin to 
make up their list of six tunes for the Elementary 
Certificate. See Preface. 

SUPPLEMENTARY EXERCISES for this step may be 
found in Wall Sheets 



SECOND STEP. 



25 



QUESTIONS FOR WRITTEN OR ORAL EXAMINATION. 



1 Is the watchfulness of a Class- 
teacher sufficient to form in his pupils 
habits of position, &c. 1 Who must form 
'ihern ? 

2 What is the object of the " Chest 
Exercises?" 

3 In the "Vocal Klang Exercises" 
what are the chief points of the pupil's 
study 1 

4 Describe the four steps of this ex- 
ercise and the reasons for each ? 

5 What is the special purpose of the 
"Tuning Exercises," and what are the 
three points to which the teacher will 
give attention during these exercises 1 

6 When the tonic chord is established 
in the ear, what do you yourself feel 
to be the mental effect of a high May 
when sung somewhat slowly ? Describe 
the effect in your own words, as nearly 
as you can describe it, but be careful to-- 
describe only your own perceptions not 
those of others. 

7 In the same way, describe the 
effect of a low Ray. 

8 What mental impression do you 
receive from a high Te 'I 

9 What feeling is produced by a low 
Tel 

10 How do you distinguish vowels 
and consonants ? 

11 What kind of persons are com- 
monly lazy in their use of lip and 
tongue, and consequently indefinite in 
their vowels and consonants ? 

12 Why is the clear and marked de- 
livery of vowels so important to the 
singer ? 



DOCTRINE. 

13 In choosing breathing-places, what 
consideration is more important than 
that of the natural division of the mu- 
sical line or section into phrases 1 

14 Give an example (different from 
those referred to above) in which 
" breathing for sense" would contradict 
the "breathing for phrase." 

15 Give an illustration of " breathing 
for emphasis." 

16 Describe the "musical form" 
called a Round. 

17 What is the chief difficulty in sing- 
ing a Round ? 

18 Describe the Four-pulse Mea- 
sure. 

19 Describe the Six-pulse Measure. 

20 What sign is used for the medium 
accent? 

21 What is the time name for a silent 
pulse ? 

22 What is the name for a tone a 
pulse-and-a-half long ? 

23 How do we name that quarter of a 
pulse which occurs at the end of the first 
half! that, at the end of the second 
half ? that, at the beginning of the first 
half ? that, at the beginning of the 
second half ? 

24 How would you dictate the last 
three measures of Ex. 79. 

25 When tones related to one another 
as Doh, Me, and Soft are, or as Soh,, Te t , 
and Bay are, are sung together or in 
succession, what is such a combination 
called ? 

26 When one such chord has been 
first heard and has pre-occupied the ear, 



if another such chord starts from the 
highest tone of the first what can you 
say of the relationship between them .' 

27 Name or write a third, a sixth, 
a tenth. 

28 How are sixths related to thirds ? 
How are tenths related to thirds ? 

29 What is the quality in these inter- 
vals which makes them so much used in 
Harmony. 

30 What is the difference between a 
common unison and an identical r.ni- 
son? 

31 Where are octaves and identical 
unisons useful in two-part harmony ? 

32 What effect on the harmony would 
consecutive octaves and unisons produce ? 

33 Name or write two fifths, and two 
fourths. 

34 How are fourths related to fifths ? 

35 Of fifths, fourth, and thirds, which 
contain the nearest or most perfect 
agreement of vibrations? Which the 
sweetest ? 

36 In what case are fifths avoided by 
composers ? 

37 Why are they not very much used 
in two-part harmony ? 

38 How are fourths regarded in rela- 
tion to harmony ? 

39 Name or write four different sorts 
of Concords. 

40 Name or write several Discords. 

41 Describe how the Discords you have 
heard are prepared and resolved. 

42 Describe the passing tones you 
i have noticed on the weak part of a 
! pulse. 



43 Hold a steady tone without taking 
breath for ten seconds. 

44 Sing Doh, Me, Soh, DoW, Doh\ Soh, 
3Ie, Doh, in Keys D or C, to the " for- 
ward" Italian Laa, as softly and as 
pleasantly as you can. 

45 Sol-fa any example you please 
shewing the Mental Effect of high Bay 1 , 
of low Bay, of high Te, of low 
Te. 

46 Sing to words the upper part of any 
one of the Exs. 65 to 70, chosen by 
the examiner. Sing correctly as to 
Time Tune and Pronunciation, without 
breathiness of tone and with proper 
breathing places. Marks should be 
giver, for each of these four points. 

47 Ditto with Ex. 77 to 80. 

48 Sing to Laa the Kay and the Te, to 
any Doh the teacher gives. 

49 Sing to Laa the Hay' and the Te to 

St. Co. fNew.J 



PRACTICE. 

any Doh the teacher gives you. 
50 Taatai from memory any one of 
the Exs. 71 to 75, chosen by the ex- 
aminer. 

.'51 Taatai the upper part of one of 
the Exs. 77 or 78, chosen by the teacher. 

52 Taatai-in-tune the upper part of 
one of the Exs. 79 or 80, chosen by the 
examiner. 

53 Point on the modulator from mem- 
ory (sol-faaing) any one of the follow- 
ing lour Exs. 65, 66, 67, 69, chosen by 
the examiner. 

54 Follow the examiner's pointing in 
a new " voluntary," containing Doh, Me, 
Soh, Te and Kay, but no difficulties of 
time. 

55 Write, from memory, any other of 
these exercises chosen by the examiner. 

56 From any phrase (belonging to 
this stage) sung to figures, tell your ex- 



aminer (or write down) which figure was 
sung to Rny, to Bay 1 , to Te,, to Te. 

57 Having heard the tonic chord, tell 
your examiner (or write down) which 
tone of the scale (Doh, Me, Soh, Te or 
Bay] was immediately sung to skaa. Do 
this with two different tones. 

58 Taatai any Rhythm of at least two 
measures belonging to this step which 
the examiner shall laa to you. He will 
first give you the measure and the rate 
of movement by taatai-ing two plain 
measures and marking the accents 
without beating time, but the two 
measures you have to copy he will aim- 
ply laa on one tone. 

59 Taatai-in-tune any Rhythm of at 
least two measm-es, belonging to this 
step, which, after giving the measure 
and rate as above, the examiner may 
sol-faa to you. 



26 Ex. 813. 

THIRD STEP. 

To execute more difficult Chest, Klang and Tuning Exercises. To recognize the a and b positions, and the 
various constitutions of Chords, the resolution of the " Major Dominant," and the dissonance d <i'innt \ iti 
S. To recognize and produce the Fourth and Sixth of the Scale. To observe the relation of speed of movement 
to mental effect. To recognize the different sorts of voices. To recognize and produce one tone in absolute pitch 
and one rate of movement. To pitch tunes. To select breathing places. To gain first ideas of Expression. To be- 
come conscious of the great break from the thick or first to the thin or second register. To strengthen in men the 
thin or second register. To recognize and produce half-pulse silences, various divisions of sound produced by 
combinations of quarter-pulse and syncopations. To study the elements of Chanting. To recognize the partial 
dissonance t f, and the unprepared dissonance f against s. To recognize the relative motion of two parts. 



Ex. 81. CHEST EXERCISE. The same as Ex. 
54, except that 15 seconds may now be expected 
from all instead of ten. If the teacher is not quite 
sure of being able to count M. 60, ho will use at 
least a string metronome. 



Ex. 82. VOCAL KLANG EXERCISE. To be used 
with Manual Signs and with the same processes as 
Ex. 55. After exercising in each key, let the 
teacher test the pitch. There should be no flatten- 
ing in these chordal exercises. 



II' 



KEY C, B and D. Vocal Klang Exercise. 



d 1 :- 



Ex. 83. TUNING EXERCISE. To be used with 
the same processes as Ex. 56, taking care to secure 
a soft tone, each part listening for the others and 



learning to enjoy the perfect blending of the voices. 
Ex. 85 and 86 to bo used in the same way, without 
words. 



KEY D. Tuning Exercise for three 

d' : Is :d' t 



n : Is 
d : In 



: n 
:d 



'equal" voices. 

r 1 



I 



Positions of Chords. In connexion with the 
toning exercises, a study of the " positions " and 
" constitutions " of chords will promote thoughtful, 
and therefore sure singing. Only the more intelli- 
gent classes, or the more intelligent members of 
classes will be expected to pursue this study. 
When the tones of a chord stand one above the 
other as closely as possible (as D when it stands in 
tHc order d, m, s counting upwards, or S when it 
stands in the order s, t, r) they are said to bo in 
their normal position, the lowest tone being called 
th(s Root, the middle tone its Third, and the highest 
its Fifth. In Ex. 56, measures 3" and 8 D is in its 
44 normal " position. In Ex. 83, measure 3, pulses 
1 and 2 S is in its normal position. Let the pupils 
listen to them afresh, and feel their strength. In Ex. 

St. Co. (New.) 



S 



: s 



d 1 :- I- :- 

n :!:- 



s, : It, : si 

y .o- - y 

83, measure 3, pulse 4, S has its root in the lowest 
part, but is not in its normal position. When the 
root is in the lowest part the chord, even if not in 
its close normal form, the chord is in the position. 
When the third is in the lowest part, the chord is 
in its b position See Db in Ex. 85, measure 2, pulse 
1, and SA in Ex. 83, measure 3, pulse 3. Lot the 
pupils listen to them afresh and mark their compara- 
tive weakness. When the fifth is in the lowest 
part, the chord is in its c position. This will be 
illustrated at the next step. The a position is best 
and most used. The b position is much used to 
make the melody of the lowest part smoother .,r 
more pleasant. The. c position is only used in 
cases, to be afterwards noted, but chiefly in the 
close of a section, as in Ex. 85. 



Ex. 846. 



THIRD STEP. 



27 



institution of Chords. One or more of the 
constituent parts of a chord may be omitted or 
. doubled. In Ex. 56, measures 3 and 8 D ih <n>m- 
plc-to. Completoieas we mark (when we wish to 
mark constitutions) by a figure 1, thus Dal. See 
Sal in Ex. S3, measure 3, pulses 1, 2, and 4. 
The root (the most important tone of the chord) is 
often and freely doubled. The trebling of the root 
(not uncommon in four-part harmony) i&^narked Tiy 
> 2. In Ex. 56 measure 7, pulse 2, the root is trebled, 
indeed, the chord has to be supposed. If, however, 
a third or fifth were added to this trebled root we 
should call it the chord S2. The third, the source 
of sweetness, is rarely omitted. Its omission would 
be indicated by 3. The third is doubled frequently 
in D, DC, Fn, and F< ; but in Db and Fb, where 
the third is already made prominent by being in 
the lowest part, its doubling (too much sweetness) 
is avoided (See Minor Chords, page 46) except for 
the sake of better melody in the parts ; and in S 
the third cannot be doubled, because its t always 
goes to d 1 of the next chord, and we should then 
have the bald effect of two t's going to two d''s 
consecutive octaves. See page 21. The doubled 
third is marked by 4. It is quite common to omit 
the fifth. Being so like the root, its presence or 
absence is less noticed than that of the third. Its 
omission is marked 5, its doubling 6. See Da5 in 
Ex. 56, measures 4 and 7, and Ex. 83, measures 1 
and 4.' See S5 in Ex. 83, measure 2, and S5 in 



Ex. 

/T\ 

d 1 


85. KE 

d':d' 


Y C. ' 

t :- 


?unin, 

/> 
. t 


* Exerc 

d':d' 


ise, as a 

d':t 


bove. 

d':- 


n 


s : n 


s : - 


S 


s : n 


n : r 


n :- 


d 


rv : d 


s : - 


S 


n : d 


s,: si 


d:- 



measure 3. Omitted roots omitted foundations 
are marked om, but we only interpret a chord as 
having its root omitted when the habits of the ear 
make it absolutely necessary tor us to think of the 
absent root in such a place. See Ex. 83, measure 1. 
Progression of 8. Notice that S seldom moires to 
any other chord than D, its t going to d', its/ r to 
m or d, and its s to d or s or more rarely to m. 
See the close of Ex. 83, and Exs. 85 and 86. Thus 
these two chords, which are in their own internal 
structure the same, acknowledge a relationship to 
one another. S proves itself the clinging depen- 
dent on D. But, like other dependents, it is said 
to dominate that is to rule the key,-^and is called 
the Dominant. In fact, its clear declaration of 
allegiance to D decides the key. Wherever, in the 
region of pitch, two such chords thus cling together 
there is a key. Let the pupils listen afresh to the 
softly load close of Ex. 83. 

The Chord Four Soh. Notice, at the close of Ex. 
86, the dissonance d against r occurring in the 
chord of S, the third of the chord being omitted 
to make room for it. It would be counted as a 
fourth in this chord. We call the chord " Four 
Soh," and write it thus 4 S. In this case the posi- 
tion is a and the constitution 3. 

Ex. 84. Name, pulse by pulse, the chords, with 
their positions and constitutions, of Ex. 85 and 86. 
Thus Dad, Sal, &c. 



Ex. 

n 


86. KI 
n : r 


Y G. 

n : - 


Tunin 

/r\ 

n 


g Exerc 
r :d 


ise, as a 

r : r 


bove. 
n :- 


d 


d :t, 


d :- 


d 


ti : d 


d: t. 


d:- 


d 


d : si 


d :- 


d 


si :PI, 


s,: si 


d:- 



L/ froms to AX. i 

'From ail-that dwell -be | low the skies 
Let the- Ore | a tor's praise a rise 



Words to Er. 85 to be taught at Ex. 110. 

'E ternal are-thy | mer cies Lord 

'E ter nal | truth at tends thy word 



Let the-Re deem er's | name be sung 
Through every | land by ev' ry tongue 

Words to Ex. 86 to be taught at Ex. 110. 



'Thy praise-shall sound 'from | shore to shore 
Till suns-shall I rise and set no more 



Glory-to thee-my God-this night 'for all-the 

blessings | of the light 
Keep-me-O keep-me King-of Kings 'be neath- 

thine | own Al might y wings 

For give-me Lord-for thy-dear Son 'the ill-that 

I-this. | day have done 
That with-the world-my self-and thee . I 

ere-I | sleep at peace may bo 

St. Co. (New.) 



Teach-me-to live-that I-may dread 'the grave-as 

little | as my bed 

Teach-me-to die-that so-I may . rise glorious 
| at the judg ment day 

'0 may-my soul-on thee-re pose 'and with. sweet 

sleep- mine | eye lids close 
Sleep-that -may me-more vigorous make 'to 

serve-my | God when I a wake 



' / - 



28 



THIRD STEP. 



Ex. 8796. 



The Hold (/r\) signifies that the note below it 
may be held as long as the conductor or singer 
pleases. 

Mental Effects of Fah and Lah. The mental 
effects of these tones are developed with the same 
process which was used for t and r, page 15. 

The manual sign for fah is the hand firmly 
pointing downwards. The manual sign lor lah is 
the hand hanging down from the wrist. 

Ex. 87. KEY A. Effect of high Fah. 
Id .t, :d .r |n :d |f :- || 

Ex. 88. KEY A. Effect of high Fah. 
|d :n |t, :s, |f :f In : - || 

Ex. 89. KEY A. Effect of low Fah. 

Id .t, :d .r |n :d | f, :- li 

Ex. 90. KEY A. Effect of low Fah. 

Id :t,.d|n.r:d | f , : f , | s, : - || 

Ex. 91. KEY G. Effect of low Lah. 

|d.r:n.t,!r : 1, |d : t, | 1, : - || 

Ex. 92. KEY F. Effect of low Lah. 

:s, |d :n :d |1, :- : t, Id :- || 

Ex. 93. KEY D. Effect of high Lah. 

:d In :s It :1 |1 :- Id 1 || 

Ex. 94. KEY D. Ditto. 

Id :n Is :n |1 :- |s : - || 

Ex. 95. KEY A. Effect of Fah and Lah. 

Id :B, In :d 1 1, :f |n :- II 
Ex. 96. KEY D. Ditto. 

Id :s |n :1 |f :s id : || 

Speed of movement and mental effect. Hitherto 
we have studied the mental effect of tones when 
sung slowly. Let the pupils sing any exercise 
containing lah and fah very slowly indeed, and 
notice how their mental effects are brought out. 
Then let them sol-faa the same piece as quickly as 
they can, keeping tho time and observing the 
change. Lah and fah are now gay and abandoned 

St. Co. (New.) 



instead of weeping and desolate in their effect, and 
the other tones undergo a similar modification. 
Let the pupils try in the same way any other tunes 
which are deemed most characteristic. They will 
thus discover for themselves that great speed of 
movement makes the bold tones (d m s) sharper in 
their effect, though still firm ; and makes the emo- 
tional tones (r f 1 1) more bright and lively, but 
leaves them still the emotional tones of the scale. 
Handel in his songs calls " to arms " chiefly by the 
use of d m s, but he also employs d m s with great 
rapidity of movement to express the abandonment 
of jolly laughter. Emotional laughter, however, 
he expresses by the rapid use of t r f 1. It is also 
well known how effectively his songs employ these 
emotional tones in their slow and more serious 
moods. Ex. 113 includes good illustrations of 
f and 1 in both aspects. In measure 3, pulse 2, and 
measure 4. pulse 2 wo have the quick fah in its 
lively, abandoned spirit. In measure 5, pulses 1 
and 2 we have the slower fah in its more solemn 
effect. In measure 7, pulse 1 we have the quick 
lah in its brilliant emotion. In the second-last 
measure we have the slower lah in its loving, earnest, 
serious emotion. 

The Scale. We have now studied a key- 
tone with its six related tones. Seven tones 
thus related to each other are called a scale. 
The successive tones of the scale ascending 
in pitch are, drmfsltd descending, 
d'tlsfmrd. The pupil must now prac- 
tise himself in repeating the names of the 
notes, in their successive order both in ascend- 
ing and descending, d m and s are readily 
classified as the bold and strong tones of the 
scale, and t r f 1 as the leaning tones. Of 
these last t and f have the strongest leaning 
or leading tendency, t leading upward to d', 
and f downward to m. Of the intervals of 
this scale and its harmonic structure, more 
at the next step. 

The Standard Scale of Pitch. Hitherto the 
teacher has fixed the pitch of the key-tone. Tho 
pupils themselves should now learn to do it in 
turn. Any conceivable sound can be taken as a 
key-tone, and the relationships of chord and scale, 
which we have already studied, will spring out of 
it. But, it is found convenient to have one 
standard scale of pitch tones by which others may 
be gauged. For this purpose a certain tone called 
tenor or middle C, which stands high in a man's 
voice low in a woman's, and is producible by a 



cl' 

t 

I 



THIKD STEP. 



29 



stretched string giving 256 complete vibrations in 
a second, is fixed upon as the standard, and its 
scale is called the " standard scale." This is given 
at the side. The octave of this tone C 1 (512 
vibrations) is usually given in tuning-forks , 
for vocal purposes. 

Pitching Tunes. The pupil strikes the " 
C 1 tuning-fork, and runs down to the 
tone he wants. That tone he swells out, * 
and then repeats it to the ayllable-doh. At 
first it will help the pupil's memory to 
notice that he has to spell the words " bag " 
and " fed " in running down this scale, 
thus : i 

Id 1 :- It :1 Is :f In :r |d :- || D 

C' SAG fUDC 

Eemembering C 1 . It is much more easy ~ 
to fix on the memory one tone in absolute 
pitch than is commonly thought, and it is 
a great advantage to be able to do so. Frequently 
the teacher asks his pupils to sound C ; (which in a 
man's voice is really C) and then tests them with 
the tuning-fork. In this way the power of recol- 
lection is soon developed. In estimating the 
chances of certainty, however, we should always 
bear in mind that any bodily or mental depression 
has a tendency to flatten even our recollections. 

Classification of Voices. In the following ex- 
ercises the parts are not kept within so close a range 
as before. It will not now be possible to " exchange 
parts." It is therefore necessary that the teacher 
should (either himself or by his assistants) examine 
every voice in his class and divide them into higher 
and lower voices. The female and children's voices 
are naturally pitched about an octave higher than 
the men's. The pitch tone G- stands at about the 
middle of the range of female and children's 
voices. In examining these voices, the teacher 
pitches this tone as a key tone and requires the 
pupil to sol-faa, first upward and then downward 
from it. If the fuller more beautiful and more 
easily produced tones of the voice lie above G it 
may be classed as a high voice. If the best tones 
of the voice lie below G, it may be called a low 
voice. Cultivation may afterwards make a dif- 
ference, but this simple mode of classification 
answers our present purpose. The high voices of 
women and children are called Soprano (pro- 
nounced Sopraano) ; the low voices, Contralto. 
The G, an octave lower than the last, serves to 
divide the men's voices in the same way. It is 
the quality of the tones above and below G 

St. Co. (New.) 



or G,, not the present reach of the voice, which 
decides the question. The high voices of men are 
called Tenor ; the low voices, Bass. 

The Compass of Voices upward and a 
downward varies greatly, and is not , 
a sufficient test of their fitness for 
the high or low "part" in the music, 
but it is useful to bear in memory that 
the easy compass of most voices is about 
an octave and a half. Basses and Con- 
traltos easily compass one from G 3 to 
C, the other from G, to C'. Tenors and 
Sopranos easily compass one from C, 
to F, and the other from C to F'. Voice 
trainers commonly give the name Mezzo- 
pronounced Metso) Soprano to voices 
which seem to be between Contralto and 
Soprano, and Baritone to voices which j 
are neither Bass nor Tenor. But the & 
most scientific of them have reached the | 
conclusion that true medium voices are j 
comparatively rare, and that those |' 



UVUl^JGUroUVOAjr ICUCy CU1U LIUIU MUHJBQ 

which seem so are commonly only un- ! 
cultivated Tenors or Contraltos, the 
high part of a man's voice and the low 
part of a woman's being the most liable 
to neglect. The diagram, at the side, 
shows the common easy compass of 
voices as given above. The difference 
of the type in the letters and the double 
printing of F, E, D is explained under 
the heading " Registers," p. 32. 



D< 



G 



E E 



D D 

C 



I; 



D, 

C, 
B 2 

A 2 



Octave Marks. The pitch of doh is 
always taken from the unmarked octave 
of the Standard Scale, and this d with 
the scale above it are without octave 
marks. But, to save the unnecessary 
multiplicity of octave marks both in 
writing and printing, the Tenor and 
Bass part are always written an octave 
higher than they really are. In quot- 
ing octave marks, as in dictation, it may 
be useful to distinguish the higher 
octave marks by naming them before 
the note, and the lower by naming them after, 
thus D 3 "two-D" D 3 " D-two " G 3 " three 
G" C| " C-one," &c. It will help the memory to 
notice that the higher comes first. Thus, we sav 
that the easy Bass compass is, as above, " from G- 
two to unmarked C," that of the Contralto "from 
G-one to one~C," that of the Tenor "from C-one to 






30 



THIRD STEP. 



unmarked F," that of the Soprano "from unmarked 
C to one-F." 

Men's and Women's Voices. Ask a man to sound 
the same note as a woman, girl, or boy, or ask them 
to sing together the air of a tune, and they will sing 
an octave apart. If you doubt this, get the woman, 
girl, or boy, after sounding what is commonly called 
the same note, to sing down the scale an octave ; the 
man then resounds the note he first struck. The ear 
will then feel that these two sounds last struck are 
really in unison, and that what commonly goes by 
the name of unison is really octaves. 

Naming of Parts In the titles of tunes the 
initial-letters are used to name the parts, thus : 
S for Soprano, C for Contralto, 1 for Tenor, and B 
for Bats. 

Breathing Places. After Ex. 113, the breathing 
places are no longer marked, but if the markings 
already given have been carefully studied, the 
pupils will be able to mark breathing places for 
themselves. Before the words are read collectively 
the class should do this under the guidance of the 
teacher, who will often remind them of the prin- 
ciples laid down, page 16. In addition, it may be 
noticed that if one wishes to take breath before a 
strong pulse, the time of the breath must be taken 
from the end of the previous weak pulse ; but that 
if one wishes to take breath before a weak pulse, the 
time of it may be taken away from the beginning of 
the same pulse ; that it is not only convenient but 
necessary to take a good breath before all long 
sustained tones or long connected passages. In 
sol-faaing or laaing breath should still betaken "for 
phrasing." This will lead to a study of the musical 
phrases. The importance of taking breath for clear 
soft "emphasis" will appear in such Exercises as 
97, where the purity of the tone on the first dl will 
be wonderfully improved by requiring a breath to be 
taken before it. 



Expression is such a use of loudwss and softnes* 
in singing as tends to make the music more expres- 
sive. Even in the earliest steps, pupils enjoy thus 
embellishing their music. In the fifth step the 
subject is more fully treated. Here it is enough to 
draw attention occasionally to what is indeed the 
chief part of expression that which is suggested by 
the words. In our Tonic Sol-fa books we early 
adopted the plan of using type-marks for this kind 
of expression. First, there must be fixed the medium 
or normal degree of force proper to the general 
sentiment of the piece to be sung ; then whatever 
words are printed in the common type are to be sung 
with that appropriate medium force, whatever words 
are printed in small CAPITALS are to be sung louder, 
and whatever words are printed in italic* are to be 
sung more softly. In writing, a single line is drawn 
under the words for italics, and a double line for 
small capitals. These marks of the pen can be easily 
added by the student to his printed copy. In Ex. 
97, the general sentiment of the words is subdued 
and prayerful ; therefore the common type indicates 
soft singing, but in the last two lines the spirit of 
earnestness rises to a climax, and demands greater 
force of voice. The general spirit of Ex. 100 is soft 
and gentle, but it should begin very softly increasing 
in force as the phrase ascends. Ex. 101 and 102 also 
open with ascending phrases to be treated in a similar 
way. Continuous or repeated tones, as in the second 
line of Ex. 103 and in Ex. 65, suggest the same 
treatment. Notice that any tun$s like Ex. 102 and 
103 which require a light and tripping style, require 
also a soft voice Observe, in all these cases, how 
useful this distinction of loud and soft is in marking 
out the musical phrases or in " phrasing." 

Ex. 97 to 103 should now be taught in the same 
manner as before, except that previous to each exer- 
cise, the teacher will put the voices in tune by 
causing his pupils to sing, after his manual signs, 
for a low key-tone, d m s f 1 dl s t r 1 d' and 
for a middle key-tone d 8 ( m d ti 1 ( d s, t, r d. 



SUN OF MY SOUL. 



Ex. 97. KEY C. 



Mainzer. 



l.Sun 

IWhen 

:n 

3.A - 

4. Come 



s :s |d' :t 

of my soul.t thou 
the soft dewst of 

n :n |d :r 

bide with met from 
neart and bless us 


Sa - viour dear, It 
kind -ly sleep My 
f :f |n :d 

morn till eve, For 
when we wake, Ere 


f is |n :d' 

is not nightf if 
wear-ied eye - lidst 

r :t| |d :n 

with -out theet I 
thro' the worldfour 


t :1 Is ' 

thod be near : 
gen - tly steep, 
r :d jti 

can - not live : 
way we take : 



St. Co. (New). 



: s 

Oh 
Be 
: S 

A - 

TILL 



s : s Id 1 : t 

may f no earth - born 
my last thought, t How 



r, 



: s 



bide with me t when 

IN THE O - CEANf 





THIKD STEP. 31 


1 :1 


Is : s 


1 :t Id' :n'.r' 


di :t id 1 


cloud a 
sweet to 
1 :f 


. rise, To 
rest For 

|n : n 


hide thee f from thy 
ev - er f on my 

f :r |n :f 


ser - vant's eyes. 
Sav-iour's breast! 

s : -.f in 


night is 

OP THY 


nigh, For 
LOVE WE 


with - out thee f I 

LOSE OUR - SELVESflK 


dare not die. 
HEAV'N A-BOVE. 



Ex. 98. KEY G. 

d : n Is : s 

La - hour's strongfand 
No de - spond - ing,f 



LABOUR'S STRONG AND MERRY CHILDREN. 



1 :s 



No 



Round for two parts. 



mer - ry chil - dren, 



re - pin - ing! 



: n !r : d 

Com - radesfof the 
Lei - sure must t by 



t, :d |r : 

ris - ing sun, 
toil be bought ; 



s :-.s|f :-.f 

Let us sing f a 

Nev - er yet t was 



: - .PI I r 



: r 



song to-ge - ther, 
good ac-com-plished, 



d : s, | 1 ( : t. 

Now our toil f is 
With-out hand f and 



done, 
thought. 



D.C. 



il 



d 

All 



ALL THE SPRINGING FLOWERS. 

Ex. 99. KB? F. Eound for two parts. 



:r |n :f 

the spring-ini 



d 1 : 1 Is : f 

All the stars a - 



f : 

How - - 



n 

ers, 



bove, 



Are 



n :f 

All the 

1 :f 



s : 

fruit - f ul 



: t, 



tell - ing God is 



t : 

show 



- ers, ) 



D.C. 



-Id : 



love. 



Ex. 100. KEY D. 

d .r : n .f | s : 

Lulla-lul-\a. -by, 



LULLABY. 

Round for two parts. 

d' :d' |t : 



lul - la - by, 



is :- 



lul - la - by, 



f :f 

Sweet-ty 



In 

sleep 



:n * 

with ) 



r 

M 



: r 
la 



f 

lul 



f 

la 



n :- 



lul - la - 



f : f In : n 

Sweet - ly sleep with 

St. Co. (New.) 



r 

M 



r 
it 



Id 

by. 



D.O. 



THIRD ST1CP. 



Ex. 101. KEY G. Round for four parts. 



DOH, BAY, ME. 



(Id :- I- :- 

' 1 Loh, 


Ray, 


Me, 


f :- |- 

FAH, 


. 


1 

Us : s |1 :s 

' I HOLD YOUR HEAD UP 


f :f |s :f 

in sol - faa - ing, 


n : n | f : n 

O - pen well your 


t 

r : r |n 

mouth in laa 


B.C. 
: r 

ing. 


WHO COMES LAUGHING? 




Ex. 102. KEY E>. 

Hd : d |r : r 
Who comes laugh - ing, 


Round for three parts, 
t 

n : n |f : f 

laugh-ing, laugh-ing, 


s : d 1 |s : n 

Who comes laugh-ing 


i- 

r : d .r! n 

here a - main 


P 


* t 

Hn :n |f : f 
We come laugh - ing 


s .s : s .s | s .f : n .r 

Ha,ha,ha,ha,ha,ha,ha,ha, 


d : s |n : d 

We come laugh - ing 


s, : s, |d 
hero a - main 


t 




t 

( 1 s .s : s .s| s .f : n .r 

f 1 Ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, 


d .d : d .d|r .r : r .r 

//a, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, 


t 

n .n : n .n| s .s : s .s 

lla, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, 


s .f : n .r |d 

Ha, ha, ha, ha, ha. 


B.C. 


GLAD HEARTS AND FREE. 




Ex. 103. KEY A. I 
nd : r : ti 

f | Glad hearts and 


mind for four parts, 

d : : 

free, 


* 

n : f : r 

Come sing u'ith 


n : : 

me. 




MS : s : s 

< 1 J ..-I, la, LA, 


s : f .n : r .d 

LA, la, la, la, la, 


si : Si : Si 

Well wo A - 


d :- : 

GREE. 


D.C. 



Registers. In the highest part of the compass 
of men's voices, and in the lowest part of the com- 
pass of women's voices, may be noticed a remark- 
able change in the quality of the tones. The place 
where this change occurs is called "the great 
break." It is in all voices between F and G. The 
break arises from the different way in which the 
tones are produced in the larynx. Below the break 
the tones are produced by what we may call the 
first or thick register of the voice, above the break 
by the second or thin register. In women's voices 
there is a yet higher register, beginning with g', 
which we may call the third or small register. 
These registers of the voice are indicated on page 
29, the "thick" register being shown by large 
capital letters, the " thin " by ordinary small 

St. Co. (New.) 



capitals, and the ' small " by common letters.* 

Optional Tones. Although the lower registers 
cannot be forced upward, beyond the limits men- 
tioned, without injury to the voice, the higher 
registers can in all cases be used some way below 
their proper limit. So much is this the case with 
the thin register, that the three tones F, E, and D 
are called optional tones, and the pupil is advised 
to exercise his voice in order to equalise tin; quality 
and power of these three tones, and to use either 
M-^-i.stcr interchangeably. In women's voices it is 
this thick register at the bottom which is commonly 
found to be uncultivated, and in men's voices it is 
the thin register at the top which is commonly left 
untrained. 

Italic capitals shew the Upper thick and thin registers. 



Ex. 104. 



THIRD STEP, 



33 



Recognition of the Lower Thin Register. 
It will bo seen from the scale, p. 29, that women 
naturally use this register in the middle of their 
voices and have no difficulty in recognising it, 
that, among men, Basses have little need for it 
except for solo singing and for any part-music 
which demands an uncommon compass of voice, 
hut that Tenors require a careful cultivation of this 
register and of the " optional tones." It may also 
be noticed that Contraltos require a special culti- 
vation of the first or thick register, but that is 
deferred till the next step. In order to enable men 
to discover and recognise the thin register, the 
teacher causes them to take a loud tone for doh 
(say D) , which is decidedly within the thick register, 
and then guiacs them by his manual signs to sing 
the chord slowly, thus, d m s. If he allows them 
to sing the soh softly, they will instinctively produce 
it in the thin register. Having once found that 
register, it will not be difficult for them to continue 
the same quality of tone in a downward phrase like 
the following, s f m r d. Having got back to the 
doh in the thin register they may then take breath 
and sing it again in the thick. Of course the pupils 
can take A| or G| for their key-tone. They will 
then have to follow the manual signs thus, d m s d 1 ; 
d' will be delivered softly in the thin register, 
and the descending passage in the same register 
would be d 1 t 1 s f m r d. It is better that all 
the men's voices should go through this experiment. 

Strengthening of the Lower Thin Register. Ex- 
ercise regular exercise strengthens the tones of 
this register so as to make them blend easily into the 
tones of the stronger register. Like all other exer- 
cises intended to strengthen th e muscles . it must have 
something of force and violence in it, a marked shock 
of the glottis (see p. 1) , but must not be over-strained. 
For strengthening the legs a run is better than a 
walk, but ot-er-exertion does more harm than good. 
Therefore the necessity in the following exercise of 
using well the forceful staccato syllable koo. It 
will be remembered that a new combination of the 
delicate muscles of the larynx is required for every 
conceivable sound which it produces and that all 
these muscles and combinations of muscles have to 
be exercised. Hence, the necessity of using this 
exercise in various keys, so as to bring intervening 
tones into play. Ex. 104 should be first sol-faad 
with the manual signs ; second, sung to koo 
five or more times, much more quickly and force- 
fully ; third, sol-faad again. On sol-faaing the 
second time the quality of the tone will be found 

St. Co. (New.} 



to be very much improved. But care must be 
taken not to fatigue the voices. At first five koo- 
ings will do this, and there must be a rest before 
the exercise is used in another key. The first 
and second keys will bo quite fatiguing enough 
at first. The keys are so arranged that without the 
use of the tuning-fork the teacher can pass from 
one to another. For example, after exercising in 
key B, he strikes ray, calls it doh, strikes the chord 
and proceeds with the exercise again. After thus 
using what is called the key of C sharp, he strikes 
te,, calls it doh, strikes the chord and proceeds 
with the exercise in key C. In the same way the 
ray of key C will give him key D. This exercise 
should be used for a very short time, at every future 
lesson of this step. If the class is a mixed one, women 
should join in this exercise, which lies in the lower 
compass of their voices, and is easy to them. They 
will encourage the men's voices, and prepare them- 
selves for a blending of the thick and thin registers 
at the next step. 

Ex. 104. To strengthen the Lower Thin Regis- 
ter. To be sung in the highest part of men's voices, 
and the lower part of women's voices. 

KEYS B, CJ, C, D. 



S 



n 



n 



TIME. 



ti :- 



The Metronome (pronounced mctronoani) is an in- 
strument for regulating the rate of movement in a 
piece of music. It is a pendulum which can be 
made to swing at various rates per minute. M. 60 
placed at the beginning of a tune in the Tonic 
Sol-fa notation means " Let the pulses of this tune 
move at the rate of 60 in a minute." The stroke 
of the metronome is the moment when it passes 
the lowest point of its arc. In the case of very 
quick six-pulse measure, the metronome rate is 
made to correspond not with pulses but with half 
measures " beating twice in the measure." 

Sustaining the rate of Movement. When a 
tune, as in psalmody, is intended to be sung to 
several verses, the singers may vary the rate of 
movement according to the sense of the words, and 
in simple songs this rate of movement may be 
occasionally accelerated or retarded to suit the 
sentiment. But even this power of varying the 
rate of movement with any good effect depends upon 
a previously gained power of sustaining the rate of 
movement uniformly. Exercises for the cultiva- 



34 THIRD STEP. 

tioa and testing of this power are frequently in- 
troduced. The teacher causes his pupils to taatai 
on one tone a simple measure, thus, TRAA TAA 
TLAA TAA, repeating it steadily, say six times 
with the metronome, so as to get into the swing. He 
then stops the metronome and they continue holding 
the rhythm steadily for another six measures. 
Just at the stroke of the first pulse in the next 
measure he lets his metronome go, and then the 
class immediately see whether they have sustained 
the rate. Accomplished musicians say that this 
power of sustaining a uniform speed is one of the first 
and most important musical elements. The irregular 
and ever-varying speed of movement, without any 
apology, on the ground of Expression, which many 
organists and precentors indulge m, is very painful 
to practised ears. 

Remembering M. 60. It is quite common among 
Tonic Sol-faists to be able by habit to form a concep- 
tion in their own minds of the rate of movement given 
in the title of a tune, without referring to a metro- 
nome. This power is gained by first fixing in the 
mind the rate of M. 60 as a standard of comparison. 
Then, twice that speed, M. 120, or a speed half as 
fast again, M. 90, are easily conceived. Even some 
intermediate rates are recollected with considerable 
precision. To fix M. 60 in the mind, the teacher 
frequently asks his pupils to begin taatai-wg at what 
they conceive to be that rate, and then tests them 
well with his metronome. The recollection of rate 
of movement is, like the recollection of pitch, af- 
fected by temperament of body and mood of mind. 
But these difficulties can be conquered, so that de- 
pression of either kind shall not make us sing too 

The silent half-pulse is indicated by the absence 
of any note between the dot which divides the 
pulse in two and the accent mark. It is named 
SAA on the accented and SAI on the unaccented part 
of the pulse. See Exa. 105, 106, 107. 

The three-quarter-pulse tone is indicated by a 
comma placed close after a dot, leaving a quarter 
to fill up the pulse. It is named as below, TAAfe. 
Ex. 105. Slowly, and quickly. 



With lighter accent and quicker speed TAAfe is the 
same thing as TAA-AA-TAI. And this is the same 
thing in small as TAA-AA-AA TAA. The teacher 
causes such an exercise as 71 to be sung quit kly 
and lightly. 

Two quarters and a half are indicated by the 
use of the comma and dot, as below, Ex. 106. Thin 
pulse-form is called tafaiAi. It is the sum. 
in its nature with the larger and more strongly 
accented time-forms TAATAI TAA and TAA TAA TAA 
-AA. The teacher causes such exercises as 72 to l>u 
sung rapidly. 

A half and two quarters are indicated as below, 
Ex. 107, and are called TAAtefe. This pulse-form 
is the same in its nature as TAA TAATAI and 

TAA-AA TAA TAA. Sec Ex. 76 

Syncopation is the anticipation of accent. 
requires an accent to be struck before its regularly 
recurring time changing a weak pulse or weak 
part of pulse into a strong one and the immediately 
following strong pulse or part of a pulse into a weak 
one Its effect in time is like that of a discord in 
tune It is a contradiction of the usual and ex- 
pected. Both the discord and the syncopation 
should be boldly attacked and firmly held by the 
voice, just as one grasps a stinging nettle to 
master it. Insufficient definitions of syncopation 
have led many singers to strike the new accent, 
indeed, but also to retain the original strong accent 
on the immediately folio wing pulse. This common 
misunderstanding entirely destroys the intended 
effect. In Ex. 108 the first line shews how synco- 
pations are commonly written, and the second line 
shews the real alteration of accent which they 
create and the manner in which they should be 
sung. Note that it is difficult to "beat the 
measure" in the ordinary way (see preface) during 
syncopations, because they seem to contradict the 
beating. It is easier to beat simply pulse by 
pulse. 

Exs. 105 to 109 should be taught as above, pp. 7, 
8, and 19, especially with " time-laa-ing," p 8. 



1 .1 


.1 


1 .1 : 


TAATAI 


SAA-TAl 


TAATAI SA 


KBY F. 






n.r : .d 


Ir.d: Is 


. f : n . | n .r : d . 


KHY Q. 






s : . : t 


,d.n: if 


.r:t,. |B.n:d. 


St. Co. 


(New). 





TAATAI 
KBY F. 

| s.r, : .lls.n: 



TJLA.SAI TAATAI TAA5J7 

Is.f :r I f .n : d . || 



KEY 

n.s: 



f.l: 



f.r.f. |n.d:n. 



THIRD STKP. 



85 



Ex. 10& Slowly, and quickly. 

ul .1,1 : 1 .1 | .1:1 

\ I TAAtefe TAATAI 



SAA1A.I 



1,1.1 : 1 .1 |1 

tafaTAI TAATAI I TAA&4/ 



KEY Q. 

d.r.n: d.S|| .l ( : 



: f .n|r. :d 



KEY F. 

|s.f,n:r.n| .f :n |n,r,d : t,.d | n. :r 



KEY G. 

n.s,f: n.d | .f : r |n,s.f : n.d 1 1|. :d 



KEY C. 

s.l,t:d'.s| .1 :s 



': t.s |f . :n 



Ex. 107. Slowly and quickly. 

1 .1,1:1 .,111,1.1,1:1 

TAAtefe TAAfe I tafatefe TAA 



1 .,1:1 .,111 .1 :1 .1 



TAAfe 



TAAfe 



KEY F. 

|s .f,nr.r .,d|t,,d.r,m:f 



KEY D. 

|d .r,m:f .,m|r,m.f,s:l |s ,,f:m .,r|s .f :n .r 

KEY D. 

|m .f,s:l .,t|d',l.s,m:r |d .,m:r .,f IPI .s :f .1 
Ex. 108. Slowly and quickly. 

) TAA TAA TAA TAA -AA TAA TAA TAA 



.f :s .m fl 



|s .m,d:s .,d|s,f .pi,r:m |r .,f:m .,d|f .1 :s ,m 



-AA TAA TAA 



Ex. 109. Skwly and quickly. 

I :1 1 .1 



, , 

.1 11.1 :-.! l-.l :1 .1 II 



TAATAA TAATAI TAATAI -AATAI -AATAI TAATAI TAA 



Chanting is the recitation of words on a single 1 
tone with, a musical close or cadence at the end. 
The chant of English origin, called the Anglican 
Chant, has either two reciting tones with cadences, 
in which case it is called a " single chant," or four 
recitations with cadences and is called a " double 
chant." The most important rule in reference to 
chanting is that the music should be well learnt 
'by heart" before any attempt to apply words to 
it. The chant is commonly and properly applied 
to prose words (see next step), but the chanting of 
hymns is not out of place when the hymns are very 
long. It also forms a good exercise preparatory to 
the art of prose-recitation. The rhythms are so 

St. Co. (New.} 



simple and admit of so little variation that attention 
can be almost exclusively given to distinct and 
sharp utterance. 

The division of words for Chanting is commonly 
made simply by placing a single bar where the 
cadence begins and a double bar where the cadence 
ends. In addition to this there have been many 
contrivances for guiding the manner of the recita- 
tion so as to secure appropriate breathing places 
and to prevent confusion. Our Tonic Sol-fa teach- 
ings naturally suggest the division of the whole 
into pulses. Our simple rules are that the syllables 
which ktmid together whether joined by hyphens 
or otherwise are to be sung in one pulse, that 



36 



TlilKD STEP. 



Ex. 110 



this mark ' before a syllable denotes a silence on 
the first half of a pulse and a convenient breathing 
place, that this mark . denotes a silent pulse, and 
this the continuation of a sound. In Ex. 8-5 
notice the rhythms to the short recitations TAA 
TAATAI twice, SAATA.I TAA TAA once, and SAATAI 
TAATAI once, and the rhythms to the longer 
recitations S^TAI TAATAI TAATAI twice, TAA 

tAATAI TAA TAA OnC6, and SAATAl TAATAI TAA 

SAATA.I once. Verify each of these rhythms and study 
the reasons for their differences of rhythmic form. 
Why will not one form do for all the short recita- 
tions, and another for all the long ones ? It is 
important to notice that the pulses of the cadence 
and of the recitation move at the same rate 
although it is customary and also natural to put 
more syllables into each pulse of the recitation than 
into those of the cadence. 

In teaching Chanting the teacher causes his 
pupils (a) to taatai a line by pattern, (b) to recite it 
by pattern, clearly and distinctly, and (c) to sing it 
to the chant already learnt by heart. 

Ex. 110. Chant the words to Exs. 8-3 and 86. 

New Consonances. Hitherto we have had for 
thirds and sixths and fifths and fourths (See p. 21) : 

n s t r 1 s r 1 

AND 

d n s t II 

Now, there are added 

1 d' f d 1 1 n' 

AXD 

fir f n 1 

The harmony student will find and mark cases of 
each new consonance, and listen to them while the 
music is sung. 

The Partial Dissonance. The very peculiar 
interval of the scale f to t with its inversion f to t, 
is not a discord according to the description at p. 21. 
But its effect on the ear forbids it to bo called a 
concord. The ear requires rest and sweetness after 
it, and therefore expects f to go to m and t, to d. 
We call it the partial dissonance. See and hear 
Ex. 116, M, m \,p 4. NOTE. / stands for lint or 
score, m for measure, and p for pulse, Ex. 119, I 1, 
m 4, p 4. But the effect of the partial dissonance 
is specially illustrated in the cadences of Ex. 99. 

New dissonances. We have hitherto studied (see 
p. 21) one dissonance, d against r. It is the model of 
those dissonances which occur on the strong pulse and 

St. Co. 



are regularly "prepared" and "resolved." We 
now have other dissonances of the same kind. In 
Ex. 114, in addition to d against r in m 3 and 6, we 
have 8 against 1 in m 4, and f against s in m 2. In 
Ex. 116, in addition to the ordinary d against r, 
I o,m 1, we have the same dissonance with delayed 
resolution / 4, m 1, and m against f with the less 
common interrupted resolution, the consonance 1 
"interrupting" the resolution of m' upon r', and 
f against s in II, m 2. 

f against s. Although this dissonance is used 
on the strong pulse, and with tho same kind of 
preparation as above, it is far more commonly used 
on the weak pulse and often without any sort of 
preparation. Its favourite form of melodic pre- 
paration, however, is when the f comes down step- 
wise from s and goes on as it always must to m. 
See and listen to Ex. 97, I 2, m 2, p \, 2, Ex. Ill, 
m 7, p i where f is unprepared and has an inter- 
rupted resolution, and Ex. 118, m 5, p 2. This 
dissonance f against s is tho model of unprepared 
discords. 

Belative Motion of Farts. Two parts may follow 
each other upward or downward at the same time. 
This is called similar motion, and is generally sweet 
and pleasant, as in Ex. 97, m 5, and in Ex. 99, when 
the first two measures are sung with the second two. 
Two parts n?ay move upward anddownward in opposite 
directions. This is called contrary motion, and is 
exceedingly gratifying to the ear. See and listen 
to Ex. 97, pulses 3 to 6 and 9 to 12, and Ex. 99, 
when the third and fourth measures are sung with 
the fifth and sixth. In the last case, indeed, the 
parts cross one another. The crossing of parts 
is common in Rounds, but not in other composi- 
tions. Anything which tends to confuse ono part 
with another is objected to in modern music. 
Oblique motion is that in which one part "stands" 
that is, continues the same sound, while the other 
part moves downwards or upwards. See Ex. 117, 
m 6, 7, und Ex. 97, beginning of line 2. Very 
much of the relative motion of parts cannot be 
described by these simple terms. The ear could 
not be satisfied with one sort of relative motion 
only. It requires variety ; but that which satisfies 
longest is the similar motion. 

Imitation. The music-student cannot fail to 
notice that every kind of imitation is agreeable to 
the ear. It is a great help to the singer to notice 
such cases. Imitations in the waving of the 



THIRD STEP. 



37 



melody or melodic figure such as that simple one 
in Ex. 70, I 2, where the air of the second measure 
imitates, in figure, that of the first, or that in 
Ex. 98, between the two parts at the opening of 
line 2, or those in Ex. 101, I 2, are easily per- 
ceived. The imitations in Ex. 116 are interesting. 
In the opening, the second part is imitated by the 
first, for a measure and a half, starting a fifth above. 
In the second line the music of " grief of heart " 
is replied to, a fifth above, by that of " killing care ; " 
then, the second part repeats "grief of heart" a 
small step higher and is again replied to by the 
air a fifth higher. Let the student carefully verify 
observations like these ; it will teach him to see 
more in a piece of music than most others see. 
When the imitation is in two or more parts simul- 
taneously, as in Ex. 97, pulses 9, 10, with 11, 12, it 
is called a harmonic sequence. The study of 
rhythmic imitation is very interesting. See in 
Ex. 113, I 2, tafaTAi tafaTAi TAA quickly replied to 
by the same rhythm with contrary motion. See 
TAA TAATAI TAA in Ex. 116. Find other examples. 

41 Elementary Rhythms," containing passages 
selected from popular songs, and published separ- 
ately, will now make good home practice and 
prepare for the elementary certificate. 



Ex. 111. 



II 



d 

Oh! 



r 

give 



OH ! GIVE 

KEY A. Hound for four parts. 
t 

n : d ,,d 

thanks to the 



Laa Voluntaries. When once the use of the Sol- 
fa syllables is fixed in the ear and has obtained 
mnemonic power, it becomes very important to 
prevent that otherwise useful power satisfying the 
pupil. The practice of laa-iny every tune which 
has already been sol-faad is a step towards liberty, 
but laa-ing the Modulator voluntaries is a step 
further still towards that ready perception of the 
mental effects of the tones, apart from associated 
syllables, which is desired. This practice, there- 
fore, of laa-ing at first sight from the teacher's 
pointing should be constantly used. 

The Pupil's Pointing on the Modulator while lie 
sol-faas must still be encouraged. Where it is 
possible for the pupils to point in class each using 
a mounted " Home Modulator," and holding it up, 
while the teacher passes along the rows behind or 
stands on a chair or table so as to overlook all that 
is the best plan. It makes all work. 

The " Standard Additional Exercises" appended 
to this book, introduce four-part pieces at this step. 

The " Standard Mixed- Voice Exercises " and the 
" Standard Men's Voice Exercises " introduce four- 
part music in the course of this step. 



THANKS. 







* t 






r : 


ti 


d 


: s, 


n : f 


s : n .,n 


f 


:r.,r 


n 


:d 


God 


of 


hea 


- ven, 


For his 


mer- cy en- 


dur- eth for 


cv 


- er. 










B.C. 


Si : 


S| 


S| 


:d 


: 


: 


S 


: s 


S 


: n 


Hai- 


le- 


lu 


- jah, 






Hal 


-le - 


lu 


- jah. 



PEACE, LOVELY PEACE. 
Ex. 112. KEY El?. Round for four parts. 

t 



d 


: r .r 


n 


: - .r 


n .n 


:f .f 


S 


Peace, 


love - ly 


peace 


a - 


gain re 


- news her 


youth, 


t 






t 


S 


A\ . f r l 
i,U . I .,! 


d 1 .s 


:s .f 


n 


: r 


d 


rah, 


hur- rah for 


Dcace and 


lib - er - 


ty 


and 


truth. 


St. Co. (New.) 



Hur- 
D.C. 



38 



THIRD STEP. 

PRAISE YE THE LORD. 



Ex. 113. KEY A. 

s, : - .s, |d : - .81 

Praise the Lord f with 

PI, :- .n, |n :- .s 
s.f.n :f,n.r |n : 


n : r |d : .s 
cheer - ful voice, f Ke- 

d : Si | HI : 
f :- . in 

Praise the Lord 
.81 li,t,.d :ti,d.r |d 


A. L. C. 
s,f .n : f,n.r |n : .s 


joice, f re- 
: .t,|d : 
Ee-joice, 

: - .n r : f 

f with cheer - ful 

; .S| li,ti .d i ti,d .r 


joice, 

: .t, Id : 

re - joice, 

in : .s 1,8. f :n 


re- joice, 
.8 |f,n.r : d .n r 


re- joice, 

:- .r |d : 

re - joice. 

:- -f, in, : 

re - joice. 

n :- .f |s :d 

To our God. f the 

s, :- .f, |n, : n, 

Sing the great - ness 
Ev - 'ry liv - ing 

n : r |d : 

ment f on high, 

d :s, |n, : 

psal - fry bring, 
t no - blest song, t 

n,r.d : r,d.t, |d .r : n .s 


voic, re- joice, - - - 

d : 1, .t ; : d .s, 1, ,t, :d .s, f, 


Praise 

t, :- .d |r .d : t, .d 


the Lord, re- joice, 

r :n |f ; 

t joy - ful raise 

fi : a, 1 1, : 

acts f ro - cord, 
name di - vine, 

s, : - .81 id : - .s, 

While the fir - ma- 

rii : - .n, in, : - . s, 

Trum - pet, harp, t and 
Bring your sweet - est, 

n r id : .r 

ma - jes ty. t Re- 
Si : f i mi : 

tune - ful string, 
loud and long, 

1 :- .1 is :- .d 

Praise the Lord f with 

f :- .f, in, :- ,n, 


1. In his tern - pie 

r, : - .HI |f .n, : r, .HI 


2. Now his migh - ty 
3. Now to praise t the 

r .n : r .d |ti : 


song of praise, 

f, .8, :f, .PI, ir, : 


t of our Lord, 
t crea - ture join, 

8 : - .f |n .r :n .f 


Sing his pow'r fond. 

n : - .r |d .ti : d .1, 


joice, f re- 

: .8, |d : - .n 
Re-joice, 

t, :r id : 
cheer - ful voice. 

si : - .f, |n, : 


Sound his praise f with 
Swell the chor - rusf 

/ s,f.n : f,n.r |n .f : s 


] joice, 

( n,r.d : r,d.t, |d .r : n 



St. Co. (New.) 



EX. 114. KEY C. 

S 
A~ 

:f 



THIRD STEP. 

AMEN. 



"" """ V 


1 :r 


r 


: s 


:f 


. 


- 



39 



Mainzer. 



- :d' 


- :t 


d 1 :-. 

men, 

d :-. i 

men, 


n : 1 


r : s 


- 


- 



S ! d 1 


f 


:t 


PI :1 


A 

.n 


:- .1 


- .r 


: - .s 


- .d :"- .f 


A 


. 


. 



r : s 


- .t :1 .t 


d 1 

men. 
PI 
men. 


- .ti : - .n 


r .s : f 


. 


. 



THE SKYLARK. 


Ex.115. KEY E|?. Words by Ho/jg. 


M. 96. 


A. L. C. 


s : - .1 : s 


S 


: - . f : PI 


n 


-.f :s 


1 :-.s:f 


n : r : n 


1. Bird of the 
rep. Em- blem of 

PJ : - .f : n 


wil - der-ness, 
hap - pi -ness, 

PI : - ,r : d 


Blithe - 
Blest 

d :- 


some and 
is thy 

- .r : n 


cum - ber-less, 
dwell- ing-place 
f : - .n : r 


Sweet be *hy 
Oh! to a - 

d : t, :d I 


2. Then, when the 
rep. Emblem, &c. 

s : - .f : PI 


glo< 


im - ing comes, 


Low 


in the 


hea ' ther blooms, 


Sweet will thy 


1st time. 

r : n : f 


n : 


D.O. 


2nd time. 

r : n : r 


d :- : 


ma - tin o'er 
bide in the 

PI : - .r : d 


moor-land and 
t, : d : r 


lea! 

d : 




de - sert with 

t, : t, ': t. 


thee! 

d :- : 


wel - come and 


bed of love 


be; 




de - sert with 


thee! 


P 

1 .t,d': s .n : s 




1 ,t,d': s .n 


: s 

la, 

: PI 


d .r,m: r .n,f : PI .f,s f .s,l: s ,l,t:d' \ 


La la la la, 

f .f : n .d : n 


la la la 

f .f :n .d 


La la la la la la, t 

d . : t ( . : d . r : n .f : n 


1 .t,d': s .n : s 




1 .t,d': s .n 


: s 

la, 

: PI 


d .r,n: f ,s,l: s .l,t d 1 


: : 


La la la la, 

f .f : n .d : n 


la la la 

f .f :PI .d 


La la la la 

a . : r . : n .f n 


St. Co. (New.) 












TIIIKD STEP. 



Ex. 116. KEY C. 

; i : 

d : r .n I f :f 
In sweet mu - sic, 



IN SWEET MUSIC. 



s :l.t|d' :d' 

In sweet mu - sic 

f : PI .r |n : d 



r : 


|r 


:f 


n : 


1 : 




Kill - 


ing 




care, 






t, :- 


It, 


: r 


d : 


.n|n : d 


S 










and grief of 


heart 



Id 1 :1 

kill - ing 

I : 



heart, 



: d 1 |t : t 

and grief of 

r ;n.f |g :f 

sleep, or hear - ing 

r : |r : 

hear - ing 

d : |t, :- 



n 1 :-| 

care, 

: |s 



d 1 : 

heart, 

PI : 

die, 

d :- 

die. 

d : 



1 .s 





Gebhardi. 


d 1 :t.l 


is : 


1 :s.f|n : \ 


is such 


art, 


is such art, f 


1 :s.f 


in : 


f :n.r|d : k 


; 


It : s 


r 1 : | :- \ 




kill - ing 


care, 


s : 


1 


- :s |f :r 


heart, 


and grief of 


- : 1 

and 


grief 


:s id 1 : 

of heart, / 


f 

x ~~ 

sleep, 


If :s.f 

fall a - 


PI : |PI : f .n( 

sleep, fall a - t 


1 : 


is :f 


n : |n : 


Fall 


a 


sleep or 


f :- 


|n : r 


d : |d : 





Ex. 117. KEY D. 



HALLELUJAH. 



> 


Hal- 

-.t:T 


t :-.! 

lo lu- 

-..:? 


S : f .n 


r.l :s.f 


n .d': 


: t 


d' : 

men. 

n : 

-jah. 


jah, Hal- 
- .n : r 


le - lu - 


jah, A - 

d .n : 1 .s 

mcn,Hallelu 


f .r:s.f 

-jah,Hallelu 


A - 






- 


- 


Ex. 118. 
d.s:-.f 


KEY A. 

- .n : - .r 


H/ 

r .d: - .t. 


iLLELUJAH, AME 
d . : n r : f 


N. 
PI : S 


f :r 


Mainzer. 

d. : 


Halle - lu 

d :t, 


- jah, A- 

1. :s,.s 


men, A- 


men, Hal- 
n ; .sr. d .t 


le - lu - 


jah, A - 


men, A - 


men. 
d. : 


Hal - le - 


lu - jah.A- 


men, A - 


mcn,Hallelu 


- jah, Hal- 


- le - lu- 


- jah, A- 


men. 



St. Co. (Xeic.J 



THIRD STEP. 



41 



Ex. 119. KEY A. 
: d .t, 



Art thou 

^ : n,.f, 



: - .r |n .,f : s .,d 

poor, yet hast thou golden 

n, : - .t, |d .,li: t ( .,d 



ART THOU POOH. 



t, :~ id :- 



slum 



bers, 

: |d : 



: n .,f 

Art thou 

: d .,r 



r 

rich 

ti 



: - .d I ti .,r : d 



yet is thy mind per 



:-.lils, 



r :- 

-plex'd, 



s, : 

ment ! 

s, : 



'n : r 

num - bers 

Id :t, 



:d.t, 

Dost thou 



:n 



d : - .r In .,f : s .,d 

laugh to see how fools are 

1, : -.t ( |d .,r : n .,d 



:d 



gold - en num - bers, 

1, :s, |f, :n, 



r 

Oh 

r, 



r : I n : f 


F. L. R. 

n : 


O sweet con 
- d : |d :t ( 


tent! 

d : 


1 : 


d :- 


t, :1, 


1 : 


Oh 

1, :- 


pun ish - 

r, : r, 


t ( : d 


- .r : n .,f 


s :f 


vex - ed 

Si : d 


To add to 

- .t, : d .,1, 


gold - en 

t, :r 


n : r 


d : | : 


sweet con 


tent! 


S; : f | 


n, :- I- : 



WHERE DO THE FAIRIES DWELL? 



Ex. 120. KEY C. 


A. L. C. 


s .1 ,t : d 1 


.r 1 |n' .r 1 : d 1 r',c 


I'.t : In'.r'.d 1 : 


.d 1 :t .d 1 


Tell roe where the fair-ies dwell, t Te] 

n .r :n .f |s .f :n 


L me, t Tell me t 

: s,f .n 1 : f ,n .r r 


where fair-ies 

i : r .n 






Tell me, Tell ma; 




r 1 : 


.r 1 :n'.r> Id 1 :- 


f .f \t \- .n :r .f 


1 : .1 


dwell ? 

f : s,f .n 

Tellu 


where fair-ies dwell ? 
f : s .f |n : - 

ic 


In some cay - ern dark an 

r .r : r .r |r .d : t ( .r 


d deep ? Oh ( 

f ^ \ 
d deep? 


In some cavern dark an 


r 1 : s 


.s:s |-.f:n.d't 


: .t n 1 : r'.r':r |-.d: 


t .1 s : .s 


no! I 

: r 
I 


n some qui - et mossy cell ? 

.n : n .n|n .r : d .n s 


Oh no! In the depths of shady woods? Oh 

: f .f :f.f if .n:r.f n : 


n some quiet mos - sy cell ? 


In the depths of sha - dy woods? , 


St. Co. (New.) 


D 



42 



THIRD STEP. 



Id' 
no! 



Not 
.3 



r' 

there, 
t 



.s In 1 j'.d'rr' .t 
not there do the fair-ies 
.8 | s .f ,n : f .r 



d' 

dwell 
n 



'" J 

Thenl 



r^d'.t 
tell me 



> 
: s,f jn 

tell me, 



tell me, 



: 


t 


:r' 


|f 


: f ,n .r 


where, 
S 


where, 

:f 


where ? 

Ir 


tell me, 









s .n',r' : d 1 .t ) 
All a - mongthe' 
n .s,f : n .s ( 



fra- grant flow'rs, 

f .f :n 



f .8,1 : s .f |n .f,s : r 

'Neuth the drooping li - ly's bell, 
r .n,f : n .r id .d : t. 



s jn',r': d 1 .t I .t ,d': s .s 

In tho pur-pie vio-let's Ded,'Tis 

n .s ,f : n .s I f ,f : n .n 



r 1 .U:n' .r 

there the lair- irs dwell. 

f .f :s .f In 



s .n'.r'rd' .t |1 .t,d': s 

La la la la la k la la la, 
n .8 ,f : n . ! f .f : n 



f .s,l:s .f 
La la la la la 

r .n,f : n . 



Iln .f,s : r 
la la la la. 

Id .d :t, 



s .n'.r'td 1 .t !1 .t,d': s .s 

La la la la la la la la la "i'is 

n .s,f : n . |f .f : n .n 



Modulator Voluntaries have now increased in 
rapidity and difficulty, though they are still confined 
to one scale. To make sure of avoiding mannerisms 
and to secure variety, the best teachers find it 
necessary to study and prepare their voluntaries 
when they come to this step. The " Hints for 
Voluntaries " are only intended to suggest such as 
are suitable for each step. The teacher who wishes 
his pupils to follow his pointing rapidly can teach 
them to do so, by never letting his pointer wait for 
them. 

Ear Exercises. A tew two-part Ear Exercises, 
as in the " Hints," can now be wisely introduced, 
but only to quick and observant classes. To others 
each " part " of the exercise will serve as a separate 
exercise. When the great majority of the class do 
not follow the ear exercises with pleasure, the 
teacher goes back to earlier steps, continually re- 
minding his pupils, not by words, but by examples 
and illustrations, of the mental effects of particular 
tones, and continually urging them to notice the 
first tone of the exercise after the " prelude." The 

St. Co. (NewJ 



r 1 .d^tin 1 .r 1 Id 1 

there the fair-ies dwell. 

f .f : .f In 



necessity of written answers to the ear exercises 
increases with the length of the exercises. 

Time Ear Exercises as at page 24, are still con- 
tinued. 

Dictation. See pp. 12, 24, but name the octim * 
as at p. 29. Thus, the beginning of the last line 
above "TAAtefe m f s" "TAA r" "TAAtefe s, 
one-m, one-r." 

Pointing from memory, writing from memory 
as at pp. 12 and 24. 

Elementary Certificate Slips being given to the 
pupils, they are now, that is six weeks before the 
close of the class, constantly coming up for indi- 
vidual examination in one requirement or the other, 
first passing the examination of the assistants, and 
then that of the teacher himself. The examination is 
conducted sometimes before the whole class, some- 
times privately, according to the convenience of 
teacher and pupils. All the requirements must be 
done within six weeks, else the examination begins 
again. 



THIRD STEP. 
QUESTIONS FOR WRITTEN OR ORAL EXAMINATION. 



43 



I What is a " hold "What does it 
signify .' 

2 What is the advantage of a know- 
ledge of chords to the singer ! 

3 Describe the normal position of a 
chord .' 

4 What are the root the third and 
fifth of a chord .' 

5 What is the difference between 
the a position and the normal position 
of a chord ? 

6 What is the b position of a chord ? 
the c position ? 

7 Which of these positions is the 
most acceptable to the ear .' and how 
are the other positions used .' 

8 What does the name " Constitu- 
tion" of chords refer to .' 

9 How do we figure the omission of 
the third ? of the fifth '! of the root ? 

10 How do we figure the doubling of 
the third ! and fifth .' and trebling of 
the root .' 

II Which of the three tones of a 
chord is most easily oni'tted without 
notice ? 

12 What quality of a chord is lost by 
omitting the third .'the root .' 

13 Which tone of a chord can be 
easily doubled because it is the least 
noticed .' and which because it is the 
most characteristic and important ? 

14 In the resolution of S into D 
where does te go ? sohl ray ? 

15 Why is S called the Dominant ? 

16 Describe the chord *8 

17 What do you yourselves feel to 
be the mental effect of low lah .' of 
high lah 1 

18 What is the effect of high fan 1 
of low/a/U 

19 How does greater speed of move- 
ment modify the mental effect of doh, 
me, and soft I of ray, fah, lah, te > 
Mention any examples that occur to 
you. 

20 Which are the strong tones of the 
scale, and which the leaning tones >. 
Which have the strongest leaning 
tendency '.' 

21 What are the successive tones of 
the scale descending in pitch 1 What 
are they ascending ; 

22 How many vibrations in a second 
give the standard pitch tone, middle 

3 ? In what part of men's voices is 
this C ? Where is it in women's voices ? 

23 Describe the manner in which 
tunes are pitched from the standard 
scale. 

St. Co. (New). 



DOCTRINE. 

24 What variable circumstances 
affect our power of recollecting a tone 
in absolute pitch ? 

25 What pitch tone stands at about 
the middle range of female and chil- 
dren's voices ? of male voices .' 

26 How do we judge whether an 
uncultivated voice belongs to the con- 
tralto or bass class of voices, or to the 
soprano or tenor ? 

27 What is the easy compass of the 
soprano voice ? of the contralto ? 

28 WTiat is the easy compass of the 
tenor voice ? of the bass ? 

29 Among uncultivated voices, 
which part of a man's voice is most 
commonly found to be neglected ? of a 
woman's ? 

30 The octave marks of a tune being 
taken from doh, how do we know which 
doh is to be without an octave mark ? 
In key G how would the lah below the 
key-tone corresponding with the pitch 
E be marked ? In key C how would 
the me above the key-tone correspond- 
ing with the pitch E be marked ? 

31 With what octave marks are the 
bass and tenor parts written 1 

32 In speaking of octave marks for 
the purposes of dictation, how do you 
distinguish the lower doh from the 
higher doh ? the lower C 2 from the 
higher C-. 

33 If we want fresh breath on a 
strong pulse, where do we take away 
the time of the breathing ? And if on 
a weak pulse .' 

34 Write down all the rules for 
breathing places which you can remem- 
ber. 

35 What is meant by "Expression" 
in music ? and what are the elements 
of tone chiefly employed in it 1 

36 In using the type-marks for 
expression of words what has to be 
first settled in the mind before those 
marks obtain their true meaning ? 

37 What, then, is the meaning of 
common type 1 Italic type ? SMALL 
CAPITALS ? 

38 What is the writing mark for 
Italics ? for small capitals ? 

39 How are ascending passages and 
continuous or repeated tones naturally 
treated for expression ? 

40 What other means are there, 
besides taking breath, of separating 
and distinguishing musical phrases one 
from the other while one sings ? 

41 What is the " great break of 
register " in the voice ? 



42 Where does it occur in men's 
voices ? in women's .' Between what 
tones in absolute pitch is it always 
found 1 

43 Where does the " small register," 
peculiar to women's voices, commence ? 

44 What are the three commonly 
used "optional tones" between the 
thick and thin registers ? 

45 Describe or write the exercise by 
by means of which men come to per- 
ceive their thin register. 

46 Why is forceful action of the 
larynx necessary to the strengthening 
of the thin register? What syllable 
puts the organs of voice into the best 
position for this kind of vigorous effort ? 

47 Why is it necessary to employ the 
strengthening exercise in various keys? 

48 Describe the process of using the 
strengthening exercise, Ex. 104. 

49 What is a metronome ? 

50 What is the meaning of M. 80. 
placed in the title of a tune ? 

51 How is the rate of very quick six- 
pulse measure marked ? 

52 Why is it necessary to have exer- 
cises for sustaining a uniform rate of 
movement 1 

53 Describe the exercises for attain- 
ing this power. 

54 Why should the rate indicated by 
M. 60 be fixed in the mind ? 

55 Describe the exercise for teaching 
this. 

56 What is the name for a silence 
on the first half of a pulse 1 for thf 
second half? 

57 How is a three-quarter-pulse tone 
indicated in the Sol-fa notation .' 

58 How is the pulse divided int 
three-quarters-and-a-quarter indicated 
in the time-names ? What are its two 
larger relatives ? 

59 How is the pulse divided into tw 
quarters-and-a-half indicated in the 
Tonic Sol-fa notation and in the time- 
names ; What are its larger relatives ? 

60 How is the pulse divided into a 
half-and-two-quarters indicated in the 
Tonic Sol-fa notation and the time 
names ? What are its larger relatives^ 

61 What is syncopation ? How does 
it affect the next following strong 
pulse? 

62 What is there in tune like synco- 
pation in Tune ? In what style should 
syncopation be sung ? 

63 What is chanting 1 

64 Describe an Anglican single 
chant a double chant. 



44 



THIRD STEP. 



05 What is the most important rule 
in chanting ? 

66 Why should a student of chant- 
ing begin by chanting hymns t 

67 By what marks are the words 
divided for chanting, so as to separate 
the words of the reciting-tone from 
those of the cadence ? How is TAA 
or iwy division of TAA indicated in 
the printing of the words I How is 
SA A indicated T SAATAI ? 

68 What relation is there between 
the rate at which the pulses of the 
cadence move and those of the recita- 
tion? 



69 "What is the process of teaching 1 
chanting recitations '. 

70 What are the new Consonances 
introduced at this step, distinguishing 
the thirds from the fifths ? 

71 What is the partial-dissonance, 
and its effect upon the mind ? 

72 What new prepared dissonance 
have we in this step .' 

73 What dissonance is considered 
the model of unprepared discords ? On 
what kind of pulse does it most com- 
monly occur, and what is its favourite 
melodic preparation ? 



74 Describe what is meant by the 
similar motion of two parts in relation 
to each other, by contrary motion, 
by oblique motion. 

75 Which kind of relative motion is 
the least wearying to the ear J Which 
is the most exciting .' 

76 What is meant by imitations of 
melodic figure ? 

77 What is meant by imitation of 
rhythmic form ? 

78 What is meant by harmonic 
sequence. 



TO Hold a steady tone with one 
brcnth for a quarter of a minute. 

80 Sing, softly and pleasantly, to 
the Italian Laa, Ex. 82 in keys 15 and 
D. 

81 Name, pulse by pulse, the chords 
with positions and constitutions in Exs. 
s itnd 86. 

8'2 Sol-faafrommemoryanyexample, 
yon please, shewing the mental effect 
of high fah, low fah, low lah, high 
M. 

W Give from memory an example 
of the manner in which speed of move- 
ment modifies mental effect. 

84 Repeat the names of the scale 
tones upward, downward, repeat 
the strong tones upward and down- 
ward, repeat the leaning tones upward 
and downward. 

85 Strike, by the help of a tuning- 
fork, the pitch tone C (for womerfs 
voices C', for men's voices unmarked 
< . and run down the standard scale of 
pitch. 

f-f. Pitch the key D, O, A, F. 

87 Strike from memory the pitch 
note C' (for women) and C unmarked 
(for men). 

88 Are the best tones of your voice 
ai'm-f G (for women and children) or G, 
(for men) or are they below that tone ? 

xfl What is the easy compass of your 
Toice ? 

00 For which of the four common 
parts in music is your voice best fitted t 

!'l Write the Soprano of a tune in 
key C with the proper octave marks. 
Do the same in key B. 

!_' Write down " three G " " G 
three" "two ray" "ray two" 
*' unmarked G." 

93 Write the letters by which you 
would indicate in the title of a tune 
that it is to be sung by two Sopranos 

St. Co. fXew.J 



PKACTICE. 

and a Contralto, by Soprano, Tenor, 
and Bass, by Soprano, Contralto, and 
Tenor. 

94 Mark breathing places, consider- 
ing the phrasing only, to Exs. 11 0, 101, 
98, and 115. 

ii.'i Mark breathing places for em- 
phasis in Exs. 115 and 120. 

96 Mark breathing places to corres- 
pond with the sense of the words in Ex. 
116. 

97 Mark with your pen underneath 
the words the style f " expression " 
you think it best to give to them in Exs. 
112. 119, and 120. 

!'S Sing to words any one of the 
exercises from 97 to 103 as required, 
pag; 25, question 46. 

99 Ditto with exercises 110 to 120. 

100 Sing to laa the lah and the ln/i, 
to any doh the teacher gives you. 

101 Sing to laa the /(i A and the fah, 
to any doh the teacher gives. 

102 Sing A in the thin register of 
your voice, in the thick register. 

103 In the key of C what are the 
Sol-fa names of your three principal 
optional tones ? in the key of G ! in 
the key of D ! in the key of A ? 

104 Sing to koo Ex. 104 with your 
thin register in key D. 

105 Taatai with accent a four-pulse 
measure, at the rate of M. 60 from 
memory, at the rate of M. 120, at the 
rate of M. 90. 

106 Taatai with accent eight four- 
pulse measures, sustaining the rate of 
M. 60, the rate of M. 90. 

107 Taatai from memory any one of 
the Exs. 105 to 107 chosen by the ex- 
aminer, the 1st measure being named. 

108 Taatai the upper part of any 
one of the Exs. 118, 116, or 120 chosen 
by the examiner. 



109 Taatai in tune the upper part of 
any one of the Exs. Ill, 112, 114, 116, 
117, us, or 119 chosen by the examiner. 

110 Recite in correct time any two 
of the recitations in the words to Ex. 
86 chosen by the examiner. 

111 Show examples of the new con- 
sonances introduced at this step. 

1 1 2 Ditto of the semi-dissonance. 

113 Ditto of the new prepared dis- 
sonances. 

114 Ditto of fa h against soh unpre- 
pared. 

115 Shew an example of similar 
motion between parts, of contrary 
motion, of oblique motion. 

116 Shew an example of rhythmic 
imitation, of melodic imitation, of 
harmonic sequence. 

1 17 Follow the examiner's pointing 
in a new voluntary containing all the 
tones of the common scale but no diffi- 
culties of time greater than those of 
the second step. 

118 Point and sol-faa on the modu- 
lator from memory any one of the 
following seven exercises, 97, 98, 99, 
100, 103, 111, 112, chosen by the ex- 
aminer. 

119 Write from memory any other 
of these seven exercises chosen by the 
examiner. 

120 Tell which is lah, which is fah, 
as directed, page 25, question ;"><;. 

121 Tell what tone of all the scale 
is sJcaa, as at page 25, question 57. 

122 Taatai any rhythm of two four- 
pulse measures belonging to this step, 
which the examiner shall laa to you, 
see page 25, question 58. 

123 Taatai-in-tune any rhythm of 
two four-pulse measures belonging to 
this step, which the examiner sol-faun 
to you, Bee page 25, question 59. 



Ex. 1212. 



FOURTH STE*. 

To perform Exercises for Strengthening the Chest, securing Purity of Tone, and perfect Blending if 
" Piirts." To know by ear the Chords of the Subdominant, Dominant-Seventh, Supertonic, Leading-toil^, 
Submediant, and Mediant in the Major Mode. To observe Cadences. To remember the structure of the Seal* 
in its conjunct intervals. To perceive Transition to the Fir.it Sharp and the First Flat Keys, its mechanism 
and its mental effect. To perceive Chromatic Resolution. To distinguish Cadence, Passing, and Extended Tran- 
sition. To Pitch Tunes. To learn correct Recitation, with special regard to the consonants. To learn the art 
of Chanting. To become familiar with the silent quarter-pulse and the sounding thirds of a pulse. To learn 
the art of Beating Time. To strengthen the Thin Register in Men. To recognise and strengthen the Thick 
Register in Women. To Blend the Registers. To understand Part-pulse Dissonances. To observe variant 
ooints of Musical Form. 

Ex. 121. CHEST AND KLANG. These exercises 
are now united. The lower part is to be sung as 
a chest exercise, always to the word " skaa-laa," 
and on one breath. When taken at the rate of 
M. 50 the pupil will have to economise his breath 
lor 20 seconds. Those who sing the upper part 
may take breath at the places marked. They 
must deliver the first measure very softly fppj, 
the second measure softly (p), the third measure 
with a medium force of voice (m), and the fourth 
measure with full force of voice (f). As soon as 
the exercise is thus sung, the singers must change 
parts for the sake of rest and variety, and this 
is reckoned one performance of the exercise. 
Let the exercise be performed thus : first time 
in key C, the upper voices "slurring" each measure 



to the forward Italian " laa," at the rate of M. 
Second time, the same in key D. The teacher will 
pass from key to key as directed, p. 33. Third 
time, in key G9, the upper voices singing to the 



staccato " koo," at M. 50. Fourth time, the same 
in key DJ. Fifth time, in key D, the upper voices 
laa-ing as above, at M. 50. Laa-ing is used here 
as a rest before the last effort. Sixth time, in key 
E, the upper voices sol-faaing-, at SI. 70. Sol-faaing 
is used here to make sure of correctness of tune 
in the highest tones. The teacher will be careful 
not to carry the voices any higher than is here 
indicated, for, especially in an exercise with in- 
creasing force, he may cause the first or thick register 
of men to be strained, and unfit them for chang- 
ing the register on the optional tonea. It ""is 
remarkable that the woman's voice changes into 
the small register just where, an octave lower, the 
man's voice changes into the thin register. But 
women do not commonly use optional tones below 
the G'. _ Their voices, however, require equal care 
to avoid straining. Basses may use this thin 
register for d ( in keys D #, D, and E. 



XBYS C, D, CjJ, D, D, E. Chest and Klang Exercise. M. 70, GO, and oO 
PP tjO . t / 



d .n:s .n 

Skaa 


|d .PI : s .ri 


f .] 


L:d'.l 


If. 




s .t 


:r'.t 


|S . 


t 


:r'.t 


d 1 


d : 


1- : 


f 


: 


i 




s 


: 


1 




: 


d' 



Ex. 122. TUNING EXERCISE. To be used with | the parts cannot be changed. Exs. 123 to 126 arc 



the same processes as descri 
KEY E. Tuning Exer 

d 1 :t Id' :- 


bed at p. 14, except that 
cise for three equal voices 

: 1 : 


to be employed in the sa 
d 1 :- |t :- 


me way, 

d 1 :- 


LA. X^lU tU l&U ' 

without words. 


PI : r 


In 


: 


: 11 :- 





: 


If 


: 


n : - 




i 
1 


: 


d : S| 


Id 


: 


fi 
. . 


f, 


: 


III 


: 


d :- 




1- 


: 



The Chord Fah. The tones f, 1, and d sung together 
form the chord of Fah. This chord considered 
separately and in itself is exactly the same as the 
chords D and S. But when placed in relation 



with those chords, that is, when starting from the 
fifth below the first or leading chord D, just as the 
chord S starts from the fifth above, it obtains a 
distinct mental effect. See p. 20. In Ex. 123 there 



St. Co. (New). 



'As to style of rendering 1 , see page 81, close of first paragraph. 



46 



FOURTH STEP. 



are two cases of F in its a position. Lot the exercise 
be softly laad, F being dwelt upon longer than its 
proper time, and let the pupils decide its mental 
effect. If D is called the Resting chord and S the 
Moving chord, F may perhaps be called the Serious 
chord. When D is called the Tonic and S the 
Dominant, F is called the Subdominant. It is 
much used before these chords in the Tonic close or 
cadence. See Ex. 123. It is also much used in its 
b position. See Exs. 124, 125, and 126. 

The Chord Seven-Sob. When f intrudes as a 
dissonance into the chord of Soh, the chord thus 
modified is called Seven-Soh, and written 7 S. The 
figure 7 is used because the f commonly oc3urs at the 
interval of a seventh above the s ; but it may occur 
at the interval of a second beneath the s. There 
is often an additional octave (making a fourteenth 
or a ninth) between the dissonance f and its resist- 
ing tone a. When this is the case the dissonant 
effect is very slight. The dissonant f follows, both 
in its preparation and resolution, the rules named 
in the paragraph " f against i," pa^re 36. Let the 
pupils softly laa again Ex. 123, lingering and 
listening on 7 S and its resolution. 

Ambiguity of Chords. Observe that there is 
nothing in the structure and intervals of the first 
phrase of Ex. 123 to prevent the ear interpreting 
the chords as : S | S : D | S. But according to 
the principle named at page 20, the ear naturally 
prefers to regard the first chord which roles it as a 
principal chord, and has, therefore, no difficulty in 
interpreting the first phrase as : D | D : F | D. 
Except for this pro-occupation of the ear by the 
first chord which is emphatically struck, D, S, and 
F are ambiguous. But there is no ambiguity in 
T S. It cannot be mistaken for any other chord. It 
decides the key with an absolute certainty which S 
does not possess. 

Major, Minor, and Diminished Chords. The 
chords hitherto described have a major or larger 
third at the bottom. Chords of this kind are by 
far the most acceptable to the ear. Their tones 
have a perfect agreement in every respect a full 
sonorousness. But for contrast and for variety of 
mental effect, chords which have a lesser or minor 
third at the bottom are necessary. The minor 
chords of the scale are 11, L, and M. Let the pupil 
point them out upon the modulator. They are glad 
of doubled thirds, even in the b position, p. 27. Far 
less sonorous than even the minor chords is the 
chord Te, for it has an imperfect or diminished fifth. 

St. Co. (New.) 



The Grave Ray. Wnen the tone r is required t^ 
tune with f (as m tunes with s, and 1 with d 1 ), 
and when it is required to tune with 1 (as d tunes 
with s, and f with d'), the ear of singers, and of 
quartet players on stringed instruments, naturally 
seeks to produce the r a little lower than when it is 
required to tune with s and t. When we wish to 
distinguish this lower or "grave " form of r from 
its commoner form we call it Rah, to make it cor- 
respond, in its vowel sound, with Fah and Lah. 
The interval between rah and ray is called a komma. 
General Thompson, who first drew attention to this 
point in his " Just Intonation," saya that in the 
chord 7 S the acute form of ray is used because it 
is more important that it should agree with the root 
and third of a chord than with the dissonant 
seventh. His "Enharmonic Organ" proves this. 

The Chord Eay, r, f, 1, (more properly called 
Rah) is the most used of the minor chords. It fre- 
quently occurs in its a position when the bass moves 

thus | r : s, | d || But it is most commonly found 
in its b position. See Ex. 124. Let the pupils laa 
this exercise, dwelling on Ri, and listening to it. 
When F is called the " Serious " chord, R, from its 
similarity of effect, especially in its b position, is 
called the semi-serious chord. 

The Chord Te, t,, r, f. The root and fifth of this 
chord form the "Partial-dissonance" described at 
page 36, and follow the rule of "Resolution" there 
described. This chord is much used as a " Substitu- 
tional Chord " for 7 S. In many places in which there 
is not room for T S, or where 7 S does not allow so 
pleasant a melodic flow in the parts, this much 
weaker chord is substituted. It is chiefly used in its i 
position, which is less harsh than the a position. Listen 
well to T* in Ex. 125. See Ta in Ex. 126. T, in its 
relation to S and 7 S, is called the weak moving chord. 

The Chord Lah, 1,, d, m, has its chief use in the 
minor mode, which will be described in the next step. 
Apart from this, it is used almost exclusively in its 
a position, U being seldom seen, and Lc never. 
La is used, interchangeably with F6, when the tone 
1 is wanted in the bass, and when a minor chord is 
required to set off the clearer sonorousness of the 
major. Let Ex. 126 be laad and the L dwelt upon. 
Notice that S can resolve into L, as can also 7 S and 
T, for special effect. L, from its proper mental 
effect, is called the sorrowful chord. 

The Chord M, m, s, t, though in itself as good as 
any other minor chord, for some reason not yet suf- 
ficiently explained is rarely used in Modern Music. 



Ex. 1236 



FOURTH STEP. 



47 



Perh-ips the mental effect of its fifth contradicts 
too strongly the mental effects of its root and third. 
The tone f in T S also contradicts the mental effect 
of the rest of the chord, but it is a decided disson- 
ance, and is easily resolved downwards. M is 
called the umntOMHff chord. 

The Chord 7 R has, in it, the dissonance d against 
r with which we are already familiar in the less-used 
chord 4 S. See pp. 21, 27. The dissonating d is 
prepared and resolved in the same way, in this 
chord also. 7 R4 is much used in closes, as a " sub- 
stitutional chord " for F. Listen to it in Ex. 126. 

For fuller explanations of the habits of these 
chords, reference should be made to " The Common- 
places of Music " and " How to observe Harmony." 
We can only attempt here to awaken such an inter- 
est in the subject, as will lead the singer to further 
study- A thorough knowledge of the nature and 
meaning of the music he sings, both heightens the 
pleasure of the singer, and gives him confidence in 
striking his tones. This intelligent singing is what 
we are most anxious to promote.* 

The Mental Effects of Chords are much governed 
by the natural effect of that tone which is heard in 
the bass, especially if it is doubled. But the chief 
source of mental effect in a chord is its root. It 
follows therefore that the clearest mental effect of 
a chord is that which it gives in its a position. 
It then best developes the proper mental effect of 
its root. This should be shown by experiment. 

Ex. 123. KEY O. Tuning Exercise, as above. 



Ex. 124. KBY A. Tuning Exercise, as above. 



. 'For there -the Lord 'com | manded the 
blessing || Ev en | life for ev er more 

. 'The grace-of-our Lord | Je sus 
Christ U Be | with you all A men 

St. Co. (New.) * For dogmatic summary of 



f :r 



si : - 



:f 



n : r 

d :t| 
si : s, 



d :- 
d :- 
d :- 



'The Lord | bless thee || And 
| keep thee 

. "The Lord make-his face . | shine up 
on-thee || And be | gra cious un to thee 

. 'The Lord-lift up-his counte nance- up 
| on thee || and | give thee peace 

Ex. 125. KEY A. Tuning Exercise, as above. 



n 



n :f 
d :d 
d :1, 



f .n.r 
t,:d 



n : r 

d : t, 

s, : si 



d :- 
d :- 
d :- 



/TN 

S 


n : 1 


s : - 


rz\ 

s 


n : 1 


r :f 


n : - 




-II c 


n 


d :f 


m : - 


ti 


d :d 


t :r 


d :- 




Ex. 


















/T\ 


d 


d : f | 


d :- 


Si 


d :f. 


s, : s. 


d :- 




(1" 
\ I , 


'Be hold-how good-and HOW | PLEASANT IT 


1 


is || 'For brethren -to 


dwell 'to | gether in 


(Id 


u ni ty 




XTr\ 


As the | dew of Hermon || And-as-the 


.Nov 
dO-6XC 


dew-that-de scendod-up on 'the | moun tains 


ask c 


of Zion 







Ho every one-that thirs'teth 'come | ye to-the 
waters 1| . And he-that hath-no money . 
| come ye buy and eat || . Yea come 
buy | wine and milk || without; | money 
and- with out price 

. . Whereforo do-ye spend money 'for 
that- which | is not bread -- || . and -your 
labour for | that which satis fieth not || 
. . Hearken diligently unto me 'and eat -ye 
| that- which is good || 'and lel-your soul 
'de | light it self in fatness 

. 'In cline-your ear 'and | come unto me || 
Hear . | and your soul shall live jj 
Seek-ye-the Lord . while- He | may be found 
|| Call ye-up|on Him while He-is near 

Ex. 126. KEY A. Tuning Exercise, as before. 



s :f 

n : r 

d : s. 



n : - 
d :- 



f :n 
r :d 
ti : d 



r : r 

d : t, 
f, : si 



d :- 
d :- 
d : - 



Now unto | him-that is able || . 'to 
do-exceeding-A BUNDANT LY 'a bove | ail-that we 
or think 

'Ac cording to-the power 'that | worketh 
in us || . 'unto him-be glory-in-the 
church . | by Christ Je sus 

THROUGH | OUT ALL AGES || world-with 
out | end A men 
the subject see "Mus. Theory," Book V. 



48 



FOURTH STEP. 



Ex. 127 



Ex 127. Name, pulse by pulse, the chords with 
their positions and constitutions, of Exs 122 to 126. 

Cadences. It has already been noticed (p. 9) 
that music naturally divides itself into short portions 
or phrases. No one can sing over a tune without 
also observing that several such phrases together 
naturally form a larger divison of the melody, and 
that these larger divisions close in such a manner 
as conveys to the mind with more or less complete- 
ness, a feeling of rest. These resting-points in a 
tune are called cadences. The teacher can sol-faa 
several melodies, and ask his pupils to hold up their 
hands, or make some other signal, when he comes to 
the natural points of rest. These cadences cut the 
tune into larger portions which we call Sections. 
These Sections correspond with lines in poetry. 
When harmony is added to melody, the cadences 
become more marked and decisive, and the chords 
move towards these points of rest in a very clear and 
marked manner. Properly speaking a cadence in 
harmony consists of the two last chords, but other 
chords approaching such a cadence are very care- 
fully marshalled. The principal cadence is that of 
the Tonic. Listen to it in its various approaches 
in both cadences of Ex. 86, and 123, and in the se- 
cond cadence of Exs. 85, 124, 125, and 126. Notice 
that the chords F, S, D, contain all the tones of the 
scale, so that when these three chords proceed to a 
cadence it is as though the whole scale were sum- 
moned to do homage to its Tonic. Among these 
Tonic cadences however is one in which the Dom- 
inant (S) is omitted, and there is nothing but the 
progression of the Sub-dominant (F) to the Tonic. 
This is called a plagal cadence. It produces a very 
solemn effect when the key is well established in tht; 
ear. See Ex. 123. The cadence next in importance 
to the Tonic is that on the Dominant. Listen to it 
with its various approaches in Exs. 85, 124, and 125. 
This cadence is felt to be one of expectancy as well 
as of rest. The only other cadence to be here 
noticed is that on L, just where from the common 
habits of cadences D would be expected. This we 
call the Surprise cadence. Listen to it in Ex. 126. 

C Positions. The c position (p. 26) of chords is 
chiefly used in DC, as the third-last chord of a 
cadence. See Exs. 85, and 124. There is this great 
peculiarity about the third position of D, that it 
asserts the key very strongly, for while the chord 
itself is the Tonic, the Dominant of the key is 
allowed the emphasis and importance which belongs 
to the bass tone of a chord. When the cadence 
St. Co. (Xew.J * Sec fuller unalj-sis of Seal 



moves thus, F, DC, S, D, it is as though the music 
in coming to a close swung like a pendulum from 
Sub-dominant to Dominant, passing through the 
point of rest; the Tonic to which it finally returns. 
The c position of chords is in its own nature unson- 
orous and partially dissonant, the ear is not satisfied 
that any other chords should use it except those on 
the Tonic, Dominant, and Sub-dominant, It com- 
monly has some apology in the melodic motion of 
the bass. It is either " passing," or "continuing," 
or " accented and moving stepwise." 

Constitution of 7 S and Minor Chords. (Compare 
p. 27.) Differing from consonant major chords, 7 S 
allows its third to be omitted, because by the help 
of its seventh, there still remains a third in the 
chord. Minor chords also differ from major chords 
in allowing their third to be doubled in the b posi- 
tion, because as the minor chords are in themselves 
somewhat harsh and unsonorous, additional sweet- 
ness improves them. 

The Steps of the Scale. We have now learnt the 
complete common scale of music, and have seen that 
these seven peculiarly related tones produce certain 
effects on the mind by virtue of that relationship. 
We have seen also that these mental effects repeat 
themselves in " Replicates " or Octaves.* 

The pupils should now be led to observe the Steps, 
from one tone to the next, of this scale. The 
teacher may laa the scale and ask his pupils to tell 
by ear where the tones lie closest to each other. 
They will quickly see that the two Little Steps, 
are between m f and t, d. They will not be able to 
perceive by ear but they may be told, as a mathe- 
matical and musical truth, that there is a difference 
among the other steps of the scale, that the three 
Greater Steps are between d r, f 8 and 1 1, and that 
the two Smaller Steps are between r m and s 1. 
The difference between ray and rah called a komma, is 
the difference between a greater and a smaller step. 
The scale may therefore bo described as consisting 
of two little steps, separated one way by a couple 

I of steps, and the other way by a triplet of steps. 

I One little step has a "major third" (couple of steps) 
above it, and the other has what is called a "tritone" 
(triplet of steps) above it. Doh may be defined as 
that tone of the scale which stands on a little step 
with two steps and a little step above. The great 
characteristics of d are, first, that one little step 
leads up to it, and second, that the other little step 
lends down to its third above. From t, up to f we 
have a major third with little steps above and below 

" Mus. Theory," Book I., pp. 5 to 10. 



FOURTH 

it. From f up to t we have the peculiar interval 
called a tritone. 

Thus t and f become the most marked character- 
istic tones of the scale. From their mental effects 
t may be called the sharp tone of the scale, and f 
ihajlat tone of the scale. We shall presently see 
how the whole aspect of the scale changes whenever 
t is substituted for a f, or f for a t. It may be worth 
notice that the interval from t, to f is slightly great- 
er than the true Tritone from f to t. Both contain 
a major third, but one has,in addition, to a major third 
two little steps, and the other one greater step, 
and two little steps are larger than one greater seep. 

Perception of Transition. Transition is the 
" passing over " of the music from one key into 
another. Sometimes, in the course of a tune, the 
music seems to have elected a new governing or key- 
tone ; and the tones gather, for a time, around this 
new key-tone in the same relationship and order as 
around the first. For this purpose one or more new 
tones are commonly required, and the tones, which 
do not change their absolute pitch, change, never- 
theless, their " mental effect " with the change of 
key-relationship. To those who have studied the 
mental effect of each tone, the study of " transition ' ' 
becomes very interesting. At the call of some 
single new tone characteristically heard as it enters 
the music, the other sounds are seen to acknowledge 
their new ruler, and, suddenly assuming the new 
offices he requires, to minister in their places around 
him. 

The musical fact, thus dogmatically stated, may 
be set before the minds of pupils in some such 
such way as the following : 

" Listen to me while I sing to you a tune. I 
shall ' figure ' the first line, and you will tell me 
what tone that is on which the figure ' eight ' falls. 
The tune begins on a. What is ' eight ? " ' Teacher 
sings to figures as below : 



KEY F. 

s s 



1. 



2. 



d : 1 

6. 7. 



" Yes, the ' eight ' was a. What is the mental 
effect of B ? " The grand or clear note. " Can you 
tell by your ears, the difference between s and d ? 
Which gives the fullest feeling of repose, is the 
stronger resting tone ? " d. I will sing the second 
line of the tune. Tell me the effect on j r our minds 
of the tone which wow falls to the syllable 'eight.'" 
Teacher sings as follows : 

St. Co. (New). 



TIP. 














49 


: s 


d 1 


: t 


1 1 : s 


1 s 


:fe 


1 s 


) 


i 


9 


3. 


4. .5. 


U 


7. 


S. 


{ 



" Was that s the grand, clear trumpet-tone, or 
d the firm, final resting-tone ? . . Listen again, 
while I sing both lines, and you compare the two 
' eights.' " Teacher sings. " What was the differ- 
ence between them ? . . Yes, the first was a and 
the second sounded more like d. And yet, let me 
tell you, the two sounds were exactly the same in 
pitch. How came the second ' eight ' to produce 
so different an effect on our minds ? What made 
it so much a tone of rest and collusiveness ? . . 
Let us take the Modulator, and you shall sol-faa the 
two lines you have heard as I point to them." The 
teacher points while the pupils sing, but gives the 
f of the original key where tho accidental occurs. 
Thus : 



d 1 



f Js 



" Was that as before ? " Xo. "But try it thus 
again. . . Did the s sound like d then ? Was 
it any way different from the other a?" No. 
" Then what do we want to make s sound like d?" 
A new tone instead of f. " Very well. Then we 
will call the new sound fe, and sing it properly. 
They sol-faa it from the centre column of the Modu- 
lator. " You feel that you have passed over into 
a new key." 

The same musical fact, in another transition, may 
be shewn thus : 

" I wilt figure two lines. Tell me what is the 
mental effect of the first nine and of the second 
nine? Each line begins on d. What is nine?" 
The teacher figures without the modulator 

KKY A. 



:d 


f 

2. 


: n 

3. 


: r 

4. 


d :- 

5. 



i. 



f : n : r 

2. 3. 4. 



d :- 



C. 7. 8. 

tai: 1, : s, 

6. 7. 8. 



f:- 



The first nine had strongly the effect of f ; the 
second had tho repose of d. " Yes, but they are 
both exactly the same tone in absolute pitch! 
What has altered the mental effect of the second ? " 
You introduced a new tone instead of tj. " Yes, it 
was tho new tone which changed the effect of f. 
Then let us call that new tone tau (spelt ta) and 



50 



FOURTH STEP. 



sol-faa these two lines from the modulator." They 
sol-faa. " You feel that we have, as before, passed 
over into a new key, but into a different new key." 

Distinguishing tones of transition. When tran- 
sition is made by means of a new tone instead of 
f, the mental effect of the new tone is felt to be in 
contrast with that of the tone blotted out. The 
desolate tone is changed for a piercing tone, and 
the fiat tone of the old key is thrown out to make 
room for the sharp tone of the new. We therefore 
call fe the sharp distinguishing tone. When tran- 
sition is made by the introduction of another tone 
instead of t, it is felt that the sharp piercing tone 
of the old key has been exchanged for the flat 
dfSdlate tone of the new key. Taw is therefore 
called the flat distinguishing tone. The teacher 
will know how to make this evident to the ear of 
the pupil. 

Melodic tendency to transition. Let the pupils 
laa (not sol-faa) from the modulator such a passage 
as this : 



i! 

i! 



KEY D. 



:n.f|s :d 
- II :- 



t.l:s 



i! d 
!l f - 
il 



|f..:f 



i :- I 

and they will feel that the f sounds unnatural. It 
is more natural to sing a sound which is " under- 
leading-toue to S, as t, is to d, a sound which we 
should call fe. Let them sing it again, using fe, 
and they will feel that the mental effect of t 1 8 
has become that of m r d. The reason is that our 
ears are so much accustomed to the two full " steps " 
m r and r d leading down to a key-tone, that 
whenever they perceive similar intervals accented 
in a similar manner they prefer to interpret them 
as m r d. 

Try the only other interval of two full steps in 
the scale, 1 8 f, and you will find the same habit of 
ear, the same tendency of mind to interpret this 
interval as m r d. Deal with this example as with 
the other. 

KEY D. 

n |s : t d 1 : 1 | f : ) 



Here t is felt to be the unnatural tone. Yon 
want an "over-leading-tone" to 1, as f is to m. 
The ear naturally interprets the constantly repeated 
f B 1 as d r m, and desires to make the last three 
tones m f m. Indeed it may be noticed that the 
" tritone," as a melodic progression (with its three 
long steps) is not loved by the ear, and that the 
lower part of the scale is much preferred to the 
upper. 

Adjacent keys in transition. Such transitions 
as have just been studied are called transitions of 
one remove, because only one change is made in 
the pitch tones us"d. When s becomes d the 
music is said to go into the firxt sharp k*y. When 
f becomes d we say that a transition is made into 
the first fi/it key. Eighty per cent, of all the 
transitions of music are to one or the other of these 
two keys, and of them the first sharp key is the 
one chiefly used in " principal transition," or tran- 
sition from the principal key of the music. The 
relation of these two adjacent keys should be very 
clearly understood by the pupil, and he should be 
led to notice how the pitch tones change their 
mental effect. This may be proximately described 
by the table below. 

Piercing t becomes Calm m. 
Sorrowful 1 Rousing r. 

Grand B Strong d. 

Desolate f it changed for Piercing t. 
Calm m becomes Sorrowful 1. 
Rousing r Grand 8. 

Strong d Desolate f. 

If the teacher has a black-board, it will be well 
for him to lot his pupils construct the new key by 
the side of the old one in some such way as this: 
' I have drawn the scale [as at side] 
and you will see that I have observed 
carefully the shorter distances bet ween 
m f and t d'. Let ns suppose that our 
8 is changed into d. To represent 
this I write d on the right of B. 
What change now takes place in the 
mental effect of B?" , "In that 
case what will 1 become, and what 
will be the change of mental effect?" 
* * " What will t become, and how 
will it change its effect?" * * 
"What of m?" "What of 
r?" "What of d?" . 
" What becomes of f P Is there a 
Step or a Little Step between d and 
the tone below it?" , "What 



d" 

te 


f 
m 


lab 


r 


oh d 


fah y 
me 


X i 

1, 


ray 


, 


dob 


'' 



St. Co. (New.) 



FOURTH STEP. 



51 



IB there between 8 and f ? " , " Then f is not 
near enough to the new d to form a proper ' leaning 
tone.' We therefore banish f from the new key, 
and use fe instead. This is the principal change 
of mental effect which occurs. How will you 
describe it ?" Again the teacher may say "Let us 
suppose that f has become a new d. I will write 
d on the left hand of f. What shall I write on the 
left hand of m ? r ? d ? s ? 1 ? What becomes 
of t ? " * * " Yes, the new flat tone is put in its 
stead." t 

Keturning Transition. As a rule all tunes go 
back again to their principal key, but the returning 
transition is not always taken in so marked a 
manner as the principal transition, because the 
principal key has already a hold on the mind, and 
the ear easily accepts the slightest hint of a return 
to it. Commonly also it is in the principal transi- 
tion that the composer wishes to produce his effect, 
and in which he therefore makes his chords 
decisive, and his distinguishing tones emphatic. 
It is not always so, however, and in hymn-tunes 
the returning transition is often as beautiful and 
effective as the principal transition. Let it be 
carefully noticed that the return to the original 
key is the same thing in its nature as going to 
the first flat key, so that a study of the mutual 
relation of these two keys is the groundwork 
of all studies of transition. For convenience 
of memory it is well for the student to draw 
a diagram of a principal key with its first 

sharp and first flat keys, and to 

learn by rote the relations of their 
notes. Thus let him say aloud " d f, 
d s ; r s, r 1 ; m 1, m t ; f to t, f d ; s 
d, s r ; 1 r, 1 m ; t to f, t m. It may 
be interesting to mention that in 
passing to the first sharp key, the new 
t requires the old 1 to be raised a 
komma to make it into a new r. If 
it were necessary, this form of the 
tone might be called Lay. 

Notation of Transition. Tonic 
Sol-fa pupils always prefer that their 
notes should correspond with the 
mental effects of the tones they 
represent. We therefore adopt the 
plan of giving to some tone closely 
preceding the distinguishing tone, a double name. 
We call it by its name in the old key as well as by 
that which it assumes in the new, pronouncing the 



t 

f ta 
m 1 



8 



old name slightly and the new name emphatically, 
thus M'Lnk, S'ltay, D'fah, &c. These we call 
bridge-tones, and write them thus m\, 8r, df. 
We call this the Perfect Method of indicating transi- 
tion. But when the transition is very brief we write 
the new t as fe, and the new f as ta. This is called 
the Imperfect Method. The teacher will point on the 
modulator and teach by pattern such phrases as 

Id : n |s : d 1 I *d : ti I d 

or |d : n |s : d 1 | s : f e | s 

and | d : n |s : d 's I f : n | r 

or i d : n | s : d 1 | ta : 1 



s 



making the pupils sol-faa in both ways. Occasion- 
ally the transition is taken as in Ex. 129 and 123 
on a bridge-tone which is not common to the 
two keys. In these cases we write the " better " 
notation of transition thus : 

| f : *et, | a or |t : taf | n 

Signature of Transition. The signature of the 
new key is placed over every transition when 
written according to the perfect method. If it is a 
sharp key (i.e. to the rigM on the modulator) the 
new tones are named on the right of the key name, 
thus, A. t., or ( if two removes ) A. t. m, 
If it is a flat key (i.e. to the left on the modulator) 
the new tones are placed to the left, thus, 
f. B?., or d.f. B?., and so on. By this the 
singer knows that he has a new f or a new t to 
expect. More distant removes would have their 
two or three other distinguishing notes similarly 
placed. 

Mental effects of Transition. The most marked 
effects of transition arise from the distinguishing 
tones which are used. Transition to the first sharp 
key naturally expresses excitement and elevation ; 
that to the first flat key depression and seriousness. 

Manual Signs. It is not advisable to use manual 
signs in teaching transition, because they are apt 
to distract attention from the modulator with its 
beautiful "trinity of keys." The greatest effort 
should be made to fix the three keys of the modu- 
lator in the mind's eye. But if, on occasion, it is 
wished to indicate transition by manual signs, the 
teacher may, to indicate transition to the right on 
the modulator, use his left hand (which will be to 
the pupils' right) thus. When with the right hand 
he reaches a bridge-tone, let him place his left hand 
close under it, making the sign proper to the new 



St. Co. fNew.) + See other "presentations of Transition" in "Teacher's Manual'.," pp. 130 to 133. 




5'2 



FOURTH STEP. 



Kry, then withdrawing his right hand, let him 
proceed to signal the music with his left. He can 
use the reverse process in the flat transition. Signs 
could easily be invented for fe, ta, etc., but we do 
not advise their use. 

Chromatic Effects. The ear forms such a habit 
of expecting t to move to d 1 and f to move to m, 
especially in cadences and other phrases meant to 
decide the key, that a new effect arises when the 
rar is disappointed of its expected gratification. 
This is markedly the case when a new t or a new f 
threaten to decide for us a new key. Some of the 

Ex. 127*- KEY E. Effect of the new t. 



most startling and a few of the most beautiful 
effects of modern music are thus obtained. See 
more on "Chromatic Resolution of Chords" in 
" How to Observe Harmony." 

Such exercises as the following should be care- 
fully taught by pattern, from the modulator. Let 
them be first sol-faad and afterwards laad, the 
voices lingering on the distinguishing tone. But 
let the voices carefully mark the resolution (or 
"progression") of that tone, because on the reso- 
lution it depends whether the effect will bo transi- 
tional or chromatic. 









B. t. 







d' f 


:d 


n 


:d 


s 


:t, 


f :- 


n 




ti 


:d 


r :t, 


f 


- |*i 


t 


Ex. 128 


. KEY A. 




E. t. 


* 




'n 1 r 


:d 


t, 


:d 


n 


: s 


f : 


n 


: *s 


1 


: t 


d' :r> 


t 





d 1 | 




Ex. 129 


. KEY E? 


Effect of fe chromatic. 




r s (' 
t- 


d :r 


n :d 


f :fe s :- 


d' :s 


1 : s f e : f 


" : ~\\ 


rf-f 












11 


ti n It 


Ex. 130 


. KEY B? 


. Effect of the new f. 
















f. E/* 







j 


d 


ll 


:d 


t, 


:f 


n : r 


d 


;d s 


f 


: n 


r :f 


n 


r 


d 


i r *, 


Ex. 131. KEY F. 


f. 


B7. 





ii 


i d /i 


:d 


n 


:d 


s 


:d> 


t : 


d< 


: 'd 


n 


:d 


s :d f 





n | 


t| M; 










i 














II 


/I , 


Ex. 132 


. KEY B. 


Effect of ta chromatic. 


, l| n 


:TI 


r 


:d 


ti 


:ta, 


li :t, 


d 


: si 


ll 


: ta. 


t, : d 


n 


r 


d l| 






























II 


r\ S| di 



Cadence Transition. The commonest form of 
transition to the first sharp key is that in. which it 
gives life and beauty to a cadence. See Exs. 133, 
and 134. When a transition docs not begin before 
the second-last measure*of a line, and does not con- 
tinue beyond the cadence, we call it cadence-tran- 
bition. The first flat key is seldom used thtis, but 

LORD, WHILE 



see Ex. 141. We write cadence-transition in the 
'Imperfect" manner that is, with fe or ta. 

The Cadential Movement of the Bass. | d : r I 
or |r :r s, sounds like |f :s [dor |s :s ,cl of tin- 
first sharp key, and suggests transition to thf! 
mind even without the fe. 

FOB ALL. 



Ex. ] 

f.H 

U. Lord, 

: 

12. O 


L33. KEY A. 
n : r 

while for 
d : t, 

guard our 


Firmly. 

PI : d 

all man - 
d : r,, 
shores from 


r :ti 

kind we 

fi : s, .f, 


d :d 

pray, In 
rii : d 
foe, With 


s : r 

ev - 'ry 

t, : t| 

peace our 


Dr. ( 

n : f e 

clime and 

d.ti:l, 

bor - dert 


}ro/t. 
^> 
S 

coast, 
8| 
bleu; 


ev - 'ry 



St. Co. (New.) 



' Or the third last accent 



FOURTH STEP. 5j 


: s 


f :r 


PI : d 


f :n 


r 1 t| 


r : s 


f :r 


^ 

d 


o 

: n 

With 


HEAR US 

r : t| 

pros - p'rous 


FOR OUK 

d : ri| 
times our 


NA - TIVB 

1, .ti :d 


LAND, The 
t| : S { 
crown, OUR 


land we 
f i Pl| 

FIELDS WITH 


love the 

f ( : si.f ( 


most. 
H| 

NESS. 


cit - ies 


PLEN-TEOUS- 



3 Unite us in the sacred love 

Of knowledge, truth, and Thee, 
And let our hills and valleys shout 
THE SONGS OF LIBERTY. 



4 Lord of the nations ! thus to Thee 

Our country we commend ; 
Be thou her refuge and her trust, 

HER EVERLASTING FRIEND ! 



PRAISE TO GOD. 



Ex. 134. KEY A. Joyfully. 



German Chorale. 



n : r 


d : n 


s :f 


n : 


li :ti 


d :r 


ti : 1, 


s, : 


1. Praise to 
d : t| 
2. Praise to 


God! 

1, :d 

him who 


let us 

t|.s,: l|.t. 


raise, 

d : 
light, 


From our 

f. :fi 

Praise to 


hearts a 

n, : fei 

him who 


song of 

s, : fe, 
gave us 


praise ; 
S| : 
sight ; 


made the 



d : ti 


1, :d 


f :n 


r : 


s :f 


n : r 


d : t, 


d : 


Of that 

HI : s, 

Praise to 


good- ness 

f, : If 

him who 


let us 
t,.r :d.l. 


sing, 

t| : 

ear ; 


Whence our 

n : r 

Will ho 


lives and 
d :f, 

not his 


bless - ings 

si :-.f, 

chil - dren 


spring. 
HI : 
hear? 


fonn'd the 



3 Praise him for our happy hours ; 
Praise him for our varied powers ; 
For these thoughts that rise above, 
For these hearts he made for love. 



4 Praise his mercy that did send 
Jesus for our guide and friend : 
Praise him every heart and voice, 

HlM WHO MAKES ALL WORLDS REJOICB. 



Passing Transition. The commonest form of the 
transition to the first Jlat key is that in which it 
makes a passing harmonic ornament, not in a 
cadence, but in the middle of a line or near the 
beginning. See Ex. 142, 144. The first sharp 
key is seldom used thus, but see Ex. 170, 171. 
We write Passing transition in the " improper " 
manner. 

Extended Transition is that which is carried 
beyond a cadence. The first sharp key is much 
used in this way in hymn-tunes, often occupying 
the second or the third lines, and sometimes the 
greater part of both. See Ex. 135, 136, 137, 140. 

St. Co. (New). 



The first^fltf key is seldom thus employed in tunes 
which are in popular use. It is rare to find such 
an example of it as Handel gives in Ex. 143. 

The Exercises. All the early transitions, and all 
the more difficult transitions which follow, shoull 
be well taught from the modulator. If this is not. 
done transition will become a confusion instead of 
a beauty and a pleasure to the learner. 

Missed Transitions. If one "part" is silent 
while another changes key twice when it enters 
both bridge-tones are given in some old music, thus 
r "d, but this plan is not now adopted. When apart 
enters after others which are already in the new key 
the bridge -note is placed in brackets ( d ). 



54 



FOURTH STEP. 



Ex. 

:d 

I. 

:d 


O 

135. KEY E. Gently. 

n : r |n : 1 

Sa - viour, go b - 

d :t, |d :f 


SAVIOUR, GO Bl 

M. 50. 

3 :f |n :1 


ESIDE US. 
s : f |n : r 

ev - er tee may 

n : r |d : t. 


n : | 

go; 

d :- |- 


side us, Wher- 

n :r |d :f 


2. 


Step-herd, go be - 


side us, And 


lead thy faint - ing 


flock ; 


B. t. 

:d 


r : n |f : n 


f. E. 

r :- |d :i,n 


f : n |r : r 


d :- |- 


And 

"id. 


let no harm be - 

t. : di 1 1, : 8, 


tide us, From 

f, :- In, : f ,d 


ma - lice of the 

t, :d |f, :s. 


foe. 

d :- |- 


With 


pas - tures green pro- 


vide us, And 


well- springs from the 


rock. 



3 Master, stay beside us, 

Our hearts with wisdom store ; 
Be strength and grace supplied us, 
To grow for evermore. 



4 Father, go beside us, 

Till all our wand'rings end ; 
LET WEAL NOR WOB DIVIDE us 
FKOM THEK, OUR FAITHFUL FRIEND. 



Ex. 136. 
d :r 


KEY F. 

n : n 


LO ! M 
f :n 


Y SHEP] 

r : 


SERB'S ] 

C. t. 

"1 :t 


IAND. 

d 1 :r' 


n' :r' 


A. Stone. 
d 1 : 


1. Lo! my 

d : t, 


Shop -herd' s 

d :d 


hand di - 

1, :d 


vine! 

ti :- 


Want shall 

df :r 


nev - er 
n :f 


more be 
s :f 


mine ; 
n : 


2. When I 


faint with 


sum - mar's 


heat, 


He shall 


lead my 


wea - ry 


feet 


f. F. 

in : n 


f :f 


r : r 


n : 


s :f 


n : r 


d : ti 


d :- 


In a 

'd :d 


pas - ture 
r : r 


fair and 

t, : s. 


large, 

d :- 


He shall 
n : r 


feed his 

d :f, 


hap - py 
i : - -f. 


charge. 

n, : - 


To the 


streams that 


still and 


slow, 


Through the 


ver - dant 


mea - dows 


flow. 



3 He my soul anew shall frame ; 
And his mercies to proclaim, 
When thro' devious paths I stray, 
Teach my steps the better way. 



4 Though the dreary vale I tread, 
By the shades of death overspread. 
There I walk from terror free, 
STILL PROTECTED, LOUD, BY THEE. 



Words by Tapper. 


COURAGE ! 






Music by A. L. 


c. 


Ex. 137. KEY B7. Boldly. 


M. 112. 










g, :-.BI|S, ; li.ti 


d : 


- It, : 


si : - 


S|| li.t,: 


d.r 


n 


:- |r : 




Dan - gers do not 


dare 


me, 


Ter - 


rors do 


not 


scare 


me, 




s, :-.f||n ( : r. 


d, : 


n, | S| : 


fi :- 


filf, : 


ni.r. 


d, 


:d |t, : 






F. t. 








t 


r : - .a|t|.d : r .n 


f : 


If : 


ft : - 


.t|t : 


t 


d 1 


:- |d :- 




God, my guide, I'll 


bear 


me 


Man - 


ful-ly 


for 


ev 


er. 




t, :-.l||S| :f,.R, 


TI : 


- |r : 


r s : - 


.s | s : 


f 


n 


:- |d :- 




8t Co. (NewJ. 













FOURTH STEP. 



55 



f.Bt7. 








fd :- 


.t|r 


:d 


ti :- 


Hi 


Trou - 


ble's dark-eat 


hour, 




1|H, : - 


.'III 


: n t 


f, :- 


|f| 


d :- 


.r | n 


:f 


s : 


11 


To 


the Spec- tre's 


pow 


er, 


d :- 


t,|d 


: li 


HI : 


If, 



n : - .r |f : n 

Shall not make me 

d :-.t,|l, :s 



cow 

f. 



- Id 

er 

I HI 



2 Up, my heart, and brace thee, 

While the perils face thee, 
In thyself encase thee 

Manfully for ever. 
Foes may howl around me, 

Fears may hunt and hound me, 
Shall their yells confound me ? 

Never, never, never ! 



t,.t,: |f.f: n.d: 

Never, never, never ! 

8|.8|t |S|.S,: S|.IV 
3 Constant, calm, unfearing, 

Boldly persevering, 
In good conscience steering 

Manfully for ever. 
Winds and waves defying 

And on God relying, 

Shall he find me flying ? 

Never, never, never ! 



Ex. 138. Let this be practised until each syllable (A and men) can be taken with one breath. 



Or. t. 



KEY C. M. 80. 

d> :- I- :- 

A 

t t I-! ( 

:n |1 :s 

d :"- |- :- 



O LITTLE CHILD, LIE STILL. 

Words from the " Lamp of Love." 
Ex, 139. KEY D. Softly. M. 96. 



Mainzer. 






:- It 


: 


*'f : 1 


Is 


:f 


: n .r 


|n :d 


. 


. 


. 


. 




. 


. 


men, A 


f 


:r |s 


: f 


ml, : 


It, 


: 


d : 


Id : 






f. C. 








f 


:r |s 


:f 


n : s 


|1 


:t 


d' :- 


1- : 




. 


. 


. 


. 


. 


men. 







:- It, 


: 


d s : 


| 


:f 


n : 


1- : 



: n 


n 


: r : n 


s : 


:f 


n : 


1.0 
2.0 

:d 

3.0 

4. Then 


~uT 

lit 

d 


"- tie 
tie 

:t, :d 


child, 
child, 

n : 

child, 
an 


lie 

lie 

: r 

when 
- gel 


still 
still 

d : 

thou 
wings 


lit - tie 
with thy 


r : 

near, 
sleeps 

ti : 


: r 

THOU 
whom 

:t, 


r : n 


:fe 

NOT 
MM 

:d 


s : 

FEAR; 

keeps, 

ti : 


NEED'ST 
Je 
d : 


then, 
cend, 


But 
To 


say 
meet 


A - 

thy 


men! 
Friend, 


St. Co. 


(New). 





and 
and 



r . **"" 

sleep ! 
rest, 

t, :- 



must die, 
quick grown, 



And 

:(n) 

To 



:1 

one 

:f 

God'Y 

Je - BUS 



in 

n 





A. 


L. C. 





d : 


r 


: n 




Je - 
He 

d : 


SU8 

sweet 

d 


is 
-ly 
:d 




Fear 
Shalt 


no - 
thou 


thing 
as - 


t 


d 1 : 





: n 


need 
the 

r 


fear 
morn 

n : 


- 


whom 
ing 
:d 


com mand, 
the lit - 




and 
tie 



56 


FOURTH STEP. 


n : : r r 


: : n 


s : - 


- : 


f :- :- 


- n : : s a 


: 1 : t v 


God doth I 


eep, I5y 


day 




or 


night. Then I 


ay thee\ 


wake, so I 


lest, His 


CHILD 




TO 


BE, Love t 


v - 'ry f 


\ d : - : t, t 


, :- :d 


ti :- 


- : 


t, : - : - 


d : : n r 


_il :r ( 


' qui - et I 


'e In 


his 




kind 


hand Till It 


te shall 


\ child will o 


wn Safe, 


at 




his 


side! And t 


aou shalt 


d' :- :n r 


i : : r 


r : - 


: n 


r : : 


r : : n 


d :~ 


down in 


ilum ler 


deep 


Till 


morn 


ing 


light. 


one, * but 


.ove him 


best ;- 


He 


first 


lov'd 


thee. 


n : : d 


1 :- :t 


t, :- 


- :d 


d : : 


t, t, :- :- 


d :- 


say, " Dear 


child, come 


fly 


To 


HEAVEN'S 


BRIGHT 


LAND." 


\ live be - 


fore the 


throne, BE- 


CAUSE 


HE 


DIED ! 


BLEST 


BE THE HOUR. Tune " Dublin.' 


Ex. 140. KEY 


G. 








D.t. 


: n n : s 


:f n 


: r 


:d r :1 


: t| d : 


: r s 


1. Blest be 


the hour 


when friends 


shall meet, 


Shall 


:d d :t| 


: 1| s. 


: 


: 1. fi : - 


: f i HI : 


: t ( n 


2. Sweet hope, 


deep cher 


ish'd, not 


in vain, 


Now 








f. G. 






1 : t : d' 


f :n . 


r d 


1 : :*d r 


: :n f 


: :n \ 













j 


meet to 


tirt 


no i 


nore, And wit 


ti ce - les 


tial f 


f :- :n 

thou art 


r :d 

rich 


t| C 

ly < 


1 : : i,n, s, 
jrown'd, All thu 


: :d 1, :t, :d k 

t was dead re - i 


r : n : d 


d :t t 


: s, 


s : f : n 


r_li : t, 


d :- 


wel - COB 


no greet, 


On 


an im - 


mor - tal 


shore. 


s, : - : 1 


s, : 


: s, 


t, : :d 


f : - : f , 


n, . 


k vivcs a 


- gain; 


All 


that was 


lost is 


found. 



3 And while remembrance, lingering still, 

Draws joy from sorrowing hours, 
New prospects rise, new pleasures fill 
The soul's capacious powers. 



4 Their Father fans their generous flame, 

And looks complacent down ; 
The smile that owns their filial claim 

IS THEIR IMMORTAL CROWN. 



Ex. 141. KEY C. M. 72. 
d : |n : s 



Hal - le 

d :- |d : 

St. Co. (NetoJ. 



S I 
jah! 
n I 



HALLELUJAH. 




ta : 1 | 

lu - jah ! 

f :f I 



Natorp. 



FOURTH STEP. 



57 



r,r" :- Id 1 :- 

\ 1 Hal - le - 
Mr :n |fe :- 


- d' :t | : 

lu - jah! 

s : s | : 


Hal ' - le 
s :1 |t 


:- if :- |f :- 

lu - jah! 

:- d' :- |f :- } 


f :- In 1 
Hal - le 

f : |d' 


: 


r' : 

lu 

s : 


1 . 
1 




* :- 1 : I! 

jah! 

d :- | : 





: 


Ex. 146. XBY B|?. 

s, : d |t, : d 

I. Through the day thy 

nj : PI, | s, : 1 


M. 58. THROT] 

r :d.t,|d :d 


'GH THE 

n : n 

Now wo 

d :d 


DAY. 

r .d : ti 1, : 1, 1 s, : 


love has spar'd us, 

f , : si |n, : HI 


lay 

It,. 


us down to rest ; 

l,:si s, :fe, |s, : 


2.Pil - grims here on 


earth, and strang-ers, 


Dwell-ing in 


the midst of foes; 


si : d | t, : d 




r :d.t,|d 


:d 


n : n 


r .d : ti 1, : 1| |s, : 


Through the si - lent 

HI : HI | s, : 1 

Us and ours pre- 


watch-es guard us, 

f i : S| | n, : n, 
serve from dang - ers, 


Let no 

d :d 

In thin 


foe 


our peace mo - lest: 

L,:SI s, :fe, |si : 


e arms may we re - pose, 


id : ta, 1 1, : 1 




r : d |t, : 


d :r 


n 


:f n :r |d : 


Je - sus, now our 
d, :n, |f, :f 


guar - dian be, 
r, : fe t | si : 


Sweet it 

, 


is 

S| 


to trust in thee. 

: 1, s, : s, |d : 


And, when life's short 


day is past, 


Rest with thee in heav'n at last. 


Ex. 143. KEY F. 

d :n :f 

1. Great is the 

d :d :r 

2. Great is the 


f. Bl7. 

s :di s 

Lord his 

n :">t| 

mer - cy 


GREAT IS THE 
f :- :n 

works of 

1, :- :d 

of the 


LORD. 

r : : n 

might De - 
s, : : d, 

Lord ; He 


Handel. 

1| : t, : d 


mand our 

f , : r, : n. 


gives his 


d .,r : n : r 


d 

songs 
d| 
food; 


. i 


F. t. 


s .f : n 


n 


:r :d 


d 1 :t.l:s.f 


no - West 
PI, .,f ['. S, : s, 


Let his as - 

s ,d : n .r : d 


sem 

d 


bled 
:t, :d 


saints u - 

n : f : n .r 


child - ren 


And, ev - er 


mind - ful 


of his 


n : r : n 


1, 


:t, 


:d 

mo - 

:n, 

his 


d .,r : n : r 


d :- :- 

tongues. 

d : : 

good. 




nite Their 

d : t| : d .n, 


har 

makes 


ny of 

1, : s, : s. 


word, He 
St. Co. (New). 


pro - mise 






68 



FOURTH STEP. 



Ex.144. KEY B7. M. 72. Words by Russell. 


A. L. C. 


n : r : d 

1 O'er the dark 
d, : r, : n, 
i.'fhe wea - ry 


ti ; 1, : si 

wave of 

f i : : n, 
bird hath 


1, : - : t, 
Gal - i - 

f i : : 8 ( .f, 

left the 


d 
lee 
n, 

air, 


: : 


Si : 1 : ta 
The gloom of \ 

n, : f, : s, t 

And sunk in - 


1, : - : r 




1, :t, :d 


t, : - : - 


n 


:r :d 


t, 


: 1| : s, 


twi - light 
fi :- :f, 


-i there 
.61 : s : 1| 


fast, 

si : : 


And 

d, 


on the 
: n : HI 


wa - ters 
f, : : HI 


to his 


shel - ter'd 


nest ; 


The 


wand -'ring 


beast hath 


1, :- :t, 


d : : r :n :f n :d :r 


d : : t| 


d : : 


drear - i - 
f| t !8|.f i 


ly De - scendsthe tit - ful 
n, : : f i : n, : r, d, : n, : f , 


ev - 'ning 
I'll '. ! T| 


blast, 
d, : - : - 


sought his 


lair. And laid him down to 


wel - come 


rest. 



3 Still, near the lake, with weary tread, 

Lingers a form of human kind ; 
And, from his lone, unsheltered head, 
Flows the chill night-damp on the wind. 

4 Why seeks not he a home of rest P 

Why seeks not he the pillowed bed ? 



Beasts have their dens, the bird its nest ; - 
He hath not where to lay his head. 

6 Such was the lot he freely chose, 

To bless, to save, the human race ; 
And, through his poverty, there flows 
A rich, full stream of heavenly grace. 



I LOVE MY LOVE. 



Ex. 145. K 

: n : s 


BY C. M. 88 

1 :- :s 


, twice. Word 

s :- :f 


B by Charles A 

n :- :d' 


\ackay. 

d 1 :t :d' 


n 1 : - : d ( 


A. L. 0. 
t :- : - 


1. What is the 

n : d : n 


mean - ing 
f :- :n 


of the song That 
n : - : r | d : - : n 


rings so 

n : r : n 


clear and 
d : - : n 


loud, 
s : - : - 


2.Whatis the moan - ing 
3.0 hap - py words ! at 


of thy thought, O 
Beau - ty's feet We 


maid - en fair and 
sing them ere our 


young P 
prime; 


, - : :t 

\ Thou 

- : :s.f 


d 1 : - : n | s : - : t 

night - in - gale a - 

n : - : d 1 1| : - : s.f 


d 1 : - : n 1 s : - : n 1 

mid the copse, Thou 

n : - : d |t, : - : d 

in thine eyes, Such 
sum - mers pass, And 


n 1 :f :n' |r' : d 1 :t 


lark a - hove the 
8 : 1 : s |f :n : r 


There 
And 


is such plea - sure 
when the ear ly 


mu sic on thy 
care comes on with 



St. Co. (New). 



FOURTH STEP. 



d 1 :- 


:- 1- : 


O. t 

:d'f 


n : 


cloud ? 

n : - 


:- 1- : 


What 


says 

d : 


tongue; 
Time, 




There 
Still 


is 
be 


s : : 


:s, |t, : 


- : s, 


d :- 


Up in 
Pl| l*l| 


the wal 

: PI, | f i : 


nut 

- :f, 


tree? 

nil ; 


What can 
join in 


the mean 
the cho 


- ing 
rus 


be? 
free 



n |n : - 


: r 


d : 


:t, |d :- 


:(s) 


thy song, 


thou 


joy 


ous thrush, 




Si | s, : - 


f( 


n, : - 


: r, | HI : - 


(HI) 


such glo 


ry 


on 


thy face 




it ours, 


in 


care's 


des - pite, 


To 




f. C. 






- 1- : 


:<*s 


s : 1 


: s 1 1 : - 


: t ' 




"I 


love 


my love 


be- 


1- : 


. ,n 


m :f 


:n |f :- 


: r 



d 1 : - : d 1 | t : - : t 

cause I know My 

n : - : d.n| s : - : f 



d 1 : 
love 
n : 



loves 
:- |s :- 



|1 :- :t 
love be- 

If :- :r 



d 1 :- :d' |t :- :s 

cause I know My 

n : - : d.n| s : - : s 



n 1 : 

love 

s : 



in 1 :- 

me, 

d 1 :- 



r' :- :- 
loves 
If :- :- 



_s :_! : s \ 

love my\ 

n r_f : in j 



d' :- :- |- 



me. 

n : 



Pitching Tunes. By this time the pupil is 
probably possessed of a C 1 tuning fork, but that 
should not prevent (it should rather promote) his 
constantly exercising himself to remember " one 
C " (C 1 ) as recommended p. 29. In pitching the key 
F, it is useful to suppose your C 1 s, and fall on 
your key-note thus, s m d. The pupil will not 
now find it necessary to run down to G, but will 
fall upon it at once from his C'. E may be pitched 
by falling to m, thus, C'd 1 s m - ""d. A may be 
pitched by falling on 1, thus, C'd 1 1 - J d. D may 
be pitched thus C'd' r' - r 'd'. The key may be 
pitched a little higher (sharper) or a little lower 
(flatter) than any tone of the "standard scale of 
pitch," p. 29. The tones thus required are named 
" F sharp," " E flat," &c., and the sign I? is used 
for "flat," and J for "sharp." A sharp bears no 
relation to the tone below it and after which, for 
convenience, it is named, but its relation is to the 
tone above it. To that tone it is an under-little- 
step, as t t to d. It is like the f, in transition, 
changed into fe. In order to strike it correctly we 
sing the tone above and then smoothly descend a 
little step to it. A flat bears no relation to the 

St. Co. (New). 



tone above it and after which it is named. It is an 
pver-little-step (as f to m) to the tone below it. Jt 
is like the t, in transition, changed into ta. To 
pitch it correctly in the cases of A 7, G p, and T)?, 
we should sing the tone below and then rise to it 
a little step. But in the more commonly used keys 
of B t? and E t? it is easier and surer to pitch thus : 
For B P suppose your C' to be s and sing s f - f d. 
For E [7, suppose it to be 1 and rise stepwise to d'. 
thus, C'l r t d 1 . 

Eecitation. The art of reciting well on one tone 
is a very difficult but exceedingly beautiful one. A 
pure and exact enunciation, making every word 
stand out as it were in bright colours before you, 
is a wonderful charm even in common speech, but 
when one listens to the clear utterance of some 
great singer, words seem like old friends arrayed 
in startling beauty and inspired with new jpowe< 
A good elocutionary recitation depends on the study 
and practice of the most suitable rhythms, emphases, 
and pauses for expressing well the meaning of the 
words, and on a thorough mastery and careful 
practice of the articulations and vowels of speech. 
The emphasis of words belongs to elocution rather 



60 



FOURTH STEP. 



than to singing. The choice of ncccnt also, in 
words set to music, belongs to the composer rather 
than to the performer. Varieties of rhythm the 
pupil will learn in the study of chanting. But 
the consonants and vowels, the articulations and 
continuations of voice, are proper objects of the 
singer's study. Of these, the vowels or continua- 
tions are the more important to the singer, because 
on them alone can a good tone be prolonged, and 
every fault a man has in speaking vowels is greatly 
magnified the moment he begins to sing. But the 
vowels have already been practised to some extent 
in connexion with the voice exercises, and will be 
studied more fully in the next step. Besides, in 
first attracting the attention of the pupil to the 
action of his vocal organs it is easier to begin with 
the consonants. In preparing the scheme of exer- 
cises on consonants and vowels, the author has 
been greatly aided by old studies of Dr. Rush on 
the Voice, and by Mr. Melville Bell's " Visible 
Speech" and "Dictionary of Sounds." But his 
chief help has come from the generous and patient 
personal assistance of Mr. Alexander J. Ellis, author 
of "English Phonetics," "Early English Pro- 
nunciation," and other works. 

An Articulation is a joint. A joint implies in 
this caso both a separation and a connexion of 
spoken sounds. The lips may come into contact with 
one another, or the lip touch the upper teeth, or the 
tongue touch teeth or palate. There may be thus 
an absolute or nearly absolute stopping of the 
vowel sounds. And these points of separation are 
also made points of junction. They are joints or 
articulations. 

Qualities of articulation. If the student produces 
strongly P and B, without any distinct vowel 
following them, as in la-p, tu-b, ho will soon notice 
that P has a hard quality and gives nothing but 
breath ; that B has a softer quality and something 
of voice in it. In fact the larynx takes part in the 
act of articulation. The same differences may be 
easily noticed between the Tip-tongue articulations 
T as in pe-t, and D as in mai-d, and between the 
Back -tongue articulations K as in seek, and G as in 
plag(ue). These we propose to call the two qualities 
of articulation, the Breath quality, and the Voice 
quality. 

Modes of Articulation. If the student pro- 
nounces carefully the Lip-articulations P as in 
shee-p, WH as in wh-ile, and with the use of the 
teeth F as in U-f(eJ, he will soon notice that in 

St. Co. (New). 



producing P the lips shut the passage of the breath; 
that in WH they give it a narrow central opening ; 
and that in F they oblige the breath to force its 
way through chinks on both sides of the point of 
junction. It is easy to notice the same difference 
of passage in producing the Tip-tongue articula- 
tions T (with shut passage) as in be-t, S (with 
central opening) as in ta-ss, SH (central) as in la-sh, 
and TH (with side openings) as in wra-th; and in the 
Back -tongue articulation K (shut) as inla-kfej,and 
Mid-tongue Y (central) as in y-oung. Again, 
there is the trill or tremulous motion of the tip of 
the tongue for the rough R (written R') as in 
herring, and a peculiar mode of articulation 
called nasal, in which the voice resounds within the 
nose, as for M, N, and NG. These we propose to 
call the five Modes of articulation : shut, central, 
side, trilled, and nasal. 

Organs of Articulation. The muscles of articu- 
lation reside chiefly in the lips and the tongue, for 
the teeth and the palate are comparatively station- 
ary. The work has to be done by the Lips, or by 
the Tip, the Middle or tho Back of the tongue. 
"We may call the Lips, tho Tip, Middle, and Back 
of the tongue the four organs of articulation. 
These Organs, Modes, and Qualities produce tho 
following : 

The Lip articulations, P, B, WH, W, and M, are 
easily understood. But it will be seen that in F 
and V the upper teeth act with the lower lips in 
making the articulation. 

The Tip-tonguo articulations, T, D, T,, N, and 
tho trilled R' are also quickly understood. For 
TH, DH it will be seen that the tip of the tongue 
acts against the teeth. S, Z, and SH, ZH require 
both the tip and middle of tho tongue, the teeth 
and lips also usually acting. S, Z use the tip 
more decidedly than SH, ZH. The letters DH, ZH, 
are commonly used by elocutionists to represent the 
soft forms of TH.SH. 

ThetrilledR' occursonly before vowels. When not 
before a vowel, R is vocal and modifies the proceed- 
ing vowel, forming diphthongs. See pp. 143, 144. 

YH and Y require no explanation. 

CH and J are double articulations, or conso- 
nantal diphthongs, and might be spelt TSH and 
DZH. Hence they are not included in tho table. 

The Aspirate H is simply the sound of breath 
driven sharply through the open larynx. Its im- 
pulse comes from the muscular floor on which the 
lungs rest. See p. 96. 



Ex. 146. 



FOURTH STEP. 



TABLE OF ENGLISH ARTICULATIONS.* 



SHUT. 
Breath. 

Voice 



LIPS. 

~ i^_ ~ 

Lips. 

p 

pea 

B 

bee 



TIP-TONGUE. 



Teeth. 



Palate. 

T 

toe 

D 

doe 



Mid-tongue. 



BACK- 
. TONGUE. 

K 

keen 

G 

gain 



CENTRAL. 

Breath. WH F TH 
wheel feel thin 



Voice. 



SIDE. 
Breath. 



Voice. 

TRILLED. 

Voice. 

NASAL. 
Voice. M 

SUM 



W V 

weal veal 



DH 

then 



S SH YH 

seal rush hew 

(yheu) 

Z ZH Y 

zeal rouge you 
(rooih) 



L 

lay 

R' 

ray 



N 

sun 



NG 

sung 



How to sing a consonant. A study of the above table will 
shew how little there is in any of the consonants which can be 
sung. The breath articulations with shut posture,. P, T, K, have 
positively no sound ; the hisses WH, F, TH, S, SH, YH, cannot 
be sung at all, and should be made as short as possible ; the buzzes 
W, V, DH, Z, ZH, Y, are very disagreeable when continued, 
although it is just possible to sing them ; the voice articulations 
with shut posture B, D, G, are far too smothered for singing ; and 
although L, R, M, N, and NG may be more or less murmured 
or hummed, they cannot be properly sung. In passing, however, 
from consonant to vowel and vowel to consonant, that is from 
one fixed position to another, the organs necessarily assume an end- 



less number of intermediate posi- 
tions, and voice being uttered during 
the time of this change, there results 
a varying sound, which may be called 
a Glide. This is not a glide in 
pitch, but in vowel qualities. The 
organs do not change much, and 
there is comparatively little glide 
between b and oo, but there is a 
great change in the organs, and 
therefore a considerable glide be- 
tween b and ee. A similar dif- 
erence may be observed between 
the Glides k to ai, and k to oa. 
It should be noticed that as long 
as any two sounds, for example 
m and ee, are kept separate, how- 
ever closely they are put together, 
there is no syllable. It is the 
glide which makes sounds into 
syllables. Indeed the only part 
of a consonantal effect which can 
be really sung is the glide. The 
exercise of singing a consonant, 
therefore, consists of making this 
glide conspicuous by opening t/ie 
mouth well for the vowel and clos- 
ing it smartly for the consonant. 
All real intelligibility in singing 
depends upon the manner in which 
the singer brings out the glide, 
taking care not to introduce puffs, 
or to prolong hisses or buzzes. 
On this exercise he will then con- 
centrate his attention. 

Ex.146. Enunciation Exercises 
on the Lip articulations. Let the 
following lines he sung aa in a 
chant, on the tone G, the pupils 
taking extreme care to make the 
requisite distinctions of articula- 
tion and to bring out the glide. 
When an exercise has been sung to 
the open aa it should be practised 
with the other principal vowels ai, 
ee, au, oa, oo ; for each vowel will 
introduce a new glide. 



. The | lips -pro : duce-with | shut : passage | paa : b | maa : \ aap : aab \ aura. : \ aap : pa 
. The | lips-pro : duce-with | central : passage | whaa : vraa \ vrhaa : \raa \ &c. 
. The | lips-pro : duce-with (central: passage] fan : vaa \ faa : vaa \ aai : aav*\ ani : taa \ aav : vaa 
St. Co. (Ncw.J * For Diagrams see " Teacher's Manual," p. 198. t Don't open lips, t Note, p. 62. 






62 FOURTH STEP. Ex. 147152. 

Ex. 147. Enunciation Exercises on the Tip-tongue articulations. 

. The | Tip : tongue-pro | duces : . with | shut : passage | taa : da | naa : | ant : aaA. \ aan : 
oat : taa \ ad : daa | 

. The | Tip : tongue-pro | duces : . with | central : passage | aaa : zaa \ saa : &c. * 
. The | Tip : tongue-pro | duces : . with [central: passage) thaa : dhaa | laa : \ oath : aadh | aa.. 

| aath : thaa \ aadh : dhaa | &c. 

Ex. 148. Enunciation Exercises on the Mid, Back, and trilled-Tip-tongue articulations. 
. The | Mid : tongue-pro | duces : . with | central : passage j shan : zhaa \ aash : aazh \ 
. The | Back : tongue-pro | duces : . with | shut : passage | ka : gaa \ ngaa : \ ak : nag \ aang : 
. The | Tip : tongue | trilled : . pro | duces : with | central : passage | Taa : laa \ aaiaa : aaraa \ 

Ex. 149. Pronunciation of the Lip articulations. Recite on one tone (G) paying exact attention to 
the thick letters. This will require close attention to a careful pattern. Where the pronunciation varies 
from the spelling, the proper phonetic letters are introduced. The ending articulations and tho double 
articulations are very difficult in singing. They must be delivered very distinctly but very quickly. 

Cop, cab, pull, bull, cup, cub, pet, bet, mop, mob, babe, babble, bump, peep, stopcock, upmost, leap/., map, 
member, _/ilm, minimum, mumble, triumph. 

"When. Wen, where, Ware, while, Wile, whither, wither, whim, whip, wharf, whelm, whimper, whiffle, vihiff. 
Vain, vain, fault, vault, bar, veer, foist, voiced, fife, five, serf, serve, safe, save, muS, puS, move, love. 

Ex. 150. Pronunciation of the Tip-tongue articulations. 

Bet, beA., tire, dir, neat, need, troll, droll, colt, ro/d, butch, ba&.ge, writer, riier, tight, tieA, titilute, tetra- 
gon, tittL-tattltf, t<intalize, avidity, oddt'ty, nvd-t-'te, paint, painea, p .-/nLss nap, map, son, tome, muttn, 
addn. 

Mow, moth, fate, faith, teal, teal, ice, eyes, bate, baize, sport, Store, skope, Here, smile, swear, sue, Suit, 
Jesuit, sp,izms, feastt, fifths, desks, zest, assassin, sashes. 

Death, deaf, loth, loaf, thiu>, tew, thrill, /nil, path, paHhs, oath, oadhz, mouth, mou&bz, lath, l'/dhs, clodhz, 
close, ladhe, lave, owez, Ioath8om, loadh#th, fair, fair'er, near, near'er, err, ert'ing, ftc, mirr'or, br'td, 
ibi'ee, ver'ily, r'evelr'y, pr'uier'y, littr'ally, liter' ar'j, holilj, worldlily, l/8tl88ly,yollily,bl/dhely, boldly, 
', foully, eel-like t tll-looA, play, flame, glass, slave, 8ddl, kettle. 



Ex. 151. Pronunciation of the Mid and Back-tongue articulations. 

'Z.upe, gape, tulaia, glass, barter, garter, Itrate, grate, 6ack, bag, duclt, dug, peclf., peg, pick., pig, frock, frog 
pack,', ( ;k'. xtkt, strict, pidfjiidt, quilLset, k/ik-kwk, 1tnc\Let, clang, clan, thing, thin, dinging, dinning, 
mgmg, si /tiling, angktious, compungktion, congkord, ungktuous, Jungktion, longest, long-gest, rung, run. 

Ashes, asses, shuie, sign, Oreeshian, adhelhion. shaises, incizhion, speshial, seizhure, Rushian, treazhure, 
shrewed, vizhion, suspishious, intruzhion, batch, baj, batu, etch, lej, frets, leech, liej, beats. 

Ear, year, ooze, yeuz, booty, byuty, do, den (dew, due), pyure, tyune. 

Ex. 162. Error exercises on the articulations. 

"Foller," follow, window, sorrow, pillow, shallow. "Runnin," running, writing, speaking, walking, 
singing. " Laud," lord, storm, worm, far, first, smart, worst. " Gwacious," gracious, great, green, rich, 
rest, rough, right, "'appy," happy, heaven, hymn, hail, when, why, which, while. " Hone," own, and, 
air, ill, eve. 

St. Co. (New.) * Don't let final dh run into dhth, nor z into zs, nor v into vf. 



FOURTH STEP. 



63 



The soldier's steer," the soldier's tear. 

4 That lasts till night," that last still night. 

4 Study deceit," studied deceit. 

4 A languid aim," a languid dame. 

4 His cry moved on," his crime moved on. 



44 Luxurious oil," luxurious soil. 

" Pray to nobody," prate to nobody. 

"Make lean your heart," make clean your heart. 

44 Proof of utility," proof of futility. 

" Beer descending," beard descending on his breast. 



Collective Beading. This practice, commenced 


recognised by all who observe with care. Even 


L the second step, p. 15, should now be revived 


the following well-known musical responses shew 


ith great care and constancy. 


the natural tendency to the mixed-measures of 


Pulses and Accents in Public Speaking. Any 
le who listens to a good public speaker may notice 
tat the pulses of his speech are of equal length 
id constant recurrence, like those of music, but 
iat he has a greater liberty of neceut. His accents 
metimes fall so as to divide the pulses into three- 
ilse measure, but more commonly into two-pulse 


vpeech in distinction from the unchanging measures 
of song. They are here given in various rhythmic 
forms, as we find them in the 44 uses " of different 
cathedrals. In the three-pulse forms we may 
notice the heaviness of the second pulse when this 
measure is sung slowly. Let each example be sung 
in exact time and accent. 


easure. Some public speakers even beat time 


KEY F. 


ith their hands while they speak, and nothing 


\ d :- 1, :t, d :- II 


terrupts the regularity of their movement but 


( Spare us good Lord. 


iis occasional introduction of a ; hree - pulse measure. 




ot:i in poetry and in music if we begin in three- 


KEY F. 


ulse measure or in two-pulse measure, we must 


(Id :1, :t, d :- 


mtinue in it. But in prose the two-pulse and 


f 1 Spare us good Lord. 


iree-pulse measures are continually intermixed in 




le same line. Let the pupil try to speak, in a 


KEY A. 


ear declamatory tone, and with proper emphasis, 


j d.d:d d : - .d l|.l,:t| d : II 


ie following words, and to mark the pulses and 


( We beseech thee to hear us good Lord. 


:cents of his voice as he does so. He will then 




on understand our meaning : 44 And suddenly 


KEY A. 


iere was with the angel a multitude of the 


\ :d .d d : d.d d : 1 ( : t, d : II 


3avenly host." The words 4< heavenly host" we 


f We be- seech thee to hear us good Lord. 


ay, for the moment, leave out of consideration, 




jcause in chanting they would belong to the 


KEY G. 


dence, and the cadence is rhythmical music not 
jcitation. 


j : d |d : d .d d : -.1,1 1, : II 
\ And bless thine in- her - i - tance. 


If we recite these words on a single musical tone, 


KEY Gr. 


id then write down the rhythms we have used, 


( . A A ' ft - t, 1,1-1, II 


ley will probably have the following appearance : 


1 U U U t l>] 1 1 1 1 < 1 1 

( And bless thine in- her-i - tance. || 


Two-pulse Measure. Two-pulse Measure. . 

: 1 1.1:1.1 1 : 1 .1 


And, in reciting " Thou art the everlasting Son," 


And sudden ly-there was with-the^ 


every one will admit that it is better to use the 




three- pulse measure, thus 


Three-pulse Measure. Three-pulse Measure. 


Thou : art-the : ever | last : ing | Son 


1 : 1 : .1 1 .1 : 1 : 1 .1 II 


than to sing thus 


an - gel ' a multi tude of-the|| 


| Thou : art-the | ever : lasting | Son 



Here you notice that the first and second measures 
are of two beats, while the third and fourth are of 
three beats. Some of the old church chants had 
three-pulse cadences or closes, but in the recitations 
the frequent occurrence of three-pulse measures is 

St. Co. (New.) 



Chanting. The chant is intended to aid the 
united recitation of prose words by many people. 
It supplies, therefore, a single tone for the recita- 
tion, and a short musical phrase for the cadence of 
each line of the words. A melodic cadence at the 






64 



FOURTH STEP. 



Ex. 153160. 



end of sentences, is natural to public speakers when 
they rise into an excited state of mind : whether 
they be fishwomen quarrelling in Billingsgate, or 
preachers closing their discourses among the moun- 
tains of Wales or of Scotland, or even ministers of 
the Society of Friends speaking or praying under 
atrong emotion. The reciting tone may be as long 
or as short as the words require. It is indicated by 
a Hold /TV placed over the note. This elasticity of 
the reciting tone should always be kept in mind by 
the accompanist as well as the singer. The music 
of a chant should always be learnt familiarly and 
by rote, before it is sung to words. Then the words 
should be taken line by line, and taataid by pattern, 
clearly recited by pattern, and sung to the music. 
At the present step the pupil must obey exactly the 
marking of the recitations. Afterwards he may 
learn to make "markings'' of his own. The 
present labour will be repaid not only by the groat 
enjoyment there is in a freely delivered chant, but 
also by marked and valuable improvement in 
lihythinical Perception. The teacher can beat 
time in pulses, or better still, use a metronome. If 
he uses a baton let it move simply from left to 
right and back again ; ho will then have his accent 
sometimes on one side and sometimes on the other. 

Ex. 153. Learn as above the rhythms of Ex. 
123. Notice cases of three-pulse measures in the 
recitations next before the first cadence of the first 
verse, the second cadence of the second verse, the 
first cadence of the third, and the first cadence of 
the last verse. Two-pulse measures are much more 
common in this position. 

Ex. 154. Learn as above the rhythms of Ex. 
124. 

Ex. 155. Ditto Ex. 125. Notice three-pulse 
measures from the beginning of the first recitation 
of the first verse, of the first recitation of the third 
verse, of the first recitation of the fourth verse, and 
of the first recitation of the fifth verse. 

Ex. 156. Learn as above thcrhythmsof Ex. 1 26. 

TIME. 

The silent quarter-pulse is indicated, like the 
other silences, by a vacant space among the pulse- 
diviiona. It is named sa on the accented and se 
on the unaccented part of the pulse. The time 
exercises should be taught as directed, p. 19. 

Ex. 157. 
i|l :1 .1 I ,1 .1,1:1 .1 

(I TAA TAA-T.U ifffatcfo TAA-TAI 

St. Co. (XewJ. 



KEY G. 

| d : n .s | ,f .PI ,r : d d it 

KEY G. 

| PI : r .d | ,t, ,d ,r : m .m 

ui:v D. 
I s :n .f | ,r .m ,f : s .3 I 

KEY D. 

I s : PI .d | ,1 .s ,f : m .d ; 

Ex. 158. 

1,1 .1,1:1 .1 |1,1 .1, :1,1 .1, n 

tafatefe TAATAI tafatew tafatese 

KEY F. 

| d ,r .m ,f : s .s | s ,f .m , : n ,r .d , i! 

KEY F. 

I PI ,r .d ,t, : d .d | f ,f .f , : m ,PI .n , ! 

KKY D. 

| B ,n .d ,m : s .m | r ,m .f , : PI ,f .s , li 

KKY D. 

| m ,s .PI ,d : PI .s | f ,r .t, , : s ,PI .d , || 
Thirds of a pulse are indicated by a comma 
turned to the right, thus : , , ||. The first 
third of a pulse is named TAA, the second third TAI, 
the third third TEE, and the silences and continua- 
tions are named in the samo manner as before. 

Ex. 159. 



i 


1 

TAA 


: i ,1 ,1 I i .,1:1 
taataitcc TAAfe TA.A.SAI 




KEY F. 




1 


d 


: r ,m ,f | m ,,s : s i 




KEY F. 




1 


PI 


: f ,n ,r | m .,d : d . || 




KEY A. 




1 


S 


: PI ,d ,n | s .,s : s || 




KEY A. 




1 


PI 


:d ,1, ,t, | d .,d :d i 




Ex. 160. 




< 


1 .1 


:1 .,1 |1 ,1 ,1 :1 .1 


I 


TAATAI 


TAAfe tataitce TAATAI 




KEY F. 




1 


d .r 


: PI .,f | n ,r ,d : r .d 1' 




KEY F. 




1 


PI .r 


: d .,r | m ,f ,g : f .PI ; 




KEY A. 




|d .s, 


: PI ,r | d ,t, ,d : PI .r n 




KEY A. 




1 


PI .d 


: s .,1 1 s ,f ,PI : r .d 



FOURTH STEP. 



66 



Ex. 161. 










(11 ,1 J 

f taataitee 


: 1 - ,1 

taa-aitee 


11,1.1,1 

tafatefe 


KEY F. 










|d ft ,s 


: m 


r A 


|d ,r 


.m ,f 


KEY F. 










| s ,m ,d 


: PI 


r <s 


|s,f 


.n ,r 


KEY A. 










Id ,t, ( d 


: m 


r ^ 


|r,d 


r ,ro 


KEY A. 










|m ,f jn 


: r 


r t" 1 


1 s ,1 


.3 ,f 



1 .1 

TAATAI 



s 



.3 



What is a pulse 1 It will be noticed that the 
six-pulse exercises in this step move more quickly 
than Ex. 80, and that the time is most easily 
indicated by "beating twice to the measure," as 
directed p. 24, and might have been written accord- 
ingly in two -pulse measure. Ex. 175 might have 
been written thus 

s^-iSin'riT 



The present plan is only adopted for the sake of 
greater clearness to the eye in the time divisions. 
All such rapidly moving tunes should be taataid 
as " Two-pulse measure abounding in thirds." It 
will also be noticed that many of the rhythms, 
given in our time-exercises might be written out 
more fully by making one measure into two. Tunes 
are differently written in this respect in the 
common notation as well as in the Tonic Sol-fa 
notation. Even Handel in one copy of a tune 
puts into two measures the music which in another 
copy he puts into one measure and in yet another 
into four measures. The principle which seems 
to guide composers is this. The quicker they wish 
the music to be sung the fewer measures they 
give it, and the slower they wish it sung the 
more measures they divide it into. They know 
that singing quickly makes the accents slighter 
and less observable, and that singing slowly 
developes accents which would otherwise have 
been scarcely noticed. As in common life it is 
only by occurrences that we can mark the flight 
of time, so in music it is only by accents that we 
can measure out our tones. The accents of a 
musical passage may be distinguished as the prin- 

St. Co. (New.) 



cipal and the subordinate ones. The principal 
accents should be marked by the divisions of a 
measure,and the subordinate accents by the divisions 
of a pulse. Whether any particular accent is 
principal or subordinate depends much on the rato 
at which the music is sung, and is always a matter 
of judgment. A pulse or beat we define as a unit 
of the principal and regularly recurring accents of 
a tune, bnt a pulse is not in all cases an absolute, 
undeniable, unmistakeable unit. It is " a measure 
of estimation." The composer sings or plays or 
feels his music, and where, in his estimation, the 
principal accents fall, there he writes the great 
pulses of his measure, the subordinate accents 
falling into their places within those pulses. But 
if the subordinate accents are numerous and regu- 
larly recurring, it is often better for the clear 
reading of his music that he should treat them as 
principal accents. Unfortunately in the common 
notation there is no certainty which note (crotchet, 
quaver, or minim) the composer means for a 
" beat." If writers made it a law that the crotchet 
(for example) should always stand for what they 
mean to be a beat of their music, we should have 
no difficulty in understanding them, but even the 
same composer represents a pulse at different times 
in different ways; so that the Tonic Sol-fa tran- 
slator is obliged to listen to the music, feel the 
accents, and write accordingly. 

Beating Time. Hitherto the pupil has not been 
allowed to beat time. He has only learnt to sing 
in time. Because no one can well learn two things 
at once, and, consequently, those who try to do so 
are constantly found beating to their singing 
instead of singing to an independent, steady beat. 
There are some, however, to whom the swing ot 
the hand or the motion of the foot easily becomes 
instinctive. The beating goes on without need of 
thought or attention like the swing of a pendulum. 
Such persons and such only can use beating in time 
as a criterion of singing in time. Hitherto the 
teacher has been the standard of time for his pupils. 
He has infused into them by watchfulness, by 
criticism, by decision, his own feeling of time. He 
is striving throughout to make his pupil's sense of 
hearing appreciate time ; but when that failed, 
there was always his beating (communicating time 
through another sense, the sense of sight) to correct 
them. If he wishes, now, to give them a criterion 
of their own, he may proceed as follows. The 
teacher says, " Watch my beating, and do as I do." 



66 



FOURTH STEP. 



He beats the four-pulse measure at the rate of M. 
60. The pupils imitate him. This should be done 
by one hand, silently, chiefly by the motion of the 
wrist (the thumb being always upwards), and with 
very little motion of the arm. The finger should 
pass swiftly and decidedly from one point of the 
beating to the next, and it should be held steadily 
at each point as long as the " pulse " lasts. When 
this is properly done, the teacher will say, " Now, 
you shall beat one measure, I the next, and so on." 
This not-easy exercise accomplished, a more diffi- 
cult one is proposed. Let each pupil beat one 
measure, in turn, all taking care that there is no 
pause nor variation in the rate of movement. A 
more difficult exercise still but most useful for 
establishing the sense of time in both ear and 
mind will be for the teacher ;ind pupils to beat 
time together for a few measures, and then at a 



given signal to drop the hand, and pause for one, 
two, three, or more measures (as the teacher may 
have fixed beforehand), and to begin beating again /it 
the rii/ht moment. In this exercise you will soon 
notice how fast time goes with the ardent tempera- 
ments, how slow with the heavy-minded, and how 
difficult it is for any one to attain an exact sense of 
time. The same series of exercises will be pursued 
in three-pulse measure, in two-pulse measure, and 
in six-pulse measure. A metronome may be intro- 
duced as a test, instead of the teacher's own judg- 
ment. There are various ways of beating time. 
We recommend the following as the most appro- 
priate and the most clearly visible. The direction 
of the motion is from the thinner to the thicker 
end of each dash. The thick end of each dash 
shows the " point of rest " for each pulse. 



TWO-I-ULSB MEASURK. THKEE-PUI SB MEASURE. FOUR-PULSE MEASURE. >IX-PULSB MEASURE. 




NOTE. It is better to boat the second pul.M of 
" three-pulse measure " towards the right, than ^as 
some do it) towards the left, because it thus corre- 
sponds with the medium beat of the " lour-pulse 
measure," and the second pulse of three-pulse 
measure is like a medium pulse. It is commonly 
treated (both rhythmically and harmonically) as a 
continuation of the first pulse. Similar reasons 
show a propriety in the mode of beating recom- 
mended for "six-pulse measure;" but when this 
measure moves very quickly, it is beaten like the 
"two pulse measure," giving a beat on each accented 
pulse. 

H. 60. Efforts to remember this rate and twice 
as fast, M. 120, and about hulj as fast again, 31. '.'-J, 
and between that and 60 two rates, M. 80 and M. 72, 
and between that and 120 operate, M. 106, should be 
frequently made, as recommended, p. 34. By self 
discipline this can be done. 

St. Co. (New.) 



The Registers. It has been shewn that the 
human voices make together one great organ 
running through its various registers from the 
lowest bass to the highest soprano so that the 
voices of a class containing men and women could 
run up one grand homogeneous scale of three or 
four octaves. See pp. 29 and 32. The compass of 
each particular voice is only a portion cut out of 
this great scale and taking the registers as they 
come. It should be carefully noted that the differ- 
ence of male and female voices, as soprano, 
contralto, tenor, bass, does not necessarily make any 
difference of quality on identical tones. Thus a 
contralto, a tenor, and a bass, when naturally 
trained, do not generally differ in quality on G,, A,, 
and Ji,, and a soprano, contralto, and tenor singing 
the identical tones C, D, , could not be distin- 
guished from one another except by the shades of 
difference which naturally mark individual voices, 



Ex. 1626. 



FOURTH STEP. 



67 



or the more marked differences introduced by false 
training. Uncultivated male singers are commonly 
much ashamed of their weak Thin register until 
they have made it strong by practice. Already 
some progress has been made in strengthening it 
by means of Ex. 104, p. 33. This stacotto koo-mg 
exercise must not be discontinued. It may, how- 
ever, now be varied after the manner of the two 
exercises which follow. 
*Ex. ] 62. KEYS F, G, F, G. 

_ -- . ^ ~ ^ ~"^ 



ri'.d': 


Kt 


Id'.l 


: t .s 


1 : 


koo, 


fee. 








Ex. 1 


63. 


KEYS 


A, B, 


AS, c 


:? 


iTt 


fi 


I s.,s : 


ft 


koo, 


&c. 









Recognition of the first or Thick Hegister. As 
the Thin register was found to be neglected by men 
and commonly used by women, so the Thick regis- 
ter is neglected by women and commonly used by 
men. Many soprano singers do not know what it 
is, and even contraltos are afraid to employ what 
they think is a man's voice. Mdme. Seiler says it is 
quite common for voice-trainers to encourage 
women to ignore altogether the upper Thick register 
using the Thin instead ; so that when on A, they 
do at last enter the Thick register it is on its fully 
vibrated tones, and the change of quality is 
unpleasantly marked. To enable female pupils to 
recognise the Thick register, place the scale (p. 29) 
or the Voice Modulator (p. 106) before them, 
and then, beginning with a tone (B, A, or Gr) 
decidedly within the Thin (their easy) register, let 
them sing downwards (guided by the manual signs) 
d' s m d, and with increased force on the lowest 
tone. This last tone will certainly be in the Thick 
register. Having got that quality of tone let them 
run up, retaining the same quality, to F. This is 
the converse of the process by which the tenors and 
basses learnt to recognise the Thin register, p. 33. 
Strengthening of the Thick register. Contraltos 
and sopranos will require the same staccato koo-ing 
exercise to strengthen the lower part of their voices, 
which tenors and basses required (p. 33) for the 
higher part of their voices. The process of strength- 
ening must be upwards from the undoubted 
territory of the Thick register towards the border- 
land of Thick and Thin. Be careful not to force 



pd, 

( koo, 


n, 

&c. 


:r, |fT : 


> 
ni s. 


Ex. 165. 


KEYS G, A, GjJ, Aft. 


Ud,.n,: r,.f| 
( 1 koo, &c. 


i "^ rY 


. *- 

S| : Si 


tEx. 166. 


KEYS G, A, 


G J, AJ. 


( koo, 


_-- 

&c. 


X|ffi: 


:> ^ 



this register too much, for the registers cannot be 
made to overlap upwards without injury. Mule 
voices may join with the female voices in this 
exercise, for it is easy to them, and they may 
encourage the sopranos and contraltos, but they 
must sing softly lest the voices which need the 
exercise should be unheard. Let the following 
exercises be used after the manner described p. 
33. The men will have to suppose the notes an 
octave higher than they are written. 

Ex. 164. KEYS A. B, A J. 



Id, :- 



Blending of Registers. A good singer should be 
able to pass from one register to another without 
allowing the difference to be noticed. With this 
view the voice trainer strengthens on the " optional 
tones" (p. 32) the weaker of the two registers 'in 
men the Thin in women the Thick) till it equals, 
in volume, in quality, and in ease of production, 
the stronger one. He then tests the power of the 
singer in producing one or the other register at 
will, as in the following exercises imitated from 
Garcia. The notes in common type are to be sung 
in the Thick, and those in italics in the Thin 
registers. The effort will be to make the two tones 
as similar as possible. Let the pupil take no breath 
in passing from one register to the other, and let 
him sing each exercise quicker and quicker. Male 
voices will sing these exercises in the higher part of 
their range, and female voices in the lower part of 
their range. Men and women will sing identical 
tones. None of the keys must be omitted, because 
we have to give exercise to all the small Laryngeai 
muscles, through the whole range of the optional 
tones. This is a case in which class teaching is 
insufficient. It can only set the pupil in the right 
way. He must judge his own progress. The effort 
to do so will make him eager to enjoy the advan- 
tage of individual teaching. 



This Exercise can be used for the " Upper Thick," in key C, and for the "Upper Thin" in keys C', D 1 , E 1 , &c. It 
may be adapted for the " Small" in keys B 1 , C*, &c. 

+ Be careful not to carry the " Lower Thick " above B (or A, for men), but to change into the " Upper Thick." 

St. Co. (New.) 



68 



FOURTH STEP. 



Ex. 1679. 



Ex. 167. KEYS C, D, C$, Di. 
d 1 :,/ 



d 1 : 



d 1 

koo, &c. 

Ex. 168. KEYS C, D, CS, DS, D. E. 

d 1 :r' id' :r' |d' :r' |d' : II 
koo, &c. 

Ex. 169. KEYS C, D, CJ, D5, D, E, D5, F, 
E, FJ. 



d 1 

koo, &c. 



d 1 :<*' |d' :- 



Recognition and Management of Optional Tones. 
Tenor singers should now systematically study 
the best use of their optional tones. First, before 
commencing any tune they should notice the key, 
and from that ascertain to what Sol-fa notes their 
optional tones will fall. The Voice Modulator p. 
106 will at first assist them in this. Second, they 
should study the phrasing of each passage in which 
the optional tones are employed. Third, in cases 
in which a piano or forte is required they will 
remember that they can obtain a stronger tone with 
tho Thick than with the Thin register. Some 
persons habitually change the register at a certain 
piU-h, whatever the passage sung. Others try to 
avoid changing the register within any single 
musical phrase, as much as possible. Descending 
from the thin register, they keep it as far as they can. 
Ascending into the thin register, they begin their 
phrase, if possible, in that register. In Exercises 
170 to 173 a thin horizontal mark is placed over the 
tone in which, for various reasons, it is thought best 
that a tenor voice should change into the thin 
register, and a double horizontal mark is placed 
where it is thought better to change into the thick 
register. Let the pupil be required to find the 
reasons for each of these changes, and be encouraged 
to suggest other and better changes. 

A Knowledge of Dissonances is useful to the 
singer in making him fearless. If he docs not 
recognise the fact that he is striking a dissonance, 
ho feels as though something were wrong, and is 
tempted to sing falsely. But if he knows what he 
is doing he strikes his tone with courage, looks 
well to the resolution, and makes it beautiful. 
Notice the definition of dissonances, p. 21. 

Fart-pulse Dissonances. At p. 21 there is an 
explanation of the commonest sort of dissonance 
which appears on the weak part of a pulse, Die 
part-pulse passing tone. Four other apologies are 

fit. Co. (New.) 



also accepted by the ear for dissonances on the 
weak part of a pulse. When, like s in the follow- 
ing | r .,s : s || they simply anticipate the 
tone which follows them, when like 1 or t in the 
following | d 1 .t : d 1 | s .1 : s || they wave 
upward or downward, or when, like f and m in the 
following | s ,f : r .m | d || they hang upward 
or downward from the proper tone of the chord, or 
when, like t and 1 in the following | m .t, 
: d .1, | t, || they guide, generally by an upward 
step, to the tone which follows. All these melodic 
relations are accepted as an occasional apology for 
dissonances. In addition to these dissonances 
on the weak part of a pulse, dissonances are also 
allowed, though less frequently, on the first or 
strong part of a pulse. These are all called Fore- 
strokes. They nearly all " resolve " (see p. 21) by 
going a step downwards. The smoothest " prepar- 
ation" for these discords is when, like r in tho 
following : r | r .d || the dissonance has j u st 
been heard as a consonance in the previous chord. 
This will bo called a Horizontal forestroke. The 
preparation which stands next in acceptance with 
tho ear is when, as s in the folio wing : 1 | s . f || 
the dissonance comes down from the tone above, 
liku a passing tone, but on tho strong part of a 
pulse. This is called an Oblique forestroke. A less 
common apology is when, like f in the following 
| .m : f .m || we have a Waving forestroke. Less 
frequently still we may have, like m in the follow- 
ing | d .r : m .f | s || an under oblique fore- 
stroke resolving upward. But when the composer 
wishes not to apologi/.e for a forestroko, but to 
assert it for the sake of a certain tart effect he leaves 
it Unprepared, like 1 in the following : m | 1 .s 
: f || . Advanced pupils only will have time to 
study these points. They may do so privately by 
marking beforehand, in the exercises, the cases they 
wish to notice, and, when the time for singing 
comes, listening for the effects. Or, if the whole 
class is sufficiently skilful and attentive, tho teacher 
may lead the class to examine each of the follow- 
ing cases and then to sing the phrase softly to 
laa two or three times. See Examples of Part- 
pulse Passing tones in Ex. 133, I. 1, m. 4, p. 2; and 
m. 7, p. 1 ; and 1. 2, m. 4, p. 1 ; and Ex. 172, I. 3, 
m. 3, p. 2, a peculiar case. See Anticipation tones, 
Ex. 174, 1. 4, m. 2, p. 2. See Waving tones, Ex. 
125, m. o,p. 2; Ex. 171, 1. 2, m. 3, p. 3 ; Ex. 174, 
I. 3, m. 3, p. 1, 2, 3; and I. 4, in. I, p. 1, 2, 3. See 
Horizontal Forestrokes in Ex. 172, 1. 2, in. 1, p. 2 
and 3 ; and 1. 2, m. 3, p. 3 ; and m. 4, p. 1 and 2 ; 



FOURTH STEP. 



69 



Ex. 174, L 5, m. 1, p. 3. See Oblique Forestrokes, 
Ex. 170, I, 1, m. 1, p. 4 ; and m. 2, p. 4; and m. 3, 
p. 4 ; and m. 5, p. 4 ; and MJ. 6, ^>. 4. 

Full-pulse Dissonances. All the apologies above 
described are also accepted by the car as excusing 
full-pulse dissonances. If the music moves very 
quickly, Passing tones and other dissonances so 
common on the weak part of a pulse are freely 
used on the weak pulse, the strong and weak pulse 
being treated harmonically as though they were 
one pulse. But when the music moves slowly the 
ear is not so content with these slight apologies ; 
and only the "passing tone" is much used. On 
the strong pulse, however, as on the strong part of 
a pulse, the various forestrokes are often employed. 
When prepared they are employed for the smooth- 
ness of melody, when unprepared for the sake of 
effect. 

See examples of quick moving dissonances in Ex. 
141, L 1, m. 3, p. 2 ; and L 2, m. I, p. 2 ; Ex. 192, 
L 1, m. 3, p. 2 and 6 ; /. 6, m. 4, p. 2 and 6 ; I. 10, 
m. 2, p. 5; Ex. 174, I. 7, m. 3, p. 2. See the 
partial dissonance (explained p. 36). Ex. 140, I. 2, 
m. 1, p. 2 ; and I. 3, m. 3, p. 2; and Ex. 143, I. 3, 
?. 2, p. 2 ; and " disguised " (d for f and fe for t), 
Ex. 174, 1. 7, m. 3, p. 4 ; and also Ex. 144, 1. 1, m. 2,p. 
1, in which last case the t not being resolved on d 
sounds more like a forestroke. See Horizontal fore- 
strokes in Ex. 170, I. 1, m. 4, p. 4, in which f, hori- 
zontally prepared, continues two pulses and then 
resolves on m. It is the same with m in the next 
measure and with r in the measure following. The 
waving fe in I. 1, m. 4, p. 4, waving against a disso- 
nance is curious and harsh. Also in Ex. 174, L 7, 
m. \, p. 1; and Ex. 142, 1. 1, m. 4, p. 1. See a case of 
" delayed resolution " in Ex. 137, L l,m. 3, where 
f passes through a consonance before it is resolved ; 
and Ex. 141, 1. 2,m. 3, p. 1, where it passes through 
consonance and partial dissonance to its resolution. 
See an ZTwprepared dissonance "1 against t" intro- 
duced for its own touching effect in Ex. 174, I. 7, 
m. I, p. 3. See d and s (Tonic and Dominant) 
exercising the privilege of long holding (or pedal) 
tones, in spite of dissonance, because of their 
relation to the key, in Ex. 138, I. 1, m. 2, p. 2; and 
I. 2, m. 2, p. 2 ; and m. 3, p. 3. 

New Cadences. In two-part music the full 
chords cannot be given. But, for reasons given in 
the "Common-places of Music" two-part conso- 
nances always stiggest the chords of which they 
form a part. Thus, a, with d above it suggests the 

St. Co. (New.J 



chord DC ; m with s above it suggests, not the 
" unmeaning " and seldom used chord Ma, but D5 ; 
t, with r above it suggests, not the " weak " chord 
T, but S ; 1 with f above it suggests Fb, and so on. 
Thus interpreted, the exercises in this step intro- 
duce us to two new cadences in addition to those 
(the D, the S, the F D, and the L cadences) which 
are named on p. 48. See the uncommon cadences 
on F and R in Ex. 137. See what we call S D 
cadences in Ex. 142, and a F D cadence in Ex. 143. 
See what we call a "weak -pulse cadence" in Ex. 
141, L 2, m. 2, p. 2 ; and a " F D weak-pulse 
cadence " in I. 1, in. 4, p. 2. 

Phrases, Sections, Periods. The nature of a 
cadence has been explained at p. 48. There it 
has been shewn that the cadence naturally cuts the 
melody into parts, and that these parts are called 
"Sections." "Phrases" are divisions of melody 
within a Section. "Periods" are divisions of 
melody including two or more Sections. In ex- 
tended pieces of music we use the word " strain " 
to represent several periods combined in one melodic 
whole. A Section, which is two measures in 
length, we call a Duain, one of three measures a 
Triain, and one of four a Quadrain. 

Musical Form. A good form in house or orna- 
ment or animal must be symmetrical and varied 
and adapted, in all its parts, to its chief purpose. So, 
in music, awell-formed tune has symmetry and pro- 
portion in the length of its principal parts or "lines ;" 
it has both symmetry and variety in the rhythms 
and melodic replies of its musical phrases ; and its 
harmony as well as the style of its melody combine 
together to express the general sentiment desired. A 
disjointed, ill-formed tune would be like a picture in 
which a number of men and women beautiful and 
ugly, should be thrown together " any how." A 
well-formed tune is like those men and women 
artistically grouped in one picture where the 
beautiful are placed forward and the ugly kindly put 
in the shade, and the colours and postures all 
arranged for some unity of effect. It is pleasant 
when one sees a house or an ornament or an animal, 
to "know its points" of excellence, but we can 
receive much enjoyment from them without so 
intelligent an eyesight. In listening to music the 
case is similar. But in sinying music the case is 
different. For the singer is an Artist. The sculp- 
tor and the painter can present their own works to 
the public view. But the musical composer is de- 
pendent on another artist the singer or the player 



70 



FOURTH STEP. 



to present his works. By singing loudly or 
softly, quickly or slowly, in various places and 
various (Ic^rei'S, the singer can make or mar the 
handiwork of the helpless composer. Every intel- 
ligent singer will therefore feel it his duty to study 
his music beforehand, and to fix in his mind how, 
by the art of Expression (p. 30), its various rhyth- 
mical divisions and melodic ideas are to be dis- 
tinguished and "set off' one from the other, how 
he can change a bare outline into a coloured 
picture. The main principles of Melodic Relation 
have already been suggested under the headings 
" Relative motion of parts" and "Imitation," pp. 
36, 37. Some ideas of "phrasing" or marking 
out of melodic divisions are suggested under the 
heading "Breathing-places," pp. 9, 30. Other 
principles of Rhythmic Proportion may be easily 
apprehended, and then an examination of a few 
examples will shew the pupil how to begin this 
enjoyable study. A fuller development of it is 
found in " Musical Theory," Book III. 

Parsing or Analysis of Musical Form. The 
practice of requiring a pupil to make a written or 
verbal analysis of the tune about to be sung is very 
useful. Even elementary pupils should answer 
the first and second questions, 

1st. What is the Form as Psalm-tune, Song, 
Dance, March, etc. 

2nd. What are the Key, the Measure, the Rate, 
and the Style P 

3rd. What is the Rhythmical Division ? (That 
is, does it divide itself into two principal parts, or 
into three P It it Two-fold or Three-fold ?) And 
what is its Cadence design P The first " Cadence 
design " makes its principal dividing cadence (the 
most important cadence next to the final one) on 
the first sharp key ( S D), or in a minor mode tune 
on the relative major (D) ; the second, on the 
Dominant S i or SE M ) ; the third, on the Tonic 
generally, with its Third or Fifth in the air (D 
D5DorL 3 L5L); and the fourth must have some 
other Cadence in that place. 

4th. What is the Structural Plan ? That is, 
describe or mark the place where the Periods and 
Sections (p. 69) of the Tune begin, using the 
Roman figures, I, II, etc., to indicate Periods, and 
the small capitals, A, B, etc., to indicate Sections. 
Thus IA means First Section of First Period. 

St. Co. (New.) 



5th. What are the Transitions or Modulations 
most worthy of note ? 

6th. What are the Principal Responses ? That 
is, first, (or Pds.), what arc the principal Melodic 
or Rhythmic replies (see Imitation, pp. 36, 37), 
of Period to Period ? Second (or Sec.), What are 
the principal Melodic or Rhythmic replies of 
Section to Section within each Period? Third 
(or Har.), What are the principal points in the 
relation of " Parts" in the Harmony ? (See above, 
p. 36). 

7th. What are the most interesting devices, 
that is, Sequence, Fugal Imitations, etc. ? 

8th. What is the Emotional Development and 
Point? That is, describe how, in the successive 
Sections, the " feeling " of the tune rises and falls ; 
and say which in your opinion is the most remark- 
able and effective point (whether of elevation or 
depression) in all the tune. 

Examples of Parsing. The following examples 
should be tested by singing over and over again, 
and comparing one with another the various .Sec- 
tions and Periods of the tune. The teacher will 
find useful examples of Parsing from the Charts in 
" Teacher's Manual," p. 194. 

Ex. 133 is 

1st. A Psalm-tune. 

2nd. In key A, in two-pulse measure, of firm 
and prayerful style, about M. 80. 

3rd. Is Two-fold, and of the first cadence 
design. 

4th. IA a Quadrain, IB a Triain, lengthened by 
the "hold" to a Quadrain; HA a Quadrain, II 
Triain, sung as a Quadrain. 

5th. IB First Sharp Cadence. 

6th. (Pds.) HA contrasts with IA by setting of 
f against n' otherwise it imitates it. IIn contrasts 
the r 8 against the g r of IB, and has contrary 
motion in its second phrase. (Har.) contrary 
motion of parts at the end of IB, and similar 
motion at the beginning of HA. 

7th. None. 

8th. IA seems to make a quiet assertion with a 
double emphasis on n- IB seems to give an excit- 
ing reply ; HA the assertion made more yolemn by 
f twice emphasized. HB, the joyful sure decision 
leaping up to the brilliant g and making the "point" 
of the tune by falling on the solemn f . 



Ex. 1701. 



FOURTH STEP. 



71 



Exercise 137 is 1st. A song for S and C. 

2nd. In key B[j, in four-pulse measure, in a 
bold style, at M. 112. 

3rd. Is Two-fold, and of the first cadence 
design. 

4th. IA, a Duain, IB, Duain, Ic, Duain, ID, 
Duain ; HA, Duain, IIu, Duain, lie, Duain, HD, 
Duain. 

5th. First sharp extended in ID. 

6th. (Pds.) HA B has contrasted motion to IA . 
(Sec.) IB is a rising imitation of IA, and ID simi- 
larly rises out of ic. HB imitates HA a third 
higher, He again returns strongly to the rising 
motion which sets off the wide intervals and the 
elegant rhythm of IIu. Rhythmical unity in the 
beginning and ending of every Section till the last 
which makes the rhythm of the last more effective, 
(liar.) I has principally contrary motion between 



parts ; HA opens with contrary motion, IIu has 
chiefly similar motion, He has contrary motion, 
HD has oblique and similar motion. 

7th. A melodic sequence in HA and B. 

8th. IA, a resolute thought (with TAA -AATAI 
and accented s and d)> IB, repeated more earnestly, 
Ic, a rising feeling, ID, passionate resolution ; HA, 
quieter counsels, HB, repeated in loftier strain. He, 
return of the passion bringing the tune to its 
" point " of greatest energy, Ho, the subsidence 
of passion in settled resolve. 

When a systematic course is pursued, the exer- 
cises of the 3rd and 4th Steps can be taken in the 
following order : 97, 115, 134, 136, 140, 141, 142, 
143, 144, 145, 113, 119, 120, 174, 175. Some of 
the exercises with fugal imitations are too difficult 
for the present step. F or a fuller course, apply to 
the Secretary of the Tonic Sol-fa College. 



Ex. 170. KEY C. 

s : 1 .t I d 1 : 

Ho - san - na, 

: | .d : r .n 



HOSANNA. 

Optional Tones, d 1 r m' f ' * 



Hallelu- jah! 



-.lit.d'lr 1 : 



Ho-san - na, 



f : - |- .r : m.fe 



Hallelu- jah! 



-.t : aij^ln 1 : 

Ho-san - na, 

s : |- .n : f .s 



Hallelu- jah! 



Ma Inzer. 

-.d'lr^lf :- 
Ho-san - na, 

1 :- |-.l:s.fe 



Hallelu- 



/ - .f 1 : n'.r'ln 1 : 


-.n'rr'.d 1 


r 1 :- 
na, 

-.f :n.r 

Hallelu- 

HALLEI 

otional Tones 

-jah! 

-.1 :s.fe 


- .r 1 : d'.t 


1 :s.f 


n :- !- :- 

na. 

d :- |- :- 

jah! 
Mainzer. 

f : l-.f'in'.r 


\ Ho-san - na, 

is : |-.s :f .n 

^ jah! Hallelu- 
Ei:. 171. KEY C. 

s : 1 .t |d' : 

Hal - le- lu-jah ! 
n : | - .s : f .ft 


Ho-san - 
f :- 
jah! 

4 

1 : t .d 1 

Hal - le -lu 
f :- 

men, 

r 1 :- 
men, 

r :t .1 

jah ! Hal - 


Ho - 

n : 

jah! 

,UJAH. 

d 1 r 1 n 1 f 

Hal - le -lu 
s : 

men, 

d' : 

men, 

n .f : n .r 


san 
- .f : n .r 

Hallelu- 

n'.Tzf'.n' 


-jah! A - 

- .t : 1 .s 


men, A 

1 :r'.d'|t.l:s.f 


A 

n 1 :- l-.n 1 : r'.d' 


A - 

-.r 1 : d'.t 


A - 

t : 

A 

|s .1 :s .f 


men, Hal - le - lu - 

di . I . _ 
1 

men. 
men. 


men, A 
n : d'.t|l .s : f .n 


A - 

s .f : n .r 


jah ! Hal - le - lu - 


le - lu- 


jah! A 



A stroke over a note thus shews where the Tenors are recommended to introduce the thin register. 
and a double stroke thus = shews where they are advised to use the thick register. 



St 



(New.) 






72 



Ex. 172. KEY G. 



FOUJRTH STEP. 
AMEN. Optional Tones, m f s 1 



.d : r .n 


:f 


.s,f 


n .d 1 : 


t 


.d' 


:1 .t 


d'.s,f:pi 


.d : 


r 


t, 


A 


men,A 

.d : 


r 


.n 


: f .s,f 


men, A 
n : 
men, 


.n : 
A 


f 


.r 


A 




. 


- 




- 



Albrechtsberger. 

: .1 :f .s,f 



n .^j_^.jij_-_.JL 

men.A 

d .n J^_j8 ' d 

men, A - men, 

f. G. 

d :"t, .d : r .t. 



D. t. 



ir'.d 1 :- .1 


t,l:t .d',r' 


t|pi ; r 


: s 


A 



n 1 .r'.d 1 ; t .d 1 : f 
men, A - men, 
d .f :- 



n .s,f: n .d : r .ti 
men, A 

n .1 : r : s 



: - .r 



men,A 



men, A 

n .d 1 : s r .n : f .s,f 
men,A 



d .s : r .n : f .s,f 



nun, A 

n : ti .d : r .s, 
men, A 



n,8.1,t: d' 

men.A 

d : ,n.r,d: r 
men, A 



:- .t 



d' :- 

men. 

d :- 



- .d :-.t|,l ( : t, .d,r 



THE CUCKOO. 
Ex.173. KEY C. M. 112. Round for four parts. Optional Tones, d' r 1 n 1 



s . : s .,s | n 1 : d 1 
Hark! 'tis the cue - koo's 



d 1 . : 



: d> 



List to the mol - low 



voce, 



notes, 



From 



G. t. 



Tho 



:1 



:f 



yon - der aha - dy I grove ; 



s : - .1 1 s_.f_: n . 

song I dear - ly 



f. C. 



love. 



A. L. C. 



n' d 1 

Cue - koo! 



: n 



Cue - koo ! 



n 1 d 1 
Cue - koo ! 



Cue koo ! 



r\ :n.,n|s : d' 

Hark! 'tis the cue - koo's 
St. Co. (New.) 



t : 

voice, 



: f n : f |n : r 

From yon - der sha - dy 



grove ; 



;[ 



'. n .,n | n : d 



n 



List tothemel - low 



s : 

notes, 



FOURTH STEP. 

G. t. 



The 



PI ; 

song 



__ 
I dear - ly 



f. C. 



love. 



73 



^; d : d .,d | d : n 



il 



Hark! 'tis the cue - koo's 



d : d .,d I d : n 

List to the mel - low 



s : 

notes, 



CODA. To be sung by all together. 
/= 



:d 

From 



G. t. 



The 



:d 



: t, 



yon - der sha - dy 



d : - d | Si : S| 

song I dear - ly 



j, :m' |d" 

Cu -koo! 



Cue - koo ! 



Cue - koo ! 



grove ; 



f. C. 



love. 



PP 



D.C. 



Cue - koo ! 



Ex. 174. KEY G. 



l.The 
3. In 

.8, 



THE MAYTIME. 

WORDS BY J. S. STALLYBRASS. 



A. L. C. 



d : 


Id : 


S, 


May 


time, 


the 


May 


time, 


in 


PI, : 


In, : 


s, 



- Id 



May 
May 

s, : 



d : 

time, 
time, 


how 

oh, 


s, .f : r .t| |s : - .s, \ 


love - ly and fair, howJ 
waste not the hours, oh, \ 

: .si |s, .f : r .t, t 


How love- ly and] 
Oh, waste not the/ 



PI .,f : n .r |d 



love - ly and fair, What 

waste not the hours, Go 

s : - .S| |n .,f : PI .r 

fair, how love - ly and 

hours, oh, waste not the 



n : 1 .,1 |r ,fe : - .fe 

pas - time and pleasure are 
twino you sweet garlands of 

d :- .d |d :d .d 

fair, What pas - time and 

hours, Go twine you sweet 



s : | : 

there ; 
flowers ; 

t| .r : - .d 1 1| : .1 

pleasure are there ; The 
garlands of flowers ; Oh ! 



: I 


: .r 


t| :d .d |r .,< 


The 
And 
1 :t| 

- eth, 
- dows, 


night - in - gale sing 
far on the mea 


St. Co. (New.) 





.r 


PI : 


f 


.f |S .,f 


: PI 


r,d 


<r: 


n,r 


,n 


f,n ( f 


: s, 



40 


The 


lark 


it 


up - spring 


-eth, 


La 


la 


la~ 


la 


la la 


la. 


La 


And 


deep 


in 


the sha - 


dows, 


La 


la 


la 


la 


la la 


la, 


La 




8|,d,ti: 


1., 


il, | t|,PI ,1* 


:d, t d 


t,. 





d . 




|r . 


: n . 


| 


h, 


La la 


la 


la la la 


la, La 


la 




la 




la 


la 




ws, 


La la 


la 


la la la 


la, La 


la 




la 




la 


la 


i 




74 



FOURTH STEP. 



1 . : s . |f . 


: n .r 


d .r :- .r 


n :- .f 


s : 1- :s .f i 


la la la. 


O - vei 


field and hill anc 


dale, - ver 


la la la, 


There it 


fulness of 


life anc 


)<>v, Andtherel 


f ,8 ,f : n ,f ,n | r ,n ,r 


:d . 


.t| : t| .d 


.81 : d .r 


n :- 1- : , 


La la la la la 


la, 


O'er field 


and hill anc 


dale. 


La la la la la 


la, 


Is fulness 


of life anc 


.iy- / 


n .f : - .n|r. : - .r 


d :- 


- I- : .s 


s : - |n : .n n : |d : .d 


field and hill and 


dale. 


The 


May - time, the May - time, the 


reacheth us no an- 


noy. 






.r : r .d|- .d : t,.S| 


d : - 


- I : .n 


n : Id : .d 8) : |ri| : .ni 


O'er field and hill and 


dale. 


The 


May - time, the May - time, the 


There rcacheth us no an 


-noy. 










FINE. ^ 


D. t. 


ti : r | - : f 


n : - 


- Id ' 


: 1 : : | : .id'v 


lovo ly 


May 


time. 


The/ 


8| : ti 1 : t| 


d : 8| | n, .d 


d : t|.l|| n l : s .f n .f : n .r |d : d i 


lovo ly 


May 


time. 2 The 


jates of the earth that were lock'd up so fast, Let ] 


f. O. 








d 1 :t .1 |ni : 


8 .f 


n .f : n .r 


d : t, 


d .,d : r | n : fe .,fe . 


gates of the earth that were 


lock'd up so fast, Let 


out their poor pris - 'ners atr 


r .,r : r | n ti : 


T.| ,,t| 


d : - .8) |n, : si 


d :d |d :- i 


out their poor pris - ' 


nors at 


last. Let out their 


pris - 'ners at 


8 :- |- : 


.f 


n .f :- .f 


i .,r : d .n 


s .s : 1 .1 1 8 .f : n .r v 


last, 


As 


li - lies, and ro - ses, And 


vi - o - lets for po - 8ies,Andthel 


t, :- |- 


t, 


d .r : - .r |d .,t ( : d .d 


n .n : f .f In ,,r : d . < 


last, 


As 


li - lies, and ro - ses,And 


vi - o - lets for po - sies, 








D.C. 


d .r : - .r |n : n .f 


8 


| 8 : 8 . 


" n .f : - .n 


r :-.r d : - | - n 


pinks,and the bunch-es ol 


blue 


bells, And t 


ie little red pirn - per- nels. 


.t| : t|.d | - ,8|: d ,r 


n : 


- |n : 


.r :r.d -.d : t .s, d : | 


The pinks and bunches o 


qbh 


bells, 


The little redpimper- neis. [] 



8t. Co. (New.) 



FOURTH STEP. 



76 



Ex. 175. KBY D. 



THE SEA FOB, ME. 

St SOPRANO. 



A.L.C. 



: : : : 


: : : : s 


* :- :- - :- :* 


* :- :- 


CHORDS. 

n ;n in |n '.- '.r\ 


The 

n in in | n \ 


sea for 

ti id :r |n :r :d 


me, 

r :- :- 


La la la la, &c. 

d :d :d |d :- :d 


d :d id |d :- : 


s, :l, :t, |d :t, :1, 


t, :- :- 


- :- :s 


. :- :i )' :- :r' 


* :- :- - :- : ' 


") ores 
I '.- '.t \$ '. \l 


the 


deep blue sea for 


me, 


Beau - ti - ful, ma- 


It, :- : 


:n :n :f :f 


in :n |n :- : 


f :- :s |1 :- if 


is, :- : 


d :- : |s, :- : d :- :- |- :- : 


f :- : |f :- : 


cen 

s :- :- |rf' :- :- 


do. 

t '.- \cfl | r 1 : \$ 


f J 


n \ ._ ._ ^ 


jes - tic, 


glo - ri - ous, and 


free; 


Rush 


in in I in in 


r :- in |f :- :n 


:r :r |r :- : 


d in is 


d :- : |d :- : 


si :- : is, :- : 


S} .~~ ^ . 


d in :s 


- :' :*' 


r \ ._ ;_ _ ; r l ; r l 


r ] :- :- - :- \r 


?i 


- ing a - 


long g with re - 


sist - - less 


might, Or 


Id 1 :s :n 


si :t| :r |s :r it 


a, :ti :r |f :r :t. 


d :n is |d' :- : 


|d ! :s :n 


s, it i r s i r it 


s. :t, :r |f :r :t| 


d in :s |d :- : 


rf" :- \t 


if :- :*' 

ing the 


t :- :l 


\l :- it 

lor to 


slum ber 


light. ( 


luU 


sai 


n :- : |f :- : 


s :- : |1 :- : 


fe :- : |fe :- : 


: it. 


d :- : |r :- : 


n :- : |fe :- : 


r :- : r :- : 


s, :- :- 


- ;- : * 


* :- :- - :- :* 


s :- \- |- :- :* 


rf' :- :- - :- :rf 


The 


sea for 


me, the 


sea for 


It, :- : 


t, :d :r |n :r :d 


r :- :- it, :- : 


n :f :s |1 :s :f 


- :- : 


s, :1, :ti Jd :t, :1 ( 


t, - :- is, :- : 


d :r :n |f :n :r 



St. Co. (New.) 



FOURTH STEP. 



me. 



the 



n :- :- |d :- . 



deep 



blue 



:n :n | :n :n 



sea for 

:s :s | :f :f 

s :- : |s, :- : 



me, 



:n :s 



FINK. A. t. dolce. 



Id 1 :s :n 



:n :n |n :- 
d :- :- l- :- 



Our 



ship 



on its 



:d :d |d : : 



bo 



t, : 

s, :i 



smooth 

d :d :d |d 



ly 



s :- :- |- 

glides, 

n :n :n |n 

d :d :d id 



s :- :/ \n : 

Light - ly o'er 

n :- :r |d : 

di :- : id, : 



the 



bil 



I- :/ :n 

lows she 



Hi :- 

If, :- 



r 

gai 

t, 

r. 



|fe, :- : 



t\ :- 

rides; 



s, :- :- 



Then 



d :- 



join 

si : 
n, : 



:- I- t*i :d 

us 



f, :fi :f, if, : : 



grate 

t, :t, :tj |t : 

si :si :BI | S| : 



ful 



song, 

d :d :d |d : 
d, :d, :d, d : 



As 



to ou 

Id :- :r 

Id, :- : 

St. Co. f'Ji 



home 



|r :- : 



borne 



d, :- : |f, :- : is, :- : 



f. D. 

long. 



d :- :/ \ 

on - wardJ 

n, :- :g| ( 
d, :- : 

D.s. 



FOURTH STEP. 



77 



Modulator Voluntaries now include transition of 
one remove. These should not be made too difficult 
by wide and unexpected leaps on to the distinguish- 
ing tone ; nor too easy by always approaching the 
distinguishing tone stepwise. While the effects of 
transition are in process of being learnt these exer- 
cises may be solfaad, but the teacher cannot now bo 
content with solfaa-ing. Every exercise should also 
be laad, p. 37, and that to the Italian laa, p. 2. 

Two-part Modulator Voluntaries interest the 
pupils much and form good voice exercises when 
sung to the pure and open skaalaa, and the simpler 
they are the better for this purpose. But if they 
are made difficult to the pupil they become difficult 
to the teacher and his attention is so taken up with 
the music he is making that he forgets to listen for 
the proper quality of voice. The teacher who 
would use only good two-part music should prepare 
such exercises carefully. 

Sight-laa-ing. The laa-voluntaries are really 
sight-singing exercises, if the teacher does not get 
into self-repeating habits of pointing. See p. 42. 
But, at their best, they give no practice in reading 
time at sight. Therefore the absolute necessity of 
sight-laa-ing from new music (as the monthly 
Reporter) or the black-board. 

Memorizing the three keys. The pupils should 
now know from memory, not only what is above 
any one note on the modulator and what below it, 
but what is on its right and what on its left. The 
one key no longer stands alone on the mind's modu- 
lator. It has an elder brother on the right and a 
younger on the left, and each of its tones bears 
cousinship to the other two families and may be 
called to enter them. Therefore at all the later 
lessons of this step exercises should be given in 
committing to memory this relationship, p. 51. 
The pupils must learn to say these relations, collec- 
tively and each one for himself, un'thont the modu- 
lator. 

Memory Patterns. It is difficult to indicate 
divisions of time by the motions of the pointer on 
the modulator with sufficient nicety to guide the 
singer in following a voluntary, and it is important 
to exercise the memory of tune and rhythm. For 
these reasons our teachers give long patterns 
extending to two or more sections including some 
of the more delicate rhythms. These patterns are 
given laa-ing but pointing on the modulator. The 
pupils imitate them, without the teacher's pointing, 
first solfaa-ing and then laa-ing. 

St. Co. (New.) 



Memory Singing. The practice of singing whole 
pieces to words from memory, in obedience to the 
order " Close books : eyes on the baton," is a very 
enjoyable one. The singer enjoys the exercise of 
subordination to his conductor along with a sense 
of companionship in that subordination, and de- 
lights in the effects which are thus produced. This 
practice is very needful at the present stage in order 
to form a habit, in the singer, of looking up from 
his book. This should now be his normal position. 
But, as from necessity, the learner's eyes havo 
hitherto been much engaged with his book, he will 
havo to make a conscious effort to form " the habit 
of looking up." Occasional " Memory Singing '" 
will make him feel the uso and pleasure of this. 

Ear Exercises, as at pp. 24, 42, will fasten on 
the mind the mental effects of fe and ta. 

Time Ear Exercises, as at p. 24, should still be 
continued with the new difficulties of time. 

Dictation, as at pp. 12, 24, with the new language 

I of time just introduced, will now be carried to a 

i much greater extent. Copies of tunes belonging 

j to this step from other courses, or original compo- 

! sitions, or pieces for special occasions, can thus be 

rapidly multiplied. When once the practice of 

Dictation and the use of the " Tonic Sol-fa Copy 

Books " has got into familiar use in school or class 

many things can be done by it. Some schools are 

taught entirely by a Modulator, a set of Wall 

Sheets and Copy Books. The further we go in 

Dictation the more useful the time-names become. 

The "announcements" for Ex. 174, I. 3, m. 2, &c., 

would be as follows : " TAA m " "TAATAI f f" 

<; TAAfe s f" "TAA m" " taataitee r dr" 

" taataitee m r m " taataitee f m f " taasaitee 

8 S" " TA.A.SAI 1" "TAA&47 S" TAA.SA1 

f"_ TAATAI d r" "-AATAI r" &c. The third 
measure of the same tune would be announced 
thus " TAATAI s-one f " " TAATAI r t-one." 



Pointing from memory and Writing from 
memory, as at pp. 12, 24, should still be practised. 
The second does not at all take the place of the 
first. We have known pupils who could write from 
memory, but could not point the same tunes on the 
modulator. It is important to establish in the 
! memory that pictorial view of key relationship 
which the modulator gives, especially now that thd 
studj' of Transition is added to that of the scale. 






78 



FOURTH STEP. 



QUESTIONS FOR WRITTEN OR ORAL EXAMINATION. 
DOCTRINE. 



1 Name the tones of the chord of F. 
Say in what respect it is like the chorda 
1) and 8 ? IIow is it related to the chord 
D. and how would you describe its 
mental effect ! 

2 Describe the chord "8. In what 
case is the dissonant effect of /a* 
against toh more slightly felt ? How is 
the /ah in this chord commonly pre- 
pared, and how is it always resolved I 

3 What is meant by " ambiguity of 
chords," and which of the chords can- 
not be imagined to belong to more than 
one key ? 

4 What is a major chord ! A minor 
chord ? a diminished chord ? and 
which of these are in themselves the 
most acceptable to the ear I 

6 What is the difference between 
the tones ray and rah ? Which tones 
of the scale require rah to tune with 
them, and which ray t 

6 What are the tones of the chord 
RAH ? In what position is it most 
commonly found ! And how would you 
describe its mental effect I 

7 What are the tones of the chord 
T? How are ita root and fifth 
usually resolved T In what position 
and under what circumstances is it 
commonly employed, and what is its 
mental effect ? 

8 What are the tones of the chord 
Lt In what position is it used apart 
from the minor mode t And what 
chord is used interchangeably with it t 
What is its mental effect t 

9 What are the tones of the chord Mt 
Can it be easily substituted for the 
dominant or sub-dominant like the 
chords T and R ! Is it much used T 

10 What dissonance in there in the 
chord "K ? And how is it prepared and 
resolved ? For what chord, in cadences, 
do modern writers often substitute 7R6 t 

11 What is the chief source of men- 
tal effect in a chord I And in what 
position is that mental effect best 
developed ! 

12 What is a cadence ! Name the 
last three or four chords of a tonic 
cadence. Of a dominant cadence. Of 
aplagal cadence. Of asm-prise cadence. 

13 What is the principal case in 
which a chord is used in its e position, 
and what is the peculiarity of this case I 
In what other cases is the c position 
allowed, and what are its three princi- 
pal apologies ? 

14 Can you remember any pecu- 
liarity in the doubling or omission of 
the third which belongs to tl- - .?hord "8! 

st. Co. (y.-v).) 



Or any other peculiarity which belongs 
to minor chords generally ? 

15 Where are the little steps of the 
scale t The greater steps 1 The smaller 
steps I By what intervals are the two 
little steps of the scale separated from 
one another ? How can you define doh J 

16 Which are the most markedly 
characteristic tones of the scale ? And 
how may they be described t 

17 What is transition ? In what 
respect are those tones of a tune changed 
which do not change their pitch t 

18 What is the sharp distinguishing 
tone, and what is its effect on the ear ? 
What is the flat distinguishing tone 
and its mental effect 1 

19 From the ear's dislike to the tri- 
tone as a melodic progression, what 
melodic phrases, often repeated, natu- 
rally suggest transition ? 

20 What is meant by the first sharp 
key ! The first flat key ! In going to 
the first sharp key, beside the substi- 
tution of the piercing tone for the 
desolate tone, what change of effect 
takes place in the tone a third above 
the distinguishing tone ! Does any 
other change besides that of effect take 
place on the lah I (see " Grave ray " p. 
46) In going to the first flat key, 
besides the change of a piercing for a 
desolate tone, what change of effect, 
and what other change takes place in 
the third above the new distinguishing 
tone! 

21 What is the difference between 
the principal and a returning transi- 
tion! 

22 What is a bridge tone ? Give 
examples of a bridge tone making tran- 
sition through the distinguishing tone 
of the new key. 

23 What is the meaning of the little 
notes placed to the right or left of the 
key signature in transition ! 

24 What are the general mental 
effects of transition to the first sharp 
key ; And to the first flat key t 

25 How would you indicate transi- 
tion by the manual signs ! 

26 What kind of effect is produced 
on the mind when / does not move to 
toh in the next chord, or when ta does 
not go to lah T And by what name is 
that effect called ? 

27 What is the commonest case of 
transition to the first sharp key, and by 
what name is it called ! What is the 
difference between the flat and sharp 
keys in this respect ! 

28 What is the commonest case of 
transition to *h 'Jist flat key, and by 



what name is it called ! How does the 
sharp key differ from the flat in this 
respect ! 

29 How do you define extended 
transition ! Which of the two transi- 
tions is more used in this way ? 

30 What is a sharp ? And what 
relation does it bear to the tones which 
stand below and above it in the scale I 
What is a flat t And what relation 
does it bear to the tones above and 
below it in the scale ? 

31 On what particulars of knowledge 
and skill does a good musical recitation 
depend? What are other words for 
the articulations and continuations of 
voice ? Which of these two is the more 
important t And why I Why is the 
other of the two to be first studied ? 

32 Name and illustrate, by example, 
all the five lip articulations. 

33 Name and illustrate the two arti- 
culations of lip and teeth. 

34 Name and illustrate the two arti- 
culations of Tip-tongue and teeth. 

35 Name and illustrate the five arti- 
culations of Tip-tongue and palate. 

36 Name and illustrate the two arti- 
culations of the Mid-tongue with the 
Palate, in which the Tip-tongue takes 
a very decided part, the two in which it 
takes a less decided part, and the twc 
in which it takes no part. 

37 Name and illustrate the three 
Back-tongue articulations. 

38 Name the six articulations with 
shut passage, placing the two qualities 
(breath and voice) together in couples. 

39 Name, as above, the eight articu- 
lations with central passage. 

40 Name, as above, the five articu- 
lations with side passages. 

41 Name the three articulations with 



. 

42 Describe the aspirate H. In the 
articulations what organs of speech 
come in contact and separate ? 

43 Which are the consonants least 
capable of being sung ' Which are the 
six Hisses ? Which are the six Buzzes ! 
How far are the Hisses and Buzzes 
capable of being sung ? Which are the 
three smothered consonants 1 Which 
are the five which can be murmured or 
hummed. What is a Glide T What is 
the difference between the Glide joining 
b and oo and that joining 6 and eel if 
two sounds are kept distinct, but pro- 
nounced rapidly one after the other, 
what more do they want to make them 
into a syllable t As scarcely any of the 
consonants are pleasant when sounded 
alone, what part of a consonantal effect 



FOURTH STEP. 



79 



is it that can be really sounded ? And 
what habit in the management of the 
organs of voice is it therefore important 
for the singer to form 1 

44 Describe in writing ten common 
errors in the use of consonants. 

45 What is the difference between 
the recurrence of accent among the 
pulses of music and among the pulses 
of public speech 1 Give illustrations of 
the " mixed measures " of speech. 

46 What is the purpose of a chant, 
and into what principal parts is it 
divided ? What governs the length of 
the reciting tone? In teaching the 
music and words of a chant, which 
should be learnt by heart throughout the 
whole ? How should the recitation of 
words be studied ? 

47 What is the name for a silent 
quarter of a pulse, when it comes 
within the accented half ? When with- 
in the unaccented half? How is it indi- 
cated in the notation ? 

48 By what vowel is the first third 
of a pulse indicated ? the second ? the 
last ? How are thirds of a pulse written 
in the notation ? 

49 What different sorts of accent 
are there in a musical passage, and 
how do you define a pulse 1 What 
must the Tonic Sol-fa translator do 
when he wishes to know whether 
crotchet, quaver, or minim, are treated 
as the pulse in a common notation 
tune ? How should quickly moving 
sbc-pulse measure be taa-taid 1 

50 Why is the pupil not taught to 
beat time in the early steps ? 

51 Describe the kind of exercises by 
which the teacher endeavours to infuse 
into his pupils a sense of time. 

62 Describe the most clearly visible 
ways of beating two-pulse measure 
three-pulse four-pulse six-pulse. 

53 The beat to the right being asso- 
ciated in four-pulse measure with a 



medium accent, why is it also suitable to 
the second pulse of three-pulse measure ? 

54 Does the quality of tone in the 
lower part of a woman's voice differ in 
any respect from that of the same tone 
when produced by the higher part of a 
man's voice ? What register of their 
voices are male singers commonly 
ashamed of before their voices are 
cultivated ? 

55 What register is most neglected 
in uncultivated women's voices? Des- 
cribe the means by which the teacher 
leads his female pupils to recognise 
their thick register. 

56 Describe the process by which 
the thick register in women is strength- 
ened. 

57 What is meant by the blending 
of the registers ? Describe the exercises 
by which the thick and thin registers 
are equalized. 

58 What are the Sol-fa names of 
the optional tones of a tenor voice in 
key C 1 Q ? Bi? ? F ? A ? D ? If a 
group of tones commencing on an 
optional tone ascends above Gt, in which 
register would you begin it ? If such a 
group commencing below the optional 
tones ascends to F, in which register 
would you begin? If such a group 
beginning above G descends into the 
optional tones, what register would you 
use ? If other things are equal, which 
register would you prefer on the op- 
tional tones for a forte passage ? for a 
piano passage ? 

59 What is the advantage of a 
knowledge of dissonances to the singer ? 

60 What are the five principal 
apologies for a part-pulse dissonance 
on the weak part of a pulse ? What is 
the common resolution of part-pulse 
dissonances on the strong part of the 
pulse ? What are the three prepara- 
tions for such dissonances? And the 
names for those preparations? Why 



does a composer sometimes leave a dis- 
sonance unprepared ? 

61 When a class is competent to 
study this subject of dissonances, how 
does the teacher introduce it practically 
to their attention ? 

62 Among full-pulse dissonances, 
which of them are used more freely 
when the pulses move quickly than 
when they move slowly ? How are 
forestrokes used when smoothness of 
melody is the object, and how when 
dissonant effect is desired ? 

63 Describe the six additional ca- 
dences introduced in the two-part 
exercises of this step. 

64 What is a section ? What is a 
phrase ? What is a period ? What is 
a section of two measures called ? One 
of three measures ? One of four ? 

65 What are the three principal 
element* of good Form ? Why is it 
more important for the singer to study 
the principles of musical form than for 
the listener ? 

66 What are the three questions 
which even elementary pupils should 
answer in respect to every tune, before 
it is sung ? What are the other 
questions which pupils should answer 
in a complete parsing of musical form T 

67 How should modulator volun- 
taries at this step be conducted ? 

68 Whence the necessity of sight- 
laaing from books ? 

69 Whence the importance of memo- 
rizing the modulator ! 

70 Why are memory patterns f 
use? 

71 Give reasons for the practice of 
memory singing. 

72 What new powers of dictatiom 
do the time exercises of this step bring 
to us? 

73 Why should pointing from 
memory as well as writing be con- 
tinued ? 



74 Hold a steady tone with one 
breath for twenty seconds. 

75 Sing with a beautiful forward 
quality of voice each part of Ex. 121 in 
key E, M. 70. 

76 Name pulse by pulse the chords 
in the first and third measures of Ex. 
122, p. 45. 

77 Laa in perfect tune the second 
part of Ex. 122, while your teacher or 
some other person, with correct voice, 
laas the first or third part. p. 45. 

78 The teacher having caused to be 
ung to figures consecutively, chord by 

St. Co. (New.) 



PEACTICE. 

chord, Ex. 122, omitting the second mea- 
sure, let the pupils say to which figures 
the chord Da was sung ; the same with 
Exs. 123 to 126. Even elementary pupils 
should know by ear the mental effects 
of the principal chords in their a posi- 
tion, pp. 45 to 47. 

79 In the same manner let the pupil 
distinguish the chord of Sa in Exs. 122 
to 126. 

80 In the same manner let the pupil 
distinguish Fa in Exs. 122, 123, and 124. 

81 In the same manner let the pupil 
distinguish ?Sa in Exs. 122 & 123. 



82 In the same manner let the pupil 
distinguish La in Ex. 126. 

83 Listen to the laaing of Exs. 123 
to 126 and name the cadences, p. 48. 

84 In the same manner as questiom 
78 let the pupil distinguish the chord 
D6 in Exs. 124 and 125. This and the 
following four questions (to 88) may be 
answered by the more advanced pupils. 

85 In the same manner let the pupi 
distinguish DC in Exs. 124 and 125. 

86 In the same manner let the pupil 
name F& in Exs. 124, 125, and 126, care- 
fully distinguishing it from La. 




80 

87 In the same manner let the pupil 
name R6 in Ex. 124, and "lii in Ex. 
126, carefully distinguishing them from 
Ek. 

88 In the same manner let the pupil 
name To in Ex. 126, and T6 in Ex. 125, 
carefully distinguishing them from "Si 
and 'Sc. 

89 The teacher singing or causing to 
In- .sung to figures (one to seven twice) 
Ex. 127ft, let the pupil decide on what 
hgure the distinguishing tone of the 
tirst sharp key was heard. The same 
with Ex. 128. p. 50. 

90 In the same manner let the pupil 
name the distinguishing tone of the 
first flat key in Exs. 130, and 131. 

'. 1 1 The teacher singing or causing to 
bo sung to figures (eight to one line, six 
to the next) Ex. 133, let the pupil name 
by its figure first the distinguishing tone 
of t rausition, and second that of return- 
ing transition. 

'.>-' The same with Ex. 136. Sevens 
metre. 

'.':; The same with Ex. 140. Common 
tn"tre. or eight-sixes. 

'.i ( The same with Ex. 143. 

M Signal by manual signs and from 
rnriuory, so that quick pupils could sing 
m>m your signalling, Exs. 65, 99, and 
the air of 97. p. 51 and preface. 

96 Signal, as above, the first and 
third parts together of Exs. 86, 86, and 
UB. 

97 Signal, as above, the first and 
third parts of Exs. 124, 125, and 126. 

; is Mark the best breathing places (to 
suit the phrasing and the sense) for the 
first and second verses of Ex. 133, second 
line of the poetry, and Ex. 134, third 
line of the poetry. 

99 Add any marks of expression (p. 
30) which occur to you in Exs. 140, 142, 
143, 144, and 145. 

100 Pitch without a tuning-fork the 
keys B, B flat, E, E flat, and A flat. 
The pupil has not satisfied this require- 
ment, if when tested he is found to be 
wrong so much as a step. 

101 Sing to words any one of Exs. 133 
to 145 as required, p. 25, question 46. 

102 Enunciate, with freely moving 
jaw, Ex. 146, tirst with the vowel aa, 
next with the vowel oo. (p. 61.) 

103 Enunciate Ex. 147, first with the 
vowel 01, and then with the vowel oa. 

104 Enunciate Ex. 148, first with the 
Towel <', and then with the an. 

105 Sing correctly on a single tone 
may three words from each paragraph 



FOTJKTH STEP. 

of Ex. 149 which the teacher points to. 

106 The same with Ex. 150. 

107 The same with Ex. 151. 

108 The same with Ex. 152. 

109 Recite, in exact time, the ex- 
amples in the second column, p. 63. 

110 Taatai on a single tone, exactly 
as marked, the rhythms of Exs. 123, and 
125. 

111 Taatai from memory any one 
of the Exs. 157 to 161, the first pulse 
being named. 

112 Taatai the upper part of any 
one of the Exs. 170 to 174. 

113 Beat, as directed (p. 66) four 
two-pulse measures at the rate of M. 
60, pause for two measures, and con- 
tinue the beating at the right moment for 
two measures more. A silent metro- 
nome not seen by the pupil is the best 
test of this exercise. 

114 The same, with four-pulse mea- 
sure, M. 90. 

115 The same, with three-pulse mea- 
sure, M. 60. 

116 The same, with six-pulse mea- 
sure, M. 120. 

117 Sing to koo with the thin register 
Exs. 162 or 163 whichever the teacher 
choosas. p. 66. 

118 Sing to koo with the thick regis- 
ter Exs. 164, 165, & 166, whichever the 
teacher chooses. 

119 Sing to koo Exs. 168, and 169, 
whichever the teacher chooses, making 
the registers of the same loudness and 
quality. 

120 Mark, for the Tenor singer, in 
Ex. 133 first, the optional tones, and 
next the places at which it is most ad- 
visable to change register, as is done in 
Exs. 170 to 173, and as suggested, p. 68 
and question 58 above. 

121 The same, with Exs. 135, 136, 
137, 138, 143, and 145. 

122 Without, at the time, referring 
to pp. 68 and 69, turn to examples of 
the part-pulse passing tone anticipa- 
tion tone waving tone hanging tone 
guiding tonehorizontal forestroke 
oblique forestroke waving forestroke 
unprepared forestroke. 

123 Without, at the time, referring 
to p. 69, turn to examples of the full 
horizontal forestroke the oblique fore- 
btroke and the unprepared forestroke. 

124 Without, at the time referring 
to p. 69, find examples of the following 
cadences, F, R, D, rD weak pulse 
8 weak pulse rD. 

125 Parse any one of Exs. 97, 116, 



134, 136, and 140, which the teacher nviy 
select. 

126 The same with Exs. 141 to 14:.. 

127 The same with Exs. 113, US'. 
120, 174, 175. 

128 Mark the best breathing j>l ;i< 
in each part of Exs. 170 to KL', so a* I . . 
sustain the voice, shew off the TIK 
phrases, and not interfere with tho 
sense of the words. 

129 Add any marks of expression 
(see p. 30) which occur to you to Exs. 
170 to 174. 

130 Sing to words any one of Exs. 
170 to 174, as required, p. 25, question 
46, which the teacher may select. 

131 Follow the examiner's pointing 
in a new voluntary, striking the di- 
guishing tones both of the tirst sharp 
and the first flat keys by leaps, and 
singing to lac. 

132 Point and sol-faa on the modu- 
lator, from memory, any one of K\~. 
133 to 144, chosen by the examiner. 

133 Write, from memory, any other 
of these twelve exercises chosen by the 
examiner. 

134 Laa, at first-sight, any exercise 
not more difficult than these twelve. 

135 Say aloud or write down, with- 
out looking at modulator or book, tin- 
bridge tones, to right and to left of each 
scale tone, as directed, p. 51. 

136 Tell which is Je and which is 
ta, as directed, p. 25, question 56. 

137 Tell what tone (/ or to) is ikan, 
as directed, p. 25, question 57. 

138 Taatai any rhythm of two or 
three four-pulse measures, belonging to 
this step, which the examiner shall Ian 
to you. See p. 25, question 58. 

139 Taatai in tune any rhythm of 
two or three four-pulse measures, be- 
longing to this step,which the examiner 
shall sol-faa to you. 

140 Sing to words, from memory, 
any one of Exs. 133 to 145 chosen by 
the examiner, singing cither part, but 
taking the last verse of the word*. 

141 Write correctly the three musi- 
cal phrases which would be dictated as 
follows : 1st, " TAATAI me doh " 
" snfatefe me ray doh" "TAAfe t l 
doh" "TAA ray." 2nd, "taf.-ifi-s-- 
doh ray me" "TAATAI me doh" 

tafatefe me ray doh te\" "TA\ 
doh." 3rd, "taataitee doh me soli" 
"Taa-aitee fah ray" "TAATAI 
/ah me" "TAATAI ray doh" "TAA 
te,." 



81 



FIFTH STEP. 

To practise more advanced Chest Klang and tuning exercises. To read chords disguistd l>j notation. To 
recoqnise chromatic chords. To perceive the power of cadence and emphasis in developing the mental effect of a 
tone. To distinguish the various Modes of the Common Scale. To recngnise and produce the characteristic 
cadences, and distinguishing tones of the Modern Minor. To recognise and produce Modulation and Transitional 
Modulation. To recite correctly. To arrange words for Chanting. Perception of the various modes of 
delivering tones, attack and release. To practise the degrees of Musical Force and Speed. To apply them to the 
various requirements of Melodic and Harmonic Expression. Parsing Musical Passages. The small Sfffiiter. 
The lesser Breaks. Perception of Registers. Scales of Registers. Classification of voices. Management of 
optional tones. Agility of voice. Sixths, Eighths, and Ninths of a pulse. Rare divisions of Time. 



Chest and Klang. For each key the singers 
change parts. At M. 60 the lower voices will have 
to economise their hreath for 24 seconds. Key Efr, 
the upper voices slurring each Phrase of six tones to 
the forward Italian laa, M. 80. Key F, koo-ing, 
M. 72. Key E, laa-ing as above, M. 60- Key FJ, 



Sol-faing, M. 92. In all these keys Basses may use 
the thin register for d'. Tenors should not need to 
do so. This exercise is not to be sung staccato. The 
notes must not be detached, but on the other hand 
they must not be slurred into one another. There 
must be a clear stepping from note to note. 



Ex. 176. KEYS E [?, F, E, and 

t 



Chest and Klang Exercises. 
t 



, :d 4 n t s 


d 1 ,s t n :d,n<s 


d' ,s 4 n ;d t m 4 s 


d 1 ,s t n : d t n t s 


d 1 :d ( f 4 l 


d' 4 l,f :d t f t l 


d'.l .f ' 


\ Skaa- 


. 


. 


... 


ia, Skaa - 




- 


:d 

Skaa - 


* 


~~~ . 


~~ '. 


. . 


i 


- \ 



i' 



:d,f 4 l 


d',l 4 f :d t f ,1 


d 1 :dsi,t|,r 


f ,r,ti:si 4 t|,r 


f ,r ,ti:si,t| 4 r 


f r t,-!, t, 

1 4! (t|.&||V|4 


. 


... 


la, Skaa 


... 


... 


- 


; 


; 


:dg, 


: 


: 


: 



B.C. 
sd 1 

la. 

id 

la. 



Examination of Voices. Since the proximate 
classification of voices, at the third step, p. 29, 
many voices will have changed. Cultivation will 
have developed new capacities. Each voice should 
therefore be examined afresh, and a report of its 
presort physical condition drawn out, shewing its 
easy Compass, and its Quality and Volume in each 
register. The teacher will know, by its Best Region, 
whether it should be called First or Second Soprano, 
First or Second Contralto, First or Second Tenor, 
or, First or Second Bass. In large classes, and in 
ordinary evening classes, the teacher will not have 
time to go through this important process, unless 
he can command competent assistance. But, where- 

* See p. 108, and the "Voice Report Book," Is. 
St. Co. (New.) 



ever it can be done, every pupil should, several 
times in the Course, receive advice about the cha- 
racter and management of his voice. He should 
in fact be "put in charge" of his own voice, and 
expected to present it in improved condition at the 
next examination.* 

TUNING EXERCISES, for the purpose described at 
p. 14, can now be continued, and with the same 
process except that there can be no changing of 
parts. When the men's voices are practised, the 
parts marked for first and second Soprano, should 
be sung by first and second Tenors, and those 
marked first and second Contralto, by first and 
second Basses. 



J-JFTH STEP. 



Ex. 177. KEY GK S.S.C.C., or T.T.B.B. 



I 


d 1 :1 


s 


n 


fe :s 


s :fe 


8 


n 


s :f 


n 


d 


r :r 


r :r 


r 


d 


d :d 


d - 


d 


d :t 


1, :d 


t, 


di 


n, :fi 


d, 


d 


li :si 


T, '.T( 


S| 


s 


f .n 


1 - 


TS 

S 


r :n 


r :r 


d 


n 


r :d 


f 


d 


r :d 


d :t. 


d 


d 


t, :d 


d 


8| 


si :si 


s, :s t .fi 


n, 


d, 


TI :ri| 


fi 


n 


t a :di 


s ; :s. 


d, 



'He is-de spiscd and-re | jected of men - j| 'A iiian-of sorrows [ and ac 
quaintcd with grief || . And-we hid-as-it were-our | fa ces from-him || 

. He-was-de spised 'and | we es teemed him not 

. . Surely he-hath | borne our griefs || And | car ried our sor rows j| 
Yet-we did-es | teem him stricken || Smitten of | God and ai flic ted 

. 'But he- was wounded 'for | our trans gressions |j . He-was bruised for | our 
in i qui ties || . 'The chastis ment-of our peace | was-up on him || And with 
| his stripes we are healed 

. . All we-like sheep 'have | gone a stray || . we-have turned every | one 
to his own way || . And-the Lord hath | laid on him || The in | iqui ty 
of us all 

. . He-was-op pressed 'and he- was | af flic ted || Yet he | op' ned not his 

th || . He-was brought as-a | lamb to-the slaughter || 
so he | op' ned not his mouth 



mouth 

fore-her shearers 'is dumb 

Ex. 178. KKV G. 



And -as-a sheep-be 



D. t. 



d : 

n : 

d :- 
d 

d :- 

d :- 

d, :- 

And-I heard-a great voice out-of | heaven saying H 'Be hold-the Taberna cle-of 
| God is with men 

'And he-will dwell-with them-and they-shall | be his people || And God-him 
self-shall be-with | them and be their God 

St. Co. (New.) 



d 


r :f 


n : 


r s 


1 .t :d' 


d 


Si 


r * t 


d :- 


t,n 


f :s 


i 


m 


BI :s. 


BI 


id 


d .r :n 


r 


d, 


t a :BI 


d, 


: d 


f, :n ( .fi 


S; 


f. G. 












d^g 


s :ta 


1 - 


T 


f :n 


r 


r 


s :n 


f - 


d 


t, :d 


d 


"t, 


d :d 


d - 


f, 


f | .' 8| 


s 


d S| 


HI :d| 


fi - 


f, 


ri :d, 


S: 



Ex. 179180. 



FIFTH STEP. 



'And God-shall wipe-a 
there-shall-be no-more death 
. . Neither shall-there be 
are passed a way 

Whut-are these-which are-ar rayed 
came they 

. . These-are they-which came out-of j great tribu lation j 
robes 'and made-them | white in-the blood of -the Lamb 

. They-shall hunger-no more . neither | thirst any more 
sun light-on them . | nor an y heat 

For- the Lamb-which is- in-the midst-of-the throne 'shall 
. And-shall lead-them unto | liv ing fountains of waters 
|| : . 'And God 'shall | wipe a way || All | tears 



88 

'Ani 



way-all tears | from their eyes || 

| nei ther sorrow nor cry ing 

| any more pain || . For-the for mer | things 



| white robes || And | whence 
. And-have washed-their 
- i| . Ncither-shall-the 
feed them j| 
from their eyes :|| 



.Disguised and Chromatic Chords. In Ex. 177 
the chord on the 7th pulse may at first be read 
7te Rc, but a little study of the modulator, and a 
quiet listening to the progression of the chord, 
show it to be 7 Sc. It is disguised by what is called 
the improper notation of transition. (See pp. -52, 51). 
In analysing disguised chords we write the true 
name of the chord, and its resolution in parenthesis 
thus : ( 7 Sc D.) 

Chromatic Resolution. The same chord at the 
12th pulse of Ex. 179 is not a disguised transition 
chord, because it is resolved chromatically. (See 
p. 52). Instead of moving to S, which would make 



Sx. 179. 

is :s 

Lord, have 

|n :n 
Id 1 :d' 

Lord, have 

Id :d 


KEY 

d 1 

mer 
S 

d 1 

mer 

n 


C. 

* 

:ta.ta|t 


:d 


- cy up- on 

:s .s |s 

id'.d'jr 1 


;~ 


- cy up -on 

:n .n |f 


:n 



a real (S D), it moves to DC, & chord which, like 
7 S and Db, has a peculiar power of deciding the 
key. DC, while it is itself the very Tonic of the 
key, puts also the very dominant tone of the key 
in the most prominent position, the Bass. Thus 
the chord 7fe R, threatened a transition only to show 
how fast it clung to the original key. In the same 
way we notice that ta D in the loth pulse of Ex. 178 
is only 7 S disguised. It makes the transition which, 
we express thus, ( 7 S D). But, the same chord in 
Ex. 179 4th pulse, is not a disguised transition 
chord, because it is resolved on 7 S, the deciding 
chord of the original key. 

W. G. WN. 



r 1 


:r' .r'ln 1 :n' 


f 


:r' 


in 1 


:r' d 1 


us, 


And incline our 


hearts to 


kf:cp 


this 


law. 


s 


:s ,s fs :s 


1 


:1 


IS 


:- .f 


n 


t 


:t .t id 1 :d' 


di 


:d' 


Id 1 


:t 


di 


us, 


And incline our 


hearts to 


keep 


this 


law. 


S 


:s .s id 1 :d' 


f 


:fe 


IS 


:s : 


d 



Ex. 180. Name all the chords in Exs. 177 to 
179. 

Effect of Accent, Cadence, and the Over- 
fifth in developing the mental effect of tones. It 
is easy to understand how the placing of any 
particular tone under the strong accent of a 
tune, will necessarily bring its proper mental effect 
into notice. It is also easy to understand how 
those resting points in a tune, called Cadences, 
p. 48, must give emphasis and importance to the 
tone on which they close. A close implies a 
pause to follow, and even in Elocution, a pause 
after a word gives it emohasis. In these llhythmic 

St. Co. (New.) 



closes there is also, very commonly, a descending 
motion of the Melody which gives weight to the 
tone it falls upon. The very name " Cadence," 
springs from this idea. But another source of 
emphasis is more easily felt than explained. It is 
the influence on any tone of its over-fifth, or what 
is the same thing, of its under-fourth. Though 
we cannot give reasons for the power of the over- 
fifth in music, it may be interesting to observe that, 
in the order of consonances, the Fifth is, next to 
the Octave, the most perfect, and that the Fourth 
is next to it in truth of accord ; that when a musi- 
cal sound is resolved into its constituent parts, the 



84 



FIFTH STEP. 



Fifth is the third part or "partial," the First 
after the Octave of the Fundamental Tone, that 
in Harmony, which is only Closer Melody, the 
Fifth soon came to be called the Dominant on 
account of its acknowledged power in deciding the 
key, and that Consecutive Fifths in Harmony are 
felt to be hard and disagreeable, probably because 
they suggest the idea of two tones with Dominants 
where one only is wanted. In the first line of a 
well-known tune, " St. Bride's," we have 1 made 
emphatic and predominant. 1st, by the cadence 
upon it, and 2nd, by the motion to and from its 
under-fourth : 

:1 |n :l.,t|d :t |1 :- I - 

By precisely the same means, in its next line, d is 
made predominant : 

:d' |s :d'.,r' | n' :r' | d> :- | II 

In the third line no ono tone is made to pre- 
dominate in the melody : 

:n' |r" :d' 1 1 :1 |s :f | n || 

But in the last line, by the influence of its 
over-fifth, by accent and by cadence, 1 again 
predominates : 

:n' |1 :r' | d' :t |1 :- I - II 

Another example is afforded by the old tune. 
" Martyrs." When written according to the oldest 
copies, those which correspond with the present 
singing of the tune in the Highlands of Scotland, 
the tone r is made to predominate, in the first line 
uy its twice rising to its over-fifth, and making a 
cadence on it : 

:r |f :r |1 :f In :r |1 || 

In the second line by its cadence on the under- 
fourth : 

:1 |d' :1 |t :r' |1 :- | - || 

In the third line by its cadence : 

:1 |d' :s |1 :f In :r 11 || 

And in the last line, after three cadences on the 
fifth of r, by a very decided cadence on itself 
falling from its over-fifth : 

:d' |t :s |t :1 |r :- |- || 

The Modes. This power of making any one 
tone of the Scale so prominent as to stamp its own 
character on the whole or any part of a tune, was 
early understood among all nations, long before 
what we now call harmony was known. In the 

St. Co. 



old Greek and Latin music there were as many 
Modes of doing this as there are tones in the Scale. 
In each mode special predominance was given to 
some one tone. Even to the present day the great 
eastern nations of Persia, India, and China, who 
dislike our harmony, are exceedingly exact about 
the correct intonation of the various modes of 
melody. (See examples in the " Historical Speci- 
mens " of my "Common Places of Music"). 
Much of the old music of Scotland, Ireland, AYal< >, 
and England, cannot be written as still traditionally 
sung, except by the use of these modes ; and when 
(as in the case of " Martyrs " in Scotland, 
" Bangor " in Wales, and other well-known 
tunes) musical men, seeking to bo wiser than 
Bach and Handel (who recognized the modes), 
altered the melody to suit the supposed require- 
ments of modern harmony, and printed these 
altered melodies, the consequence was that thi- 
people either ceased to use the tune or continued 
to sing it differently from the printed copy. 

The Modes are called by various names ; by the 
Greek, the Latin, the Indian, and the Chinese 
writers on music. It will be sufficient for us to cull 
them by the name of the Scale-tone, whose mental 
effect pervades them. Thus we have three modes 
with a major-third above the principal tone or 
Tonic three major modes those of Doh, Fait, 
and So/i, and three minor modes, those of Lai, 
Ray, and Ale. The mode of Tt, with its diminished 
fifth, is but little used. Of the major modes, that 
of Doh is almost exclusively used in modern times 
and among the western nations. It was called, in 
anciont times, the Secular Mode the mode of the 
dance and the song rather than of Ecclesiastical 
solemnity. No other mode suits modern harmony 
so well. Of the minor modes, the Lah mode has 
come to be the only ono used among the nations 
of modern Europe, in connection with harmony. It 
could not be adapted to harmony, however, with- 
out alterations ; and these so much modified the 
pure effect of the old mode, that we prefer calling 
the modified form " the Modern Minor " instead 
of " the Lah Mode." The history of the tune 
" Dundee " or " Windsor " will illustrate this. In 
its original form, and also as copied from car by 
Dr. Mainzer, in his " Gfelic Psalm Tunes," it is u 
Ray mode tune, and cleared from Gajlic flourishes, 
reads thus : 

:r |r:n |f :n |r:r |d ||f |l:s |f :n |f ! ! 
:f |l:s 'f :n |r:r |d || f |n:r |r:d |r ! 



FIFTH STEP. 



85 



d':t 



n':r |d':t 



i\ r l 
n' 
-d' 

ri t 



1 
se 



This melody could have been written so as to 
begin on 1 instead of r, without altering the inter- 
vals. Melody alone would not decide which mode 
it is in. When harmony began to meddle with it, i 
a " leading tone " to the r was wanted, and the j 
;hree d's were changed in some printed copies into i 
de which is a little step beneath r. In this form i 
the tune appears in Este's " Whole Book of : 
Psalms," A.D. 1592. But, so strong was the j 
resistance of the popular ear to such an alteration | 
of the melody that, forty years later the tune : 
appears in John Knox's Psalter with the first and 
second d's unaltered, and only the last made into I 
de. Later still, harmonists found the Ray mode, for 
other reasons (See " Construction Exercises," p. 90.) 
unfavourable to their purpose, and wrote the tune 
in the Lah mode, altering the three notes as before, 
thus : 



id'ln'ir'ld'it |1:1 |se||d'|t:l ll:se|l || 

But the alteration of the notes in the books did 
not necessarily alter the tones of the people's 
singing, and wherever books and instruments do 
not dominate, there may still be heard the clear, 
firm, solemn cadences of the old melodic mode, 
| 1 : 1 | s or in its older form | r : r | d 
and | 1 : s | 1 or | r : d | r. Thus, 
in the Highlands of Scotland, this tune is still sung. 
Even in England the modern version of the tune is 
seldom used, except where there is an organ or 
some other instrument to make the voices sing 
according to book. It is felt by all that se intro- 
duces a wierd unsettled effect, and greatly alters 
the whole spirit of the tune. It creates also a 
difficulty in striking the d' with which the next 
line begins. The ear naturally regards 
se as a new t, and can easily strike after it, 
t or r', because they have something to 
correspond with them in the supposed 
new key ; but is puzzled to find d'. (See 
the diagram at the side). So, in the 
history of this tune, a curious thing 
happened. When musicians began to 
alter its melody, the people in the 
churches of Scotland, without presuming to resist 
the demands of harmony, or to contend against a 
learned Precentor or a Choir, fell instinctively into 
the expedient of striking some other tone of the 

St. Co. (New.) 



same chord, which was easier than the uncertain se, 
and from which they could more easily rise to 
d 1 . A new tune called " Coleshill " not interfer- 
ing with the harmonies of Dundee, was the result. 
It reads thus : 



:s | 
' Id 1 :s 

|n ||d> 



|n 



Id 1 
|s 



n' :r' 

|r'.d':t 



:s 



The Doric or Kay Mode. Before the introduction 
of modern harmony, this mode was the principal 
one used for worship. Throwing its emphasis on 
the earnest " prayer-tone " r, it was strong and 
hopeful as well as sad. The softer Lah mode can- 
not take its place. Much less can the modern minor 
with its sense of restless unhappiness. In Wales, 
both North and South, this mode is much preferred 
to the Lah mode, and popular tunes, printed in 
one mode, are sung in the other. The difference 
is easily observed, because (in addition 
to the question of the artifical leading 
tone) the expressive cadence d' 1 1 in the 
Ray mode, becomes s f m in the Lah mode. 
It is like transition to the first-flat key. 
(See diagram). Let the pupils notice and 
describe the changes of melody, which 
would be necessary to put the tune 
" Martyrs " above into the Lah mode. 
Let them do the same with the following 
old Ray mode tunes singing them in 
both modes. The first is the burden or 
chorus of an ancient Christmas Carol 
" Nowell, nowell," which Mr. Chappell 
ascribes to A.D. 1460 : 

:r |r :- :f |ri :- :d |n :-.r:d.ti 
111 :- :li Id :- :d |r :- :r In :- :n 



1 


r 


s 

f 

n 


d 

t 

1 


r 


s 


d 

t 


f 

n 


1 


r 



|d 



:f :n |r :- :d |r :- 



The next " Bangor," is a tune of the ancient 
British Church, as it may now be heard in the 
churches of Wales and Scotland whenever sung 
without book or instrument : 



:n 



id 1 .t 11 :s 



FIFTH STEP. 



:1 |r ! :1 .s |f :n jr || 

These studies are not mere matters of curiosity, or 
of history, for by far the largest part of the popu- 
lation of the world, at the present moment, makes 
use of these various modes in singing. Mission- 
aries, above all others, should study this subject 
well. 

The Modern Minor is built on the ancient Lah 
mode with adaptations to modern harmony. The 
relation of tones to one another is more strongly 
felt when they are sounded together in harmony 
than when they are merely heard successively in 
melody. Harmony, therefore, introduces new 
principles. The* chief principle of modern har- 
mony is that which chooses a particular chord, 
called the Tonic Chord, makes it preoccupy the ear, 
and then makes the chord on its over-fifth, its 
dominant, and that on its under-fifth, its sub- 
dominant, minister to it. The meanings and uses 
of these terms are given on pp. 20, 27, and 46, and 
at p. 48, this principle of " Chord Relation " is 
illustrated by the cadences. Those who not only 
see, but listen to these cadences, will understand 
what is meant. In the common, bright, clear Doh 
mode the chord relationship was satisfactory and 
pleasant. Two strong major chords, S and F, two- 
fifths apart, yielded and ascribed superiority to the 
chord D, which stood equidistant between them. 
The modern minor is an attempt to apply the same 
chord relation to the Lah mode. But in no other 
mode, except that of Doh, are the Tonic, Domi- 
nant, and Sub-dominant all major chords, and the 
ear naturally dislikes two unsonorous minor chords 
(See p. 46,) together, especially in a cadence. 

8E. In the Lah mode, L the Tonic, M the 
Dominant, and R the Sub-dominant are 
all minor. The first harmonists shar- 
86 pened the third of the Tonic L, making 
(s) the chord 1 de m, and this is still done 
sometimes in slow music, but the most 
f satisfactory artificial arrangement is that 
PI which sharpens the third of the Domi- 
nant M, making m se t, whenever it is 
wanted as a dominant. Occasionally, 
however, s is still used, especially IE 
descending stcpwise passages. Se is 
related to 1 as t is to d'. 



Bay. The use of se, instead of s, makes a great 

unpleasant gap in stepwise passages, 

between se and f. Therefore, in such 



1 

se 

s 

(ba) 
f 
n 



I passages the composer often introduces 
another tone which he uses in place of f. 
It is related to se as 1 is related to t. 
We call it bay and write it ba. : 1 | se : ba 
sounds much like id 1 | t : 1 and 
: m | ba : se | 1 sounds like : s I 1 : t d . 
There are, therefore, two " alternative 
tones " in the modern minor, one intro- 
duced for harmony's sake, the other for 
the sake of melody. Jiay, however, is 
not so often substituted for f as se is 
for s. 



1 

f- 
n s 

r f 
n 
d 
t r 



1 

St. Co. (New). 



d 
t 

1 

Difficulties of the Singer. These arise from 
the modern minor, with its altered notes, 
being so like, and yet so unlike, the 
major of the same Tonic. See diagram 
at the side. The ear is drawn away 
from the key and confused. To prevent 
this it is best to train the singer to imi- 
tate the relative major, not the Tome 
major, and so to keep the Dob in mind. 
Thus the teacher patterns on the modu- 
lator | m 1 : d 1 | t : d> || and immediately 
follows it by I di : 1 | se : 1 ||. After 
a time he will give any major phrase 
and ask for the corresponding minor. 
The difficulty, already noticed, of strik- 
ing d 1 after se is increased by the intro- 
duction of ba, because ba strengthens 
the feeling of a change of key. This 
feeling also makes it difficult to strike f, 
(especially by lean) as is seen by the 
diagram at the side, and felt by all 
singers. It will be easilv seen from the 
diagram, and has often been felt by the 
teacher, that in singing such a phrase as 

ba : se | 1 :t | dl : the pupils will 

sing do' instead of dl, and even in singing such a 
passage as this : m | ba : se | 1 : | m : 
the pupils, instead of falling upon the same note 
with which they began, sometimes sing de as 
though it were the m of the major key drawn at 
the side. Such exercises as the following should 
be constantly practised from the Modulator, first 
xnl-faa\ng and then laaing, always singing its 
relative major before each minor phrase. 

Id 1 :n' |r' :t Id 1 :- || 1 :d' |t :se|l :- || 



ba 1 
f 
n s 

r f 
n 



this : m 



Ex. 1816. FIFTH STEP. 87 


D.O. 


Ex.183. KEY B ? . L is O. Compare Ex. 123. 


Id 1 :t |1 :t |d ! :- || 1 :se|ba:se|l :- || 




PI 


d :f 


n - 


n 


d :f 


t, :r 


d - 


D.C. 




d 


1, :r 


d - 


se 


li :1| 


se,:t 


li - 


In 1 :d' |s :1 t id'Hd 1 :! jn :ba|se:l || 




1, 


L :r. 


1, - 


pii 


1 :r 




1. - 


D.C. 




\rt :d' |t :1 |s :- ||d' :1 |se :ba |n :- || 


Ex. 184. KEY C. L is A. Compare Ex. 124. 

^^ ^^ 


D.C. 




d 


r':t 


se - 


1 


f :r' 


d':t 


1 - 


;8 :1 it :s |n' :- || n :ba |se :n |d' :- || 




1 


f :f 


n - 


n 


f :1 


1 :se 


1 - 


The teacher patterns the relative major. 


( 


1 


r :r 


n - 


d 


r :f 


PI :n 


1 - 


|n :se |t :n |d' :1 |se :1 |n :se |1 :- || 


Ex. 185. KEY C. L is A. Compare Ex. 125. 


|d' :t |1 :se|l :ba|se:l |n :se|l :- || 




d'i 


di:r' 


P|| - 


pi 1 


r 1 :d'.t 


d':t 


1 - 


But few composers understand about this. They 




1 


1 :1 


se - 


1 


se:l 


1 :se 


1 - 


therefore sometimes introduce tones which give 




1 


1 :f 


m - 


d 


ti '1 


n .'n 


1 - 


great trouble to the singer, without adding, in the 










i 






least degree to the beauty of the music. \Vhen 


Ex. 186. KEY C. L is A. Compare Ex. 126. 


composers write for a hired theatre- chorus (who 




d*i 


_i . _i 


di 


"i 


i j i 






dare not say that anything is difficult much less 


i 




n 1 :r' 


1 - 


r 1 


r 1 .d 1 


t :t 


- 


hint that it is unnatural), we cannot wonder at 


j 


1 


d 1 :t 


i _ 


1 


se :1 


1 :se 


1 _ 


their mistake. Even Handel has sometimes thus 


/ 














A 


erred, and his notes to the phrase " Till thy people 
pass over, O Lord," are selaom correctly sung even 


r 


1 


1 :n 


f - 


f 


n :1 


r ;n 


1 - 


by the Handel Festival chorus at the Crystal 


Chord Relation in the modern minor. L is the 


Palace. Tonic Sol-faists, after this warning, 


Tonic of the minor mode as D is of the major. 


will know the difficulty and master it. Modern 


Therefore M, or with its commonly-sharpened third 


composers for the voice ought to know the diffi- 


86 M, is the Dominant, and R the Sub-dominant. 


culty and, except when it adds beauty to the music, 
avoid it. 


What is said of the relations and habits of D, S, 
and F (pp. 21, 26, 27), applies almost equally to Z, 


The Exercises. As the modern minor is so much 
the creature of harmony, it should be first studied 
in such exercises as the following six. They are 
simply previous Tuning Exercises changed into the 
modern minor : 


86 M, and jR in the minor. What is said of 7 S 
(p. 46), applies to < se M, and the habits of 7 R (p. 47), 
are imitated, as far as possible, by 7 T, and so on. 
For exacter particulars See " Construction Exer- 
cises " p. 90 to 101. The chord M (p. 46) is caUed 
the " Mediant " in the Major, and D is called 



Ex. 3 81. KEY E. Z is C #. Compare Ex. 85. 



1 


1 :1 


se - 


se 


1 :1 


1 :se 


1 :- 


d 


n :d 


PI - 


PI 


PI :d 


d :t, 


d :- 


li 


d :1, 


n - 


PI 


d :1, 


pii ipi| 


li:- 


Ex. 

a 


182. 

d :ti 


KEY B 

d - 


>. z 
<f 


is G. C 

t, :1, 


ompare 

t :t| 


Ex. 86. 

d :- 


1| 


ll :sei 


1, - 


1, 


sei:l| 


1, :se. 


li:- 


1, 


li : ri| 


1. - 


1, 


PI, :di 


PI, :m 


1, - 



Kt. Co. fNtw). 



" Mediant " in the Minor. " Minor D " (that is D 
in the minor mode) is as little used as Major M. 
R is called the " Super-tonic " in the Major, and 
T in the Minor. "Minor T" and "Minor 7 T," 
are used like R and 7 R (pp. 46, 47). L is called the 
" Sub-mediant " in the Major, and both F and 
BA are Sub-mediants in the Minor. T is the 
chord of the " Leading Tone " in the Major, and 
SE in the Minor. No chord on the flat-seventh 
of the Minor (S) is used in distinctively Minor 
passages. It will be noticed that we write the 
chord-names for the minor mode in Italic Capitals 
to distinguish them from the same chords when 






FIFTH STEP. 



influenced by the habits of the major mode ; for 
the same purpose of distinction I'M speaking we say 
" Minor Z," " Minor T," &c. The student should 
compare the above six chants in every respect 
with their major-prototypes. To make the com- 
parison one of ear as well as eye, the two versions 
should be laad softly, the student looking at the 
major while tho minor is sung, and at the minor 
while the major is sung. 

Ex.187. Name all the chords in Exs. 181 to 186. 

Modulation originally meant singing in mode. 
Wo use it for a change of mode, as from tho D 
mode to the Z mode from the major to the minor, 
or from minor to major. Major tunes frequently 
introduce touching cadences in their Lah mode 
or " Relative Minor." (See Exs. 195, Meas. 
23. 212, Meas. 14). And, it is almost a necessity 
for a minor tune, that some large portion of it 
should bo brightened by modulation to the relative 
major. (See Exs. 189, 5th Mcas., 190, llth 
Meas., 191, 5th Meas., 192, 4th Meas., 193, 10th 
Meas). And even in 188 and 194 there are short 
phrases of major, with f and s to distinguish it. 

Transitional Modulation. When the music 
changes both its key and its mode, at 
the same time, some beautiful effects are 
introduced. The commonest change of 
this kind is that from tho major mode to 
the relative minor of its first flat key. 
This originates a new " distinguishing 
tone " which we call (on the "improper 
method of notation) de. The bay is 
often used, disguised as t. The phrase 
: t, : de | r is really : 1 | se : ba : se | 1. 
Ex. 234, Meas. 6). This "transitional modu- 
lation" is more frequently used in Passing 
than in Cadence modulation. (See Exs. 
233, 245, and 236.) Additional Exercises, 
p. 33, 3rd score; p. 47, 4th scdre; p. 
49, 1st score ; p. 52, 1st score ; p. 54, 2nd, 
3rd, and 5th scores ; p. 80, 4th score ; 
p. 88, 2nd score, and p. 60, 1st score. 
Another, though not a frequent Tran- 
sitional Modulation, is that from the 



1 j- 

se de 



r | de 



s d 

t 
f 

n 1 
re-se 
r 

-ba 
d 



major to the relative minor of the first sharp ]; y. 
This originates another distinguishing tone which 
we call re. The bah, in this case, is rarely used, 
but it would be called in passing modulation de. 
The transitional modulation of the first remove 
minor to major is more common. Cases may be 
found moving to the first flat key in Add. Exs. p. 
60, 3rd score ; p. 69, 1st score ; p. 88. 4th score, 
and to the first sharp key in Add. Exs. p. 33, 3rd 
score; p. 59, 1st score; p. 60,4th score; p. 79, 3rd 
score ; p. 87, end of second score ; p. 96, 1st score. 

Accidentals. Properly speaking, nothing i 
accidental in music, but this word is frequently 
used to indicate any tones which arc out of the com- 
mon scale. It will be the student's business to 
judge whether these tones indicate transition from 
the key, or lead to a chromatic effect in the key, 
or are merely brief ornamental passing or waving 
tones. In the Tonic Sol-fa notation we indicate a 
sharpened note by altering its vowel into ee, thus d, dee, 
(written to save space de) and a flattened note by 
altering its vowel into au as in caught, thus m, man, 
1, lau, s, sau, and r, rau. To save space these are 
written ma, la, sa, ra. Sec Ex. 247. 

Rare Accidentals. In uncommon cases like 
those in Ex. 247, the sharp of 1 is introduced. It 
is called le. It seldom has any very traceable key- 
relationship, but is introduced as an accompanying 
third to de. In the same way, but in exceedingly 
rare cases, bay is sharpened generally to accom- 
pany le. It is called be. In even rarer cases still, 
the sharps of m and t are required. They could 
not be properly written respectively f and d, 
because that would make them slightly too high. 
The sharp of any tone bears a fixed relation that 
of a little step to the tone above. Its relation to 
tho tone from which it is named, varies slightly 
according as it is taken from a greater or a smaller 
step of the scale ; but it is always less than a little 
step. The sharp of m may be called my, that of 
t may be called ty. If in similar out-of-the-way 
cases, the flats of d and f were required, the flat of 
d would be called du. and that of f would bo 
called fu. See " Staff Notation," p. 31. 



FAREWELL, MY OWN NATIVE LAND. 
Ex.188. KEY B7. LisO. Rather slow. Am " The Shepherd's Daughter." 



l.Fure - 



2 Fare - 



1, :- .1, |ti .d ;r .t, 

my own dear 

.li |se.l| :ti .se 

to all my 



well 



well 



kin 



St. %. (New.) 



:- .r |d 

tive land, 
:- -t, |1, 
dred dear, 


:n 

Dear 

:d 

My 


r 

friends 

t, :- 
hild - 


.d it, .d :r .ti 

a, long fare - 
.1) |S6|.1| :t| .86 


hood's home,fare - 



FIFTH STEP. 



d : | :n 

well, Each 

1, : | :n. 


r :- .d it, :r 

lov - ing heart and 

fi :- ,fei|S| :ti 


d :- .t, |1| :d 

kind - ly hand, I 

lj :- .se ; jl; :pii 


well, With 


throb - bing heart and 


fall - ing tear, I 


t, :-.li |1: :se. 


1, :- 1- :- 


Ciiours. 

1, :- |d :- 


t :se ; |L 


bid you now fare - 

TI :- .r, |pi| :ii| .FI 


well. 

d, :- i- :- 

well. 


Fare - well, 

f, :- in! :- 

Fare - well, 


fare yo well. 

PI :ri|.ri |di 


bid you all . fare - 


fare ye well. 



OUR LIFE IS EVER. 

NOTE. Sing it firmly, with the " pressure form " more or less marked on every second pulse of the measure 
Ex. 189. KEY C. L is A. M. 66. Graun. 



: : :n 

Our 

:n 1 : :t 


j . 

life 

d 1 :- 


t d 1 : :r! n' : :' n 1 

is ev - er on the wi 

r' n 1 ::'' n 1 : :r d 1 


ng, And ( 
f 

. b 1 


Our life is 


ev 


er on the wing, And de, 


ith is 


d 1 :- :t 1 :- :1 ' 

death ia ev - er nig] 
ev - er, ev - cr 


: :f n 1 : :n r 1 :-.d':r l .m l d 


1 :-.t:d'.r 


i ; The mo - ment when our 1 
. r | . r i f i . .;ii f . .* i 

1' .1 U . .U U . i* J 

nigh ; The mo - ment when our 1 


iveb be - r 

:- :l 

ives be - , 


t '. :PI ! d'.n'if ,n':r'.d' r 


.d':r : :d> :d' t .,t:t :t 


d' : 

> die. 

s 1 :- 

> die. 


gin, We all 

se : :se 1 :- 

gin, We all 


be - g 

- :1 f 


1"n to die, We all begin t< 

.1 :t.l : se.ba se tn :1 - .,l:se is 




be - g 


in to die, We all begin tc 


SUMMER IS GONE. 


Ex. 190. KEY B7. Z 

li :- Hi :-.t, 


is G. Slow. 

d : 


Am, "Fort 

| :t| 1 :n |r :d t, : 


une, my foe." 


1. Sum - mer is 
2. Sum - mer is 
S.S.C. or T.T.B. 


gone, 
gone, 

d :- 


And sad - ly sighs the breeze, 
And here I sad - ly sigh, 

1 : d :ti | :li sei : 


:i| 


1, :- i- :-.t 


d :- 


1 : li :sei | :li n, : 


li :- 1- :-.t, 


d : 


1 : n, : |- :- :- 

Hm, 


Hm, 





St. Co. (New.) 






90 



.firm STEP. 



1. :- 


Hi 


:- t, 


d 


Moan 
All, 


ing 
all 


it 
a- 


goes 
lone, 


I :- 


I 


:-.ti 


d 
d 
d 


li : 1 :-.ti 


1, :- 1- :-.t, 


Hm, 





n : 


in ;- .n 


n : | 


Sweet 
Sigh 


flow'rs are 
on, ye 


dead, 
winds; 


t, :d 


ir :d 


t, :- 1 


sei : li 


It, :1, 


sei : | 


n, : 


1 : 


: 1 


Hm, 






r : 


is :-.f 


n : | 


Sigh 
Those 


on, ye 
dear, dear 


winds, 
friends, 


1" * ^^ 


1 : 


d :- 1 


t, :- 


1 : 


d :- | 


si :- |- :- 


1, :- 1 


Hm, 





:t. 


1, :n 


ir :d 


ti : 


Through 
Not 


bare and 
one dear 


l<-af - less 
friend is 


trees, 
nigh; 


! 


d :t, 


I- :li 


se, : 

HI : 


li :sei | :1| 


HI : 


1 : 




Hm, 






:n 


n :s 


|f :n 


r : 


The 
Though 


song -birds 
spring a - 


all have 
gain will 


flown, 
come, 


: 


d :n 


ir :d 


1 ; 


si : 


1 - : 


: 


d, :- 


It, :d, 


: 


Hm, 




:r.d 


t, :1, 

sum - mer 
me can - 


111 :sei 

days are 
not re - 


1, : 

gone, 
turn. 


For 
To 





se :1 


in, : 


d, : 


n ( : i :r. 


r, :d, | :t 


1. : 


Hm, 








I 



I ' 

i- : 

I : 



THE CHBISTIAN'S PABTINQ WORDS. 



Words by Jt 
Ex. 101. 

Ml ^ 

U.Let me 
ir.We have 

(Id :d 

|d' :d 
Up - ward 

|n :n 


itnes Montgomery. 
KEY C. L is A. M. 50. 

1 .d':t .1 jse :se se.t :1 .se|l :1 


Russian Air 

D.a 
1 .d':t .1 m 1 :se 1 : 


go, the day is 
spent a night of 

d .n :r .d |t, :ti 


break-ing, Dear com - 
wak ing, In the 

ti.r :d .ti |d :d 


pan - ions, let me 
wil - der - ness be - 

d .n :r .d |d :t| 


go; 
low. 

1 : 

day. 

Q * 


d'.n'sr'.d'it :t 


t.r'zd'.'t |1 :1 


1 .a :t .1 in 1 :se 


now I bend my 

n .s :f .n |r :r 


way. Part we 

r .f :n .r |d :d 


here at break of 

d .n:r .d |d :t. 



St. Co. (New). 



FIFTH STEP. 



91 



2 Let me go I may not tarry, 

Wrestling thus with doubts and fears ; 
Angels wait my soui to carry 

Where my risen Lord appears ; 
Friends and kindred, weep not so, 
If ye love me, let me go. 



3 Heaven's broad day hath o'er me broken 
Far beyond earth's span of sky ; 

Am I dead P Nay, by this token 
Know that I have ceased to die. 

Would you solve the mystery ? 

Come up hither, come and see. 



Ex. 192. 

1. :- 


KEY G. L is E. 

: It, :- 


1. Drive 

li :- 


dull 


2. Come, 


come, 



DRIVE DULL CARE AWAY. 

AIR. " We be soldiers three." 

r :- :d |t| :- : 1| :-.t t :d 

care a - way, Let us be 

t| :- :1| |sei :- : 1| :-.sei:l| 

join our song, Mer - ri - ly 



hap 

|se, :- 

v chant 


:n 

py> 
:n, 

it 


d :-.t|! li |ti : 


blithe 

li :-.s 


and gay ; 

: fe, | S| : 


loud 


and long ; 



s :-.f : n |r :-.d :r 

Ban - ish your sad - ness and 

n :-.r : d is, :-.l|:t| 

Ban - ish your sad - ness, bid 



n :-.r:d 

join in our 

d :-.ti:l, 

sor - row be- 



jt| :- :n r :- .n :d |t; :-.l| :t| 

lay, And let us all sing and be 

I sei :- :ni t| :- .d :li |sei .-.baiisei 

gone, And let us all sing and be 



d :1, 

mer - ry. 

li :i; 

mer - ry. 



i 



Words by 



THE DESTRUCTION OF SENNACHERIB. 



Music by 
A. L. C. 



Ex. 1 

1. The As 
2.Likethe 

:li .,se, 

3. For the 


3. KEY F. L is D. 

d :d :r 

-sy - rian came 
leaves of the 

An - gel of 


n 


n :l|.,t| 


d :d 

wolf on 
sum - mer 

wings on 


down 
for - 

d : 


like a 
est when 
d : 1| .,S6| 


Death 


spread his 


1 n :n : 


ba 


se :se 


:ba 


n :n : 


co - horts 
host with 

d :d : 


were 
their 

d 


gleam - ing 
ban - ners 

t, :t, 


in 
at 


pur - pie 
sun - set 

S6| :S6| 


breath' din 


the 


face of 


the 


foe as 


St. Co. (New) 


. 





:r 

the 



the 



ba 

and 
were 
ll 
he 



n 

fold 

green, 

d 

blast, 



se : 

gold; 
seen : 

t, : 

pass'd; 



- :d 



And his, 
That 

And" 



And the 
lake the 

:d .,r 

And the 






92 



FIFTH STEP. 



d' :t :1 

eheen of their 
leaves of the 
n : s : f 

eyes of the 
rit. 

n :n :r 

blue wave rolls 
host on the 
d :d :t, 
heart but once 


s 

Z 

n 
si 


:f :n 

)ears was like 
>r - est when 

:r :d 

eep - ers waxed 
dim. 

d :d :d 


1 :s :f 

stars on the 
Au - tumn hath 

d :t, :1, 

dead - ly and 

,,r n :n :n 


n 

sea, 
blown 
861 
chill, 

L 

nd 

C| 

TOW 


P 

:- :d .,r 


When the 
, That 

:- :li -,t, 


And their 

li :- 

lee. 
strown. 

ll 1- 

still; 


night - ly on 
mor - row lay 

1, :li :li ,1: 


deep Ga - 1 
with - er'd a 
se : sei : s 
ev - er g 


hcav - ed, And for 



THE JEWISH CAPTIVES. 
Ex. 194. KEY A. L is f*. Slow. 



(d :- 

\ l.Far, 
. 2.Far, 

1, :- 

\ 3-Far, 


|n :- .r d :- 

far from home, 
far from home, 
| S6| :- .86| 1| :- 
far from home, 


: 


li : 


:f 


n :- .r |d 


:r n : 


home, 
home, 

home, 


Where 
Our 

Can 


Jiuby - Ion's wa 
harps with un 
n, :n |1| 
cap - tives tune 


- ters roll, 
- tun'd string 


the string ? 


V down, 
hang, 

se, : 

V sung P 


I- : .n 

And 
While 

1 : ,n, 

Je 


n : |n 

bit - ter 
cap - tors 

r :d |ti 


: n : 

tears, 
scoff, 

:li sei : 


-m - BH 


lem! 


f :- 


| :n 


d :r |n 


:r d :- 


sighs, 
mirth, 

se, : 


Ex - 
And 

I :se. 


press the an - guish of 
bid us songs of Zi 

1, :t, |d :t, 1, :- 


joy! 
ft. Co. 


A - 

(Ntw). 


way from thcc, 


how can 









A. L 


. C. 




: 


Id 


:- 


t, \ 




Far, 


far 




from/ 




Far, 


far 




from 




1, :- 


in. 


:- 


* 




Far, 


far 




from 


1 


:n, 


ba, : 


S6; 


lli.ti 


d.d) 




In 


si - 


lence 


sit 


wef 




On 


wav - 


ing 


wil - 


lows' 1 


1 


:rii 


ba, : 


se ; 


U,.t, 


:d .1 A 




Shall 


Zi - 


on's 


songs 


be' 


I 


: .n 


f 





If 


: 




And 


hoa 


. 


vv 






And 


ask 




for 




1 


: ,n. 


r 


d 


It, 


:L 




My 


chief 


- 


est 




It, 


: 


1, 





1 


j 


our 


soul. 








on 




sing. 








| 


:se. 


1| 





1 


: 




we 


sing: 









Ex, 1956. 



FIFTH STEP. 



93 



Ex. 195. KI 


PC 
:Y G. 


)BGIVE TH 


INE ENEMY 
D. t. 

"d 1 :- 


t :s 


Fttcht. 

1 :t 


d : 

For 


ti :BJ 
give thine 


en - e 


For 

df :1 

my, thine 


give thine 
1 .s :n .s 


en - e 

f :n .r 


en-e 


my, thine 


/ d 1 :s' 




- .fi :n' 


t - 


- .r' :d' .t 


1 .t 


en 

:- .PI 


:t 

e 
r * 

e 


d :- 

my, 

d .r :m 


\ my, thine 

) n :- .r 


en 

d :- 


e - my, 

1, :1 .s 


thine 
f 


[ en 


e - - 


my, thine 


en - - 


my, 


/ : 


:f 


n :d 


r :n 


f :1 


:s .f 


j - .f : s .d 

( Forgive thine 


For - 
r :- .r 

en - e - 


give thine 
my, 


en-e - 

:d 

For - 


my, tliine 

1,' :fi 

give thine 


en-e - 

1 :t, 

en - e 


n :d' 

my, thine 

d :t, .1, 


:t .1 

en- e - 

f : 

thine 


se : 


1 .n 


:1 


:se 

e - 

t, :- .t, 

en - e- 


1 :- 

my, 

my, 


For 


my, 
:n .r 

en-e - 


thine en 

d :- .r,d 


my, 


my, 


thine 


/ d 1 :- 

For 

n :d 

give thine 


t :s 

give thine 

r :PI 

en - e - 


1 

en 
f 

my, 


:t 

- e - 
:n .r 


d 1 

my, 
P1.1, 

en-e - 


:t .1 


t .PI :n 

en-e - my, 

'. S 


-.r 1 :1 .t 

thine ene - 

. 


d 1 : 


thine 


my, 

- .n :d .n 

thine ene - 


thine 


my, 








f. G. 

d's.f :r .f 


n 


:d' 


-.t :1 


- .s 


f 

thine, 

- .d 

e - 


:n 

thine 
t|.S| :d 
my, thine en 


r' :- .r 

en - e - 

e 


d :- , 

my. 


thine en - e - 
my, thine 


my, For 

d . tj :1| .PI 


give 

f :- .PI 

my, thine 


r 

en 


en - e - 



Chanting. The pupil will now learn the recita- 
tions of Exs. 177 and 178, paying special attention 
to the Consonants as taught at the last Step. 

Ex. 196. Sing to words Exs. 177178, having 
first learnt the music by heart. 

Arranging Recitations. In connection with the 
study of Chanting, it will he well for the Teacher 
to give out a portion of a Psalm or some other 

St. Co. (New). 



passage of Scripture ; to he fully marked for Chant- 
ing, with Cadence bars, Pulse divisions, Accent 
marks, and Type-expression. (See pp. 35, 36, 59). 
The comparison of these various plans, before th<; 
class at its next meeting, will prove both a fine 
exercise of taste, and an interesting study of the 
sense and meaning of the words. Besides, the 
Tonic Sol-faist should give himself the trouble of 
mastering all these principles of recitation practi- 



FIFTH STEP. 



cally, for he may some day have the duty and 
happiness of leading a congregation, and then, 
whether ho uses a book marked for recitation like 
our exercises or not, he will require a practical 
mastery of our principles, unless he is content with 
tasteless, sinful " gabbling" instead of chanting. 

In commencing such exercises, the student will 
first cut off the cadences. Ho will naturally try 
to arrange these so that the musical accent may 
correspond with the sense of the words. This 
cannot always be done. The attempt to do it, in 
difficult cases, often leads the marker to put too 
many syllables into the pulses of the cadence so, 
that when it is sung quickly, as cadences should be 
sung, an irreverent dancing effect is produced, and 
when the cadence is sung slowly, it naturally makes 
the recitation also both heavy and jerky. The 
practice of putting several syllables into the pulses 
of a cadence, compels the reciter to put many sylla- 
bles into the pulses of his recitation. *It is certainly 
better in the cadence as far as sense will allow 
to keep only one syllable for a pulse. Compare : 
": . Which | ttilleth the : noise of the \ teas 
i . the : noise of their || waves : and the 
tumult : of the | people " with " : . Which 
ttilleth the : noise of the \ teas : . the 
noise : of their \ waves : and the \\ 
tu : mult | of : the \ people." The last 
can be sung quickly ; the first must be slow and 
heavy, and still jerky. 

In preparing the Recitation, let the student first 
make sure of its beginning and ending. For he 
must remember that the chant is a mixture of 
Speech and Song. The Recitation is Speech ; the 
Cadence is Song. This necessitates some compro- 
mise, at least some " management " at the points 
(before and after the cadence) whore Speech and 
Song meet. As an accent comes at the beginning 
of every cadence, there must always be before it 
either an unaccented pulse, or a pause of a pulse 
supposed to bo unaccented. As we cannot well hare 
two strong pulses together, it is unnatural to make 
any other than a woak pulse between the reciting 
tone and the cadence. Thus, if in the follow- 
ing sentence we feel the necessity of emphasising 
both " martyrs " and " praise," we should not 
attempt to write " : . The \ noble : army 
of | martyrs \ praise " but " : . the \ noble 
: (may of | martyrs : \ praise, &c. As every 
cadence clows with a soft pulse the mind naturally 
expects the strong pulse to follow, and if the words 
will not bear this, you must give a pause to let the 



accent pass by. Thus " | Thee : \ : . The 
| holy : Church : throughout \ all " or 
better thus " : . The : holy \ Church" 

Another hint is this. It is important that the 
student should use a metronome for his recitation, 
else he will find himself continually varying his 
rate of movement, and that cannot be done by a 
great congregation. It is very unnatural to hurry 
the pulses of the reciting tone and slacken those of 
the cadence. They should all move at the same 
rapid rate. If you chant slowly it is impossible to 
make the pauses indicated by the dots. 

In further studying the reciting tone, the careful 
marker will observe that the two-pulse rhythm is 
the most common and easy, but the best speech 
contains a well-arranged variety. As a general 
rule, the rhythms in which a passage is best said 
are those in which, for chanting, it should be sung. 
Chanting, however, is not private talk ; it is public 
speaking. Public speaking differs from private 
talking in this that the pulien in public speaking 
are necessarily more regular, in order that the 
voice may carry further. The student, moreover, 
must not despair if he finds it, in some cases, ex- 
tremely difficult to reconcile sense and rhythm. 
Prose is often written more for the reader than the 
speaker. The prose style of a Bolingbroke, a 
Brougham, a Gladstone, or a Bright, is quite 
different from that of a student or a learned trans- 
lator, who seldom speaks further than across a 
table, and it is altogether more rhythmical. It 
was not all the translators of the Bible who studied 
the rhythmical structure of their sentences. While 
the student is thus recommended to exercise his 
judgment and taste in deciding which plan best 
expresses the sentiments of the words and best 
draws out the voice of the whole people, he should 
be always ready to unite cheerfully in the " use " 
which he finds established in the church in which 
he worships. 

The following hints are for the Precentor. First, 
avoid chants with high reciting-tones out of the 
reach of ordinary voices. Long recitations on a high 
tone are screaming impossibilities to a congrega- 
tion. Second, avoid chants with wide intervals in 
the cadence. Such cadences are not like the natural 
cadences of an excited public speaker. They are 
almost necessarily slow and heavy when a congre- 
gation sings them, and " slow " cadence makes 
jerky recitation. 

Expression. At page 30, a brief and superficial 
reference to this subject is made. The pupil being 



St. Co. (New). * Because the pulses of recitation and cadence should move at the name rate. 



FIFTH STEP. 



95 



now well grounded in the doctrine and practice of 
time and tune, is free to give full attention to 
expression. The subject is one of great intellectual 
and artistic interest, and both voice and mind 
should go through a thorough training in expres- 
sion. The chief elements of expression are speed 
and force. How speed of movement influences the 
emotional effect of tones has been shown p. 28. 
How the various Degrees of Force can influence 
expression is never known until the pupil has really 
learnt to control his own singing in this respect. 
It is one of the simplest, easiest, most effective, and 
most neglected of all the contrivances of music. 
Ordinary singers employ either an uniform weak 
drawl, or an equally uniform shout. They have 
never cultivated a medium force of voice, and they 
can never give that light and shade of sound, 
which, like the varied distances and lights in a 
painting, throw such a charm over the musical 
picture. The first thing to be secured the foun- 
dation of all the rest is a good delivery of each 
tone, both for the sake of quality and clearness of 
impulse. 

Delivery of the Voice. In singing, the student 
must remember that he is not singing to the top of 
his head or the bottom of his throat, or to the 
inside of his mouth, but to an audience in front of 
him. He will, therefore, direct his breath out- 
wards, in a steady, well-regulated stream, keeping 
his teeth always wide apart even when he has to 
round his lips. By this means he will avoid shrill 
bird- warbling, bass growling, and vague humming, 
and will produce a rich, round tone, without discor- 
dr.it upper "partials." 

Attack and Eelease. Closely connected with a 
good quality of sound, and essential to its pro- 
duction is that clear striking of every tone that 
" good attack," as M. Fetis calls it that " shock of 
the glottis," as Garcia describes it that firm, but 
light and elastic " touch " as Mdme. Seiler speaks 
of it which should become a habit of the singer. 
Every tone should have a sharp confident opening 
as well as a distinct close. It should be like a newly 
cut coin. " Any one," says Dr. Lowell Mason, " who 
gives attention to the production of tones by a good 
instrumentalist, or to the manner in which they 
strike the ear when the ' attack ' is made upon 
them (or when they are first brought forth by a 
skilful player), cannot fail to observe their great 
superiority in promptness and energy of delivery, 
to those usually heard in singing. Indeed, choir or 
chorus singing can hardly be heard without reveal- 

St. Co. (New). 



ing the fact that whatever proficiency may have 
been made in reading music, so far as it relates to 
time and tune, the proper use of the vocal organs 
in the enunciation or* emission of tone has been 
sadly neglected." Any one who, in the Crystal 
Palace or elsewhere, has heard some great artist 
singing with the accompaniment of a vast chorus, 
must have been filled with wonder to notice how 
easily the artist's voice was heard above the 
thousands of uncultivated voices. It was greatly 
because the artist had formed the habit of good 
attack, and made his voice reach the ear more 
quickly and more truly. The increasing habit in 
singing classes (when time, tune, and words are 
learnt) of studying delivery and expression, with 
closed books, under the guidance of the leader and 
his baton, have done much in England to remove 
this defect, of bad attack. 

Mr. F. Kingsbury, in his sensible pamphlet on 
the voice says : Pass the breath in a small stream 
letting it commence suddenly, as if produced by the 
sudden opening of a valve, but without any further 
effort. Unnatural forcing of the breath must be 
avoided, while care is taken not to let it ooze out. 
By this prompt attack, after a few experiments 
the singer will positively feel the back of the throat 
and mouth simultaneously filled, as it were, with ? 
solid body. The muscular power of these parts is> 
felt to grasp or lay hold of the sound. This sensa- 
tion of laying hold of the tone should always be 
present to the singer. He will then be conscious 
of a power to mould and shape the sound at his 
will. 

The following hints from Mr. Ellis will assist 
the teacher in observing, and the pupil in learning 
the proper mode of attack. Only, that which he 
calls the " clear attack," forms the true action of the 
glottis to be practised by every singer. In this, 
the vocal membranes are brought into contact 
exactly at the moment when the breath is made to 
act upon them. In the " gradual " attack, the 
vocal membranes are brought together while the 
breath is being emitted, so that the passage through 
whisper to voice (whisper being speech without the 
vocal membranes) is unpleasantly audible. As this 
attack is common in speech, it is the more neces- 
sary to guard against it in song. It causes what 
we call " breathiness." In the " check " of the 
voice, the vocal membranes are brought tightly 
together before the breath acts upon them, and are 
separated with a sensation of a click in the throat. 
Only for an extreme staccato effect should this be 



FIFTH STEP. 



used. la the "jerk," the proper clear attack is 
made with the addition of a sudden jerk of the 
breath, produced by the diaphram or muscular 
floor on which the lungs rest. This jerk can be 
easily felt by the hand. It is the proper form of 
the aspirate H for the singer that is H without 
" breathioess." But, care must be taken not to 
allow a puff of wind to escape before the vocal 
membranes are brought close enough together to 
make the clear attack. In the " slurred " attack 
(that is the attack on the second vowel, or the con- 
tinued vowel in a slur) there is a simple relaxation 
in the emission of breath between the two vowel 
impulses. So that no very sensible sound is heard 
between the two vowels, and no " clear " attack is 
heard on the second. The distinction between the 
slur and the glide (p. 61.) is this : In the glide the 
voice continues in full force while the organs are 
passing from one vocal position to another, and in 
the slur the voice is continued, but with greatly 
lessened force. This is true both in music, when 
wo pass from one tone to another, and in speech 
when, without change of tone, we pass from ono 
vocal position to another. 

The " release " of the vowel by a clour action of 
the glottis, leaving no ragged ends to the sound, 
should be very carefully practised. It produces as 
beautiful an effect as the clear attack itself. The 
teacher will make his pupils try all the various 
modes of attack, but practise only the clear attack. 
The power of recognizing bad execution helps the 
pupil to understand and enjoy that which is good. 

Degrees of Force. To give his pupils a proper 
command of their voices, in this respect, the 
teacher will find distinct and frequent practice 
necessary. The degrees of force ho may introduce 
m the following manner : 

" Sing me a tone to the open LAH, at an easy 
pitch of your voice, which shall be neither loud nor 
soft. . . What shall we call it, if neither loud 
nor soft ? " Medium. " Yes, it is called a medium, 
or, to use the Italian word (which has been adopted 
into all languages for this musical purpose) a mezzo 
(med'zoa)* sound of the voice. Let us write m in the 
middle of the black board, for mezzo, and you can 

Ex. 197. 



sing with your medium force, whenever I point 
there. Let each one try to fix in his mind what 
is his own medium force of voice, and learn to pro- 
duce it at command. Sing it now, as I point. 
. . Again. . . &c." 

"Sing the same sound lovier." . . For the 
loud sound wo use the word forte (fortai) or the 
letter /. We will write / to the right of m, on the 
black board. . . "Now sing as I point." (m. 
f. f. m. &c.) 

" Sing the same sound softly. For the soft sound 
we use the Italian word piano (pyaa-noa), and the 
letter p. We will write p, to 'the left of the m, 
thus : 

p. m. f. 

" Now sing with ' medium,' ' weak,' or * strong ' 
(mezzo, piano, or forte) power of voice, as I point 
to one or the other of these letters." The teacher 
points sometimes slowly, sometimes quickly, some- 
times in one order, sometimes in another, and this 
pupils sing accordingly. 

When these rough outlines of vocal force have 
been ascertained, and a good command of them 
sec ured, the teacher may proceed to develop, in a 
similar manner, the intermediate and the extreme 
degrees of force, using the marks m.p. (mezzo- 
piano), and m.f. (mezzo-forte), for the intermediate 
degrees, and ff. (fortissimo}, and pp. (pianissimo), 
for the extreme degrees, very loud and very soft. 
Let the teacher show, by example, that it is 
possible to give a very loud tone without scream- 
ing : 

The black board will now have the following 
signs marked on it : 

pp. p. mp. m. mf. f. ff. 

The teacher will exercise his pupils in passing 
from one part of this scale of strength to another. 
A really gradual (not a jerking) passage from one 
end of this scale to the other, and then back again, 
is one of the most difficult feats in music. The 
pupil must take a good breath before he begins, 
and use his breath economically. The exercise is 
of first importance. 



f 




f 




f 


/ 


P 


P 




P 




P 


1 




1 




H 


:1 


1 


.1 




ll 




:1 




Ex 


198. 


\ 






P 


, 


p 


/ 
1 




/ 




/ 






St. 


Cb 


. (XewJ 


* The inverted full point marks 



f 



f 



1> 



\f 

l 



f f 



f 



an accent on the preceding syllable. 






Ex. 199203. 



FIFTH STEP. 



97 



Ex. 199. 

pp p f ff ff f P PP ff f P PP 

I :l \l :l I : I : 1 :1 ll :1 

Ex. 200. 

pp p mp m if f ff ff ff ff f m > 

i i I 


pp pp pp 

m mp p pp 


1 : | : 1 i 

Ex. 201. 

f f mf m mp p pp PP PP PP P m P m 


/ f ff ff 


: | : . 1 i 





Crescendo (Kreshen-doa),*&c. A long tone or 
a succession of tones passing gradually from the 
piano or pianissimo, to the forte or fortissimo is 
allied a crescendo tone or passage. A long tone or 
a succession of tones passing from the forte or 
fortissimo, to the piano or pianissimo is called a 
decrescendo or diminuendo tone or passage. The 
gradual passing from pianissimo to fortissimo and 
back again to pianissimo is called a swell. 

The crescendo is indicated thus, -=^L 
The diminuendo thus, 
The swell thus, 

For the development thus far of the subject of 
force in music, the Editor is indebted to Dr. Lowell 
Mason, of America, who was the first to reproduce, 
in the English language, the Pestalozzian prin- 



Ex. 202. KEY D. 

: < > 

:r |n :f 



s 



|t 



Staccato and Detached Tones. When a tone is 
meant to be sung only half its proper length, and 
in a marked (not loud) manner, this is indicated by 
means of a small dash thus ( ' ) placed over the note. 
This mode of singing is called staccato (stakkaa'toa). 
When a tone is meant to be sung about three- 
quarters of its proper length, this is indicated by a 
dot placed over the note. These tones would be 
called " half, staccato " or "detached" tones. 

Legato. -When it is intended that the tones 
should glide gently and easily one into the other 
(the degree of force with which the first tone ends 
being the same as that with which the second 
begins}, a slur /- s or the word legato (legaa - - 
toa) is written over the note. Sing the following, 
St. Co. (New.) * For pronunciation, 



ciples of music teaching, by which Nageli and 
others had created a musical revolution in Germany. 
See his " Boston Academy Manual of Vocal 
Music." 

Pressure and Explosive Tones. Pointing on the 
" scale of force," as above, let the teacher cause 
his pupils to perform a very rapid crescendo. A tone 
delivered in that manner is called a " pressure 
tone." It is indicated thus (<). In the same 
manner a quick or sharp diminuendo will produce 
the "explosive tone" marked thus (>). This 
manner of delivering a tone is also called sforzando, 
and marked */. A combination of the two last 
modes of delivery on one short tone should be 
expressed thus (/\). This musical ornament is very 
elegant, but difficult to perform. A tone delivered 
with equal force, from beginning to end, is called 
an " organ tone," and may be indicated thus (=). 



A 
:t 



A 
11 



A 

:s 



:n 



ir :d 



first with staccato, next with detached, and lastly 
with leqato tones. Do not make the legato dull and 
heavy, but smooth and elegant. 



Ex. 203. KEY F. 

:s s :f in :r 



is 



Application of Force. The application of the 
various degrees of force to the sense of the words 
is deferred to the last step. But, the use of force, 
as suggested by peculiarities in the musical phrases 
which are sung (apart from any modification which 
words may suggest), is now to be studied. Of 
course the words cannot be neglected at any step, 
see Teacher's Manual, p. 202. 






98 



FIFTH STEP. 



Ex. 204. 



Already some hints on the subject have been given 
at p. 30, and the teacher will add more as he comes 
to the cases in each tune sung. It is only the 
systematic study of verbal expression which is 
deferred to the next step ; musical expression alone 
will now be systematically studied. 

Additional Exercises." We shall, from this 
place freely use the Additional Exercises (Pts. 1, 2, 
and 3) for the illustration of various points in musi- 
cal and verbal expression, in musical Form and in 
the Analysis of Harmony. Our illustrations will be 
principally taken from the earlier numbers, but for 
the Ess. all three numbers will be required. It is 
very important that the pupil should, as far as 
possible, not only see but " hear " the illustrations. 
When the class cannot sing the piece, a quartet 
should sing it to them. Pains have been taken 
not only to suit these exercises to the progressive 
steps of this book, and to select them from the best 
composers, but also to secure in them as groat a 
variety of style as possible. It is quite common 
for a class to sing a large quantity of music without 
really learning anything, because they are always 
singing the same sort of music. There is, however, 
always something new to learn in each of these 
Additional Exercises. 

Normal Force. By this is meant not the force 
of certain passages, but the general the prevail- 
ing force of the whole tune. Some pieces of music 
by their bold character, evidently demand loud 
singing to bring out their proper effect See ' trod 
speed the right," p. 1. _" ^M, _son S; " p 18. 




Ladv" p 21, &c. Of course the sense of the 
words, and the character of certain phrases will 
introduce modifications in the course of the tune, 
but the "normal force" is that principally used. 
The pupil should endeavour to obtain full command 
of the Medium force of his own voice. The teacher 
should give out a tone, and require his pupils to 
sing it in various degrees of force as h- demands 
them. Mezzo! piano! forte! piano! mezzo, &c. 
He should then require his pupils to jndga from 
the musical style, speed of movement, &c., of various 
tunes, which of these three degrees of force should 
be the normal or general one given to the piece. 

Piano Passages. A true piano is sung, not with 
laxity, but with effort. To keep a piano passage 
from flattening in pitch, and to deliver it with clear 



and just intonation is very difficult. Echoes are 
commonly sung by a few select voices in another 
room, but, for the practice of pianissimo, it is better 
that they should be sung by all. When a true 
blended and real pianissimo of many voices can be 
obtained, it is far finer than the piano of a few. 
Illustrations of piano and pianissimo, for simple 
musical effect, may be found in "The Waits" 
when sung the last time, in the imitations of 
the "Cuckoo" and the "Quail," pp. 9 and 14, 
at the change of measure in " Swiftly," p. 29 ; and 
again at the change of measure, p. 31, &c. 

Forte Passages should be sung with a very clear 
vocal klang, and should be perfectly free from 
the sound of breath. Such a forte is very heart- 
stirring. But the rude, coarse forte produced by 
strong lungs and harsh voice is only deafening. 
Illustrations of this may be shown in the manner of 
singing " God Speed the Right," p. 1. ' The 
Waits," p. 8, when sung the third time. The 
close of " Freedom's Sons," p. 13 ; close of " Hear 
Me," p. 19, and several closing parts of " Swiftly," 
p. 32, &c. 

Melodic Phrasing is the art of dividing a melody 
into its natural parts, and showing by the manner 
of delivery that the singer himself distinguishes 
these parts, and wishes his hearers to distinguish 
them also. It is as important that these phrases 
should be distinctly marked by the good singer, as 
that the various members of a sentence (as indi- 
cated by the stops) should be marked by the good 
reader. This can be done by singing one phrase 
piano, another mezzo or forte and vice versa, by com- 
mencing a phrase forte and ending it piano and 
vice versa, by delivering the last tone of a phrase 
staccato, and shortening the first tone of the next 
phrase so as to allow a momentary silence before it, 
and so on. The proper choice of breathing places 
has a great effect in marking off the phrases. In 
some cases the phrasing of all the " parts " will be 
simultaneous; in other cases each "part" wiU 
have its separate phrasing. The phrases m " God 
Speed the Right " (p. 1.) are sufficiently marked 
out by the lines of the words. Each of the long 
lines is easily divided into two, however, if more 
breathing places are required.* 

Ex. 2O4. Mark the phrases and breathing 
places, on the supposition that there are no words 
to modify your judgment, in " God Speed the 
Right," (p. 1.) and as the two opening periods 
consist of the same music, mark how you would 



St. Co. (New). 



distinguish thm in musical expression. 
For phrasing see further Musical Theory," Book IV. pp. 244 & 261 



Ex. 205210. 



FIFTH STEP. 



Ex. 205. 

p. 2. 



Mark in a similar way " Jackson," 
Ex. 206. Mark in the same way " The Waits," 



Ex. 207. Mark in the same way " Freedom's 
Sons," p. 13. 

Ex. 208. Mark the phrases and breathing 
places in the Contralto and Tenor of " Spring 
Life," p. 3. 

Ex. 209. Mark in the same way the Soprano 
and Bass of " May-time," p. 5. 

Ex. 210. Mark in the same way all the parts 
of " Thou shalt show me," p. 7. 

Ascending Passages. Passages which atcend by 
the steps of the scale (or otherwise) should, as a 
general rule, be delivered crescendo. Each tone 
should run into the next with regularly increasing 
force. We naturally associate height of pitch with 
ideas of energy and spirit. Full force of sound 
also naturally suggests the same ideas, and (except 
where it would interfere with some greater effect) 
should always accompany ascent. The gradual 
nature of the ascent also tends to "set off" the 
wider skips of interval in the other parts. It is 
difficult to make the crescendo gradual, each tone 
running into the next with a steady and not jerked 
increase of force, neglecting for the moment the 
common accents of the measure. It is generally 
necessary to commence piano, in order that the 
singer may have breath and strength to spare for 
the end. The slightest signs of fatigue in a cres- 
cendo, would utterly and miserably kill its musical 
effect. Imitative illustrations may be presented 
in the opening of " The Fortune Hunter," p. 4, 
where there is an ascent of an octave from s, to s, 
in the opening of " The Waits," p. 8, where 
there is an ascent of a fifth. Ascending imitative 
phrases, as in the last four measures of " Swiftly," 
p. 32, should be sung with a crescendo effect ; 
notice also the ascending bass. See also Standard 
Course Exercise 137. As a general rule, such 
passages as these should be commenced more or 
less piano in order to get the crescendo. For the 
same reason, it is almost always necessary to take 
breath before commencing such a passage. 

Descending Passages should commonly be 
delivered diminuendo, because an idea of quiet 
and rest is naturally connected with descent of 
sound. Descending imitative phrases follow the 
same rule. Find examples in " Going Home," 
p. 2 ; " May Time," top of p. 6. But where the 



character of the tune or the character of the words 
requires energy and powe~, this rule must be 
broken. See the bass " Awake .ZEolian Lyre," 
p. 64, 1st score. 

When an ascending passage, in one " part," 
comes into contrast with a descending passage ia 
another, and both passages are properly delivered, 
the effect is very beautiful. See " The Quail 
Call," p. 14, soprano and bass ; ." How Lovely," 
p. 60 (S. against C., and T. or S. and C. against 
T. and B.), three times in two scores to the words 
" Gone forth the sound of their." As a general 
rule, such passages as these must be commenced 
more or less forte, in order to get the diminuendo. 

Repeated Tones. The repetition of a tone, if it 
has any meaning, is intended to impress that tone 
upon the ear with cumulative force. To assist this 
purpose a repeated tone should be delivered cres- 
cendo, partly because the singer thus compensates 
the ear for want of variety in interval by variety 
in the degrees of force, and partly because he thus 
" sets off," by contrast, the movement of other parta, 
just as the line of the horizon " sets off" a variei 
landscape, and a quiet rock the rolling sea. The 
steadily increasing power also shows that the 
singer is not weary ; and it is among the rule* 
of art never to show weariness or exhaustion UE 
the artist. See examples in 2nd score, " Going 
Home," p. 2 ; 2nd score, " Cuckoo," p. 9, and 1st 
score, " O, Saviour," p. 86. Repeated phrases aa4 
passages should be treated in the same way *t 
repeated tones. See Standard Course Ex. 113; 
air, meas. 3 and 4, and contralto meas. 5 and 4. 
Ex. 115; meas. 11 and 12, and "repeated pas- 
sage," Ex. 120, last four measures. 

Prolonged Single Tones. Lifeless monotony n 
unbearable in music, and therefore every ton 
should take some form. It will be found by ex- 
periment that the form most suitable for holding 
tones is the swell, and this swell should be full ani 
strong rather than soft and insignificant. The 
composer commonly means that the other parts 
should be covered with a flood of sound from th 
holding tones. " The greatest difficulty of this form 
of tone," says Fetis, " consists in employing aa 
equal time in the increase of power and its diminu- 
tion." A perfectly simultaneous and equal (not 
jerking) delivery of this " tone form " by a chorw 
is very difficult to attain. Only practising without 
book, but with the signal of the gradually out- 
stretching and gradually returning hands of the 



8t. Co. I New). * " Musical Theory," Book IV., treats the subject of Expression with new illustrations. 



100 



FIFTH STEP. 



teacher, can lead to this attainment. See the close 
of " Hallelujah Amen," p. 28 ; " Swiftly from," 
three cases, pp. 29, 30. In the case of repeated 
tones running into a prolonged tone, or a prolonged 
tone breaking into repeated tones, the two should 
be treated as one, and the crescendo extended 
through both the prolonged and the repeated tones. 
See the bass in the close of "Cuckoo," p. 10; 
" Harvest Home," p. 39, two cases ; " Theme 
Sublime," p. 68, 3rd score, and p. 70, 2nd score. 
See also Standard Course Ex. 138. 

Melodic Imitations. When a composer makes 
one section or period of a melody imitate another, 
he designs that the singer should, by his manner, 
draw attention to the imitation. The best way of 
doing this is to make a contrast of force between the 
two. One must be more or less loud and the other 
soft. The pupils must study " the points " of a tune 
in order to know which of the passages must be loud 
and which soft. In "Jackson's," p. 2, the second 
section imitates the first chiefly in its rhythm. As 
it is a "rising" imitation, it is natural that it 
should be sung louder than the phrase it imitates. 
In the " QuaU Call," p. 14, the section beginning 
" Look at her " imitates the first section, and is 
itself imitated by the section which follows. As 
the imitations are all " rising," the first section 
must be delivered very piano to get anything like a 
forte on the last imitation. A striking rising 
imitation is in " Hear me," p. 18, 1st score. A 
falling imitation, which would naturally be softer, 
is in " Nearer," p. 35, 2nd score. In " Where the 
Gay," p. 65, we have a descending rhythmic imita- 
tion, preparing by its diminuendo for the striking 
succession of ascending imitations which imme- 
diately follow. See Standard Course Ex. 113, 
6th score, at " Rejoice, rejoice." Ex. 188, meas. 
5 to 9. Ex. 233, on " and in " to " me live." 

Harked Entrance. When (as in much of the 
old sacred music, in the old English Madrigal, &c., 
&c.) each " part " in turn, takes the lead in an- 
nouncing (in fugal style) the principal melodial 
theme, that " part " should assume its passing 
office with dignity, decision, and expressive clear- 
ness. The other " parts " should, at the same time, 
" give way," and hold themselves subordinate. It 
is plainly the composer's intention, that the 
entrance of these phrases into the music should be 
distinctly marked, like tho entrance of some dis- 
tinguished guest into a drawing-room, when all 
conversation is hushed and all eyes are intent. 
St. Co. f 



Study examples in " Thou shalt show me," pp. 7, 8, 
in which all the parts hush, to listen to " thou shalt 
show me ; " " Bon Accord," p. 11, where the same 
thing should take place on the words " O, Grant us 
by," or " Thy goodness more." Marked entrance is 
often effective when there is no fugal imitation, as in 
" Going Home," p. 2, second score ; " Hear me," 
p. 18. 4th score ; " Spring Life," pp. 3, 4 ; " May 
Time," pp. 5 to 7. See also Standard Course Ex. 
116, scores, 1 and 2 ; and Ex. 113, scores, 1, 2, 6, 
contralto, " Rejoice." 

Subordination of Farts. As in tho rule of 
" marked entry " the other parts were kept subor- 
dinate to the part which was entering the music, 
so in many other cases this hushing of several 
parts for the better display of some principal part 
has to be observed sometimes, as in " Gipsies Tent," 
p. 36, end of 1st score ; during part of the tune the 
melody is evidently given to the soprano, and the 
contralto, tenor, and bass sing a -subdued accom- 
paniment, like the soft accompaniment of a 
piano or organ. Sometimes, as in " 0, the 
Joy of Spring," p. 57, this is tho case through- 
out the tune. Sometimes, as in " Saviour, 
Breathe," p. 92, the principal melodies are given at 
one time to the soprano and contralto, and at 
another time to the tenor and bass. When the 
chorus is only an accompaniment to the melody, 
the harmony should bo delivered in careful accor- 
dance with the joyous or the saddened spirit of the 
ruling melody, and always so as to let that melody 
be well heard. An unsympathetic accompaniment 
disgusts the mind of tho listener. Let it be under- 
stood however, that whenever the part accompanied 
is silent, the accompaniment itself may speak out 
in fuller force and claim the attention of the 
listener. See " Gipsies Tent," p. 35. 

Humming Accompaniment. Humming accom- 
paniments may be produced in several ways. First, 
by tightening and vibrating the lips without any 
voice from the larynx, the lips vibrating all round 
and not on one side. This should only be done 
when something of a reedy buzzing effect is wanted. 
Second, by a soft voice from the larynx with 
only a slight opening of the lips. Third, by a soft 
voice from the larynx, resounding in the nose, the 
lips being closed. In this case the singer must be 
careful not to contract the muscles of the nose so 
as to produce a nasal quality of tone. Care should 
also be taken to secure an exact and unanimous 
striking of the tones, so as to imitate the effect 



Ex. 211221. 



FIFTH STEP. 



101 



of stringed or roed instruments. See " Night 
around," p. 22, and " Angel of Hope," p. 48. In 
these cases the third plan should be adopted. See 
also Standard Course Ex. 190. 

Imitative Sounds. When it is desired to imi- 
tate the rippling of water, the sighing of wind, 
or the sound of the drum or horn, the syllables 
commonly written under the notes, cannot be a 
sufficient guide to the singer ; he must try to 
imitate the sounds intended, without caring to 
pronounce the exact syllables which dimly intimate 
them. The effect of nearness or distance is con- 
veyed by loudness or softness of sound. Thus when 
the Christmas waits (p. 8) are supposed to bo at 
a distance they sing softly ; as they approach their 
singing sounds louder, and as they retire again 
their music dies away in the distance. The same 
remark applies to the sound of the drum, or any 
marching instruments. In a similar way the sound 
of distant bells, wafted by gusts of wind, may be 
imitated. See " Come, let us all," pp. 24, 25. 
In imitating laughter we must remember that it 
has two characters ; it is either light and trifling, 
or heavy and bold. Such a passage as " Fortune 
Hunter," p. 5, first score, may be treated in 
either way according to the spirit of the verses ; 
if in the latter way it will contradict, but worthily, 
the natural diminuendo of a descending passage. 

Ex. 211. What musical expression would you 
give to the air in " May Time," from end of 
p. 5, to first line p. 6 ? 

Ex. 212. What musical expression would you 
give in " God Speed the Right," p. 1, to the air in 
first part of 3rd score, to the air and bass in first 
part of 4th score, to tenor and bass in 3rd score, 
and to what part of this piece does the rule of 
subordination of parts apply ? 

Ex. 213. What musical expression would you 
give to " Harvest Home," p. 41, end of second and 
first part of 3rd score, also to soprano and con- 
tralto, 2nd score, also to tenor and bass, p. 40, 
first part of 2nd score, and also, tenor and bass 
beginning with second part of 2nd score, ending at 
the top of p. 41 ? 

Ex. 214. What musical expression would you 
give in " Loud the Storm-wind," p. 95, to the air 
of chorus, 2nd and 3rd scores ? 

Ex. 215. What musical expression would you 
give to the air of the first line in " Father," p. 34, 
and to the aii of the first line in " If I had," 
p. 45 ? 



Ex. 216. What musical expression would you 
give to the tenor and bass in the first eight mea- 
sures of " Saviour, breathe," p. 91 ? 

Ex. 217. What expression would you give to 
the music in " Hear me," p. 19, 2nd score, where 
each of the parts in turn utters the words " It is 
thou ; " and to the 1st and 2nd scores on p. 26 ; 
and to the 3rd and 4th scores of " Swiftly," oiv 
p. 31, and to the 3rd and 4th scores of p. 30 ; ant 
to the first three scores of " We fly," on p. 20 ? 

Ex. 218. How should the accompaniment be 
sung in " Home," p. 76 ? 

Ex. 219. What expression would you give to 
the music in all the four parts, of " How Lovely," 
p. 61 ; scores, 3 and 4 ? 

Ex. 220. What musical expression would you 
give to Standard Course Exercise 170, 1st score, 
both parts; Ex. 115, 3rd score, third and fourth 
measures ; Ex. ; 170, 2nd score, both parts ; Ex. 
171, Amens in air, Hallelujahs, in contralto; Ex. 
194, air in 9th and 10th measures, and llth and 
12th ; Ex. 145, last eight measures ; Ex. 193, first 
section, ditto second section ; Ex. 190. first and 
second sections ? 

Ex. 221. What musical expression would you 
give to Ex. 136, air, 1st score; Ex. 195, 1st and 
3rd scores ; Ex. 195, contralto, fourth measure, 
from lah to third me ; Ex. 116, contfalto, half 
second, and whole of third score ? 

Congenial Tones. As every tune has its own 
proper character, (bold and spirited, cheerful, didac- 
tic, solemn, &c.) it is natural that the Tonic Sol-faist 
should give clearest force to those tones of the 
scale which correspond best with the general sen- 
timent of the piece, are " congenial " with that 
sentiment. Thus, in a quick and stirring tune, he 
would naturally emphasize the trumpet tone Son, 
the rousing RAY, the strong DOH, &c. ; and in a 
slow and solemn tune, the sorrowful LAH, the deso- 
late FAH, &c. With this idea in the singers' minds, 
the tune will immediately become a new thing. 
The pupils will soon discover that they possess the 
power of making this, or any other peculiar effect 
prominent in the general harmony, very much in 
proportion to the height, in their own voice, of the 
tone which gives that effect. Thus a high tenor 
tone will tell better than a low one. A high con- 
tralto tone will also command attention, because 
energy and spirit is implied in the very effort of 
the voice to rise above its medium compass, and 
tha more piercing sounds are better heard. Low 



St. Co. (New). 



* See " Musical Theory," Book IV, p. 259. 



102 



FIFTH STEP. 



Ex. 222 b. 



sounds (in contralto and bass) also imply energy 
and force, and they are capable of yielding a good 
effect, especially when the harmony is " dispersed," 
and no other sound lies near. Some composers 
have great skill in setting the congenial tones of 
the music to that register, in each voice which is 
the most distinctive and the most beautiful. 

Any high sound, or any favourably situated low 
sound which is not " congenial " with the general 
effect, the instructed singer will, therefore, deliver 
as lightly as possible. On the other hand, when 
the congenial tone occurs in a favourable position, 
he will never let it miss of its effect. With these 
principles to guide him, every singer may know 
where the strength of his " part " lies, and where 
it can best contribute to the general harmony. 
Psalm tunes, of the " didactic and variable " style, 
will thus be very differently treated according to 
the character of the words sung. If we were sing- 
ing " The Fortune Hunter," (p. 4) we should notice 
that it was a very lively and playful tune, meant 
to be sung in a light staccato style that, therefore, 
the quickly uttered emotional tones of the scale, 
would produce an effect congenial with the general 
character of the music. The sopranos would find 
an opportunity of developing congenial tones with 
bright explosive force on the first r of their part, 
and the second 1 and the second f. To contrast 
with these and give force to the jollity, the first s 
and the second d' would be similarly delivered. 
The 1 being in the high part of the voice should be 
brilliantly attacked ; and the piquant effect of f 
against the t, and below it, should be brought 
out with sharp accent. The contraltos have 
nothing very effective till the two bursts of bright 
sounds under the soprano 1 and d'. The greatest 
power of the tenor lies in the delivery of t under 
the soprano f ; and the best point of the bass is in 
the of the same chord. " Rise my Soul " (p. 33) 
is naturally a tune of joy, changing into meditative 
kood on the last section. The sopranos will, there- 
fore, find congenial tones in their first bright 8, 
in the stirring t and the triumphant d', for the 
change of character in the tune their returning f 
can be well given. The contraltos have a good 
M| in that full part of their voices, which best dis- 
tinguishes them from other voices ; they can help 
the excitement in the beginning of the second 
score by delivering their s, which is in the upper 
part of their voice, clearly and lightly. The tenors 
can set their mark on this tune by a prompt 
delivery of in the first chord ; their 1 at the 

St. Co. (Nsv>j. 



beginning of the last section is also in a charac- 
teristic part of their voice. The basses have a tine 
effect in the full part of their voice in the first 
cadence, and they can well employ the high part of 
their voice in the second cadence, where 1 for a 
joyful effect should be delivered curtly ; the re- 
turning f which follows will be naturally well 
marked. But, if to suit the words this tune has to 
be sung with a solemn or mournful effect every- 
thing is changed each voice must then strive to 
bring out f and 1 wherever they occur, and to 
lessen the force of the brighter tones. In " Come, 
let us all," (pp. 24, 25) the bell ringing (which is 
heard as a distant subdued accompaniment to the 
cuckoo), is given to two parts. But of these two 
subdued parts, the most distinct and bell-like are 
first the tenor, afterwards the bass, because the 
tones are thrown by change of key into the higher 
parts of those voices ; and of the two subdued 
parts, these must always have the pre-eminence. 
See also congenial we and fa '< in a tune which 
expresses at once solemnity and repose in Standard 
Course Ex. 136 ; the congenial doh, me, soh, in 
a tune of great boldness, Ex. 137, and the con- 
genial lah and fah in a tune which expresses soft 
and tender feelings, Ex. 140. 

Ex. 222. Describe the general character of 
' Jackson's," p. 2, and its congenial tones ; name 
those congenial tones in each " part " which lie in 
the full characteristic region, or in the higher or 
more marked part of each voice. 

Ex. 223. Describe " The Waits," p. 8, as 
above. 

Ex. 224. " Father," p. 34, as above. 

Ex. 225. " Nearer my God," as above. 

Rapid Passages. The composer would never 
give the singer a rapid passage or run if he meant 
the notes to be blotched, and blurred and run into one 
another, so as to be little better than an indefinite 
and disagreeable single tone. He designs them to 
stand as distinctly united and as distinctly apart 
" as the pearls 01 a necklace, resting on a black 
velvet dress." The singers must give them the 
clearest articulation, and there must be perfect 
unanimity of attack. In order to secure this effect 
the pupil should always take breath at the begin- 
ning of a long run, and economise it carefully so 
that there be no appearance of fatigue at the end. 
In some choruses it will be necessary to " smuggle 
in " the breath even in the middle of the run. 
Illustrations can be found in " Thou shalt show 



STEP. 



103 



me ' (p. 7) on the first syllable of the word 
"presence." An exact delivery of the TAA-efe, 
with unanimity of attack, will make this little run 
bright and beautiful. In " We fly by night " 
(p. 20) there are runs which will require careful 
forethought for the management of the breath. 
In " Hallelujah " (p. 27), unanimous and perfect 
delivery of TAA-efe, TAA-tefe, tafa-TAi will be re- 
required. In " Swiftly " (p. 32) we very seldom 
hear " universal song " sung with pearl-like clear- 
ness ; it is more like a skuttering upstairs of many 
irregular feet. Handel's runs should be cultivated 
with great care as exercises in flexibility. See also 
rapid passages in Standard Course Exs. 102, 120, 
174, and 247. 

Form of Single Tones. The explosive tone 
naturally expresses vigour and decision of feeling. 
See pp. 12, 39, 42, 45, 57, and Standard Course 
Ex. 141. 

When a composer alters the accent by synco- 
pation for a moment, he wishes the syncopation 
to be noticed by the hearer. The singer must, 
therefore, give it the explosive tone. Syncopation 
generally expresses restless force or impatient 
desire. See p. 87, 4th score. See also " Ye spotted," 
p. 81, a case of piano-explosive tones, in tenor s, 
end of 1st score ; contralto d, with soprano r, at 
beginning of 2nd score. See also Standard Course 
Ex. 114. 

The pressure tone naturally suggests deepen- 
ing emotion. In any touching three-pulse measure 
to deliver the second pulse with this tone, at least 
occasionally, produces a beautiful effect. See 
" Jackson's," p. 3 ; notice also " The Woods," 
p. 72, second score. See also Standard Course Ex. 
139, and Ex. 140. 

Pressure tones on a weak pulse, swelling 
into explosive tones on the next strong pulse, 
are often very effective. A good solo singer 
would often instinctively use them in slowly 
moving psalm-tones, on the last pulse of a measure 
moving to the next accent. See p. 57, 3rd 
score, and p. 17, last score. See also Standard 
Course Ex. 193. 

The legato style of singing is a modification 
of the pressure tone. It gives a smooth, gliding 
effect to the tones, and lessens the distinctions of 
accent. See p. 63, 3rd and 4th scores ; and p. 82, 
1st and 2nd scores. 

The staccato style of singing is a modification of 
the explosive tone. It gives an abrupt, forceful 

St. Co. (New.) 



effect to the tones, and necessarily lessens to a con 
siderable extent the distinctions of accent. See 
tenor and bass, p. 40, and p. 42, first and last 
scores. See also a piano-staccato, immediately 
following a legato passage on p. 82, third score. 

Unison Passages. Passages in which all four 
parts strike either the same tones or their octaves 
together, should be sung with great care, so as to 
produce a perfect and clear blending of the voices. 
The voices should feel for one another, but not 
timidly, for such passages are generally meant to 
be very firm and strong. They should sing with 
conscious sympathy. See " God Speed," p. 1 ; 
" Fortune Hunter," p. 4 ; " 0, Saviour," p. 87 ; 
" Harvest Home," p. 41, 2nd and 3rd scores ; 
and " Stout Limbed Oak," p. 78, first and last 
scores. 

Cadences. Few things are more painful to a 
listener than to think that a singer is tired, few 
things more inspiring than to feel that he closes 
without fatigue. Even when the cadence is down- 
ward and diminuendo it should be firm, but in 
ascending cadences a sustained crescendo is abso- 
lutely requisite. See close of " Harvest Home," 
p. 41 ; and " Quail Call," p. 15, 1st and 2nd scores. 
Notice a vigorous descending cadence in " God 
Speed," p. 1 ; and others in " Theme Sublime," 

S, 71 ; " Rise my Soul," p. 33 ; " Stout Limbed 
ak," p. 77, 4th score. See also contrasted cadences, 
Standard Course Ex. 145, last two scores. 

Distinguishing Tones of transition of the minor 
mode and of chromatic resolution (except when 
occurring in some subordinate part, and evidently 
introduced more for the convenience of the har- 
monizer than for any effect upon the harmony), 
should always be delivered with marked emphasis ; 
for they have an important meaning. They change 
the mental effect of all the other tones. For the 
voices, in whose part the accidental occurs, not to 
deliver it firmly is to rob the whole music of its 
meaning. The tones of " returning transition '' 
should also be emphasized. But, if the transition 
itself were carelessly given, this second effect would 
be lost. 

Those movements of the bass which mark the 
tonic cadence of a new key, as | d : r | s. 
and | r : r s, : or of the relative minor, 
as | r : m | 1 and | m : m | 1 should be 
markedly delivered, because they help to certify 
the transition or modulation. See p. 52. 






104 



FIFTH STEP. 



Ex. 226-232. 



Chromatic resolutions should also be firmly 
shown, because they are intended to reassert the 
key. Special attention should be given to those 
tones of the chord which would be quite differently 
resolved if a transition were meant. In " Hope 
will banish," p. 12 ; 2nd score, the fe in the air is 
not in a favourable position for accent, but that in 
the bass should be well delivered. In " How 
beautiful," p. 12, at the end of the 1st score, the 
cadence is made to change key, more by the move- 
ment of the bass than by the very light distin- 
guishing tone in the contralto ; therefore, let the 
bass move firmly. In the next score the distin- 
guishing tone of returning transition, which in 
this case is f, although it docs not appear till the 
end of the section, comes out then with effect, and 
should be clearly delivered by contralto and bass. 
The same voices have the " returning f " at the top 
of p. 13. In " Hallelujah," p. 26, the sopranos 
have a very effective returning f. In " Lord, in 
this," p. 33, of course, the e will be well marked, 
because it is the distinguishing tone of the minor. 
In the second line of words there is a modulation 
to the major, which should be strongly marked by 
the cadential movement of the bass, and by the 
tenors' clear use of 8 instead of the preceding so. In 
" Ye spotted Snakes," p. 81, the tenors have a 
returning f at the end of the 1st score, and the 
contralto a transitional f at the beginning of the 
next score. In " Saviour, Breathe," p. 91 and 93, 
the chromatic resolution of le into f should be 
clearly marked by the voice. In this piece, as well 
as at pp. 79, 94, 95, and 96, the manner in which 
such tones as de, re, ma, &c., flow into the tones 
which follow them should be clearly and lovingly 
marked. 

Dissonances. In all cases of dissonance there is 
a "resisting" tone, and a " dissonating " tone. 
Every singer should know which of the two be- 
longs to his part, the strong resisting tone or the 
smoothly moving dissonance. See pp. 21, 36, &c. 
It is difficult for pupils with uncultured cars to 
sing either of these tones steadily. But they matt 
be sung without any " giving way." Else, their 
purpose is lost, and their beauty gone. Where 
would be the beauty of a cataract if the resisting 
rock gave way to the struggling current which 
strikes against its side and then flows on ? The 
resisting tone should be sung in a firm, almost 
" explosive " style, and the dissonating tone (which 
springs from its "preparation," and flows forward 
to its " resolution ") should be delivered as part of 

f. Co. fNnc.J 



a short melodic phrase in a very smooth-connected 
manner. Let the pupils test their power of deliver- 
ing dissonances well by singing " Jackson's " p. 3. 
where on the word " through " the contraltos have 
d dissonating against r of the soprano, and on the 
word " day " r against m, where also on the word 
" led " the sopranos have t dissonating against the 
tenor d', and on the syllable " vin " m slightly 
dissonating against f,, in the bass ; while, on the 
same syllable the tenors have s, not only dis- 
sonating against this low f, but beating as a second 
against the 1 of the contraltos. This study of the 
dissonances will not only give the singer courago 
but great enjoyment, and will wonderfully add to 
the beauty of the effect. See also Standard Course 
Exs. 114, 141, 244. 

Ex. 226. What is the stylo in which you 
would sing the passage in " Harvest Home," 
p. 40, " O'er them the wavy wealth; " and "Theme 
Sublime," pp. 69, 71 ; and the "Stout limbed oak," 
pp. 77, 78 ? 

Ex. 227. What form of expression would you 
apply to the following tones on p. 67. Bass f, 1st 
score ; 2nd score, tenor d, followed by bass 
s and f ? 

Ex. 228. What form of musical expression 
would you give to the two la/is of contralto, p. 85, 
3rd score ? 

Ex. 229. What style of expression would you 
give generally to the tones of Standard Course 
Ex. 140 ? 

Ex. 230. In singing the p. passage, " Morn- 
ing Prayer," p. 79, 1st score, what special care 
will be required from the singers in all the parts ? 

Ex. 231. Why should the contralto and bass 
in " Come, Freedom's," p. 13, 2nd score, third and 
fourth measures be firmly delivered ; and what note, 
soonfollowing in the same voices, should be specially 
emphasized '; In " Rise, my soul," p. 33, what aro 
the most noticeable distinguishing tones, and how 
should they be sung ? 

Ex. 232. What musical expression would you 
give to Standard Course Ex. 142, third score, ta, and 
fe, ; Ex. 189, third score, te ; Ex. 193, second score, 
ba? 

Parsing Fugal Passages. The practice of 
parsing, described at the last step, becomes more 
difficult, but also more interesting when we have 
to analyse fugal imitations, or those in which one 
part seems to fly after another. In these cases the 
great rhythmical divisions of the melody are not 
so regular. One musical idea is made to interlaca 



FIFTH STEP. 



105 



with another thus, in Ex. 234, before the first 
section is complete the second voice commences a 
section of its own, and it is so very frequently 
throughout this and other pieces. We are therefore 
obliged to describe the passages and sections in 
such manner as the following : Ex. 234 consists 
first of a subject of one measure and a half, 
started by the upper part, and imitated at the 
interval of a fourth below by the lower part after 
one measure. This also, after one measure, ' is 
imitated in the fourth above with a varied cadence. 
This again, after one measure, is imitated in the 
fifth below ; and again, after one measure, in the 
sixth above, and again in the sixth below. After 
two measures the original theme with the old 
cadence is taken up by the higher voice for two 
measures, while the lower voice ornaments it. 
Then follows a sequence of two measures, each 
portion of which contains an internal imitation. 
The piece is concluded by four measures of orna- 
mental cadence. Ex. 195 opens with a subject in 
the lower part of three measures and a half which 
is imitated in the higher part, after three measures 
in the fourth above, the lower part supplying a soft 
and light accompaniment. Then follows eight 
measures of what may be called contrapuntal 
symphony that is, a play of the parts one against 
the other without special meaning. One measure 
before this is concluded, the higher part starts the 
old three-measure theme, which is indefinitely 
imitated after two measures, and then for six 
measures more there is another contrapuntal sym- 
phony. Again the lower part starts its first theme 
with a varied cadence extending to five measures, 
and this is imitated again in the fifth above, not 
as before after three measures, but after one mea- 
sure. This coming closer of an imitation is called a 
Stretto. After a brief ornamental, f ugal imitation, 
the piece closes with five and a half measures of 
contrapuntal symphony. The singer should mark 
with pencil the exact length of the fugal subjects. 
When the other part or parts merely accompany 
the fugal subject they will, of course, be kept 
subdued. In the interludes and symphonies the 
parts may be of equal force. In the stretto the 
entries should be strongly marked, but the parts 
may be of equal force till the first which 
entered has finished the imitated subject, leaving 
the second to be well heard in its close. These 
observations will show the importance of this 
study. Let the student be now required to write 
out analyses of such exercises as 233, 235, and 246. 



Himjroea <JL 01 ises us LOO, $0, aim ^-*o. voices in a congre 

Si. Co. (New). * See further " Musical Theory," Book HI, p. 105. 



It will be difficult to do so by sight, they should 
sing the exercises with a friend several times 
over.* 

The Small Eegister is in the highest range of 
the human voice, and belongs to females and boys 
alone. They naturally pass into it on one-FJ (FJ 1 )' 
or one-G (G 1 ). It is remarkable that the change of 
breakage into this register should be just an octave 
higher than that into the thin register. It is this 
fact on which early students of the voice built the 
false theory, that the registers of the male and fe- 
male voices were the same only, an octave apart. 
The distinction in quality between the small register 
and the thin is not so marked as that between the 
thin and the thick. The small muscles by which the 
voice is produced in this register are very delicate, 
and Garcia recommends that they should not be 
overstrained by too much practice. Some deep 
contralto voices, though weak and breathy in the 
thin register, produce many tones of this highest 
register. Their larger larynx and stronger chest 
enable them to force these tones more easily than 
many sopranos ; but, though the volume is greater 
the quality is inferior, and ordinary singers should 
be advised not to cultivate a useless and unpleasant 
part of their voice. Specially gifted solo singers, 
like Alboni and others, have had opportunities of 
cultivating and using every register of their voices 
in a manner which, to most contraltos, would be 
impossible. 

For ordinary choral singing the tones of this 
register, except one-G (G 1 ), are little used ; but 
Bach, Handel, Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, and 
Mendelssohn all use one-A (Al) in some of their 
choruses, so that every choral society should be 
able to command full, clear and unstrained force 
on this tone. This can be best obtained by culti- 
vating the small register of the sopranos. It is 
sweeter and brighter than that of the contraltos 
above referred to and besides, it is continuous, 
in them, with a good thin register (which such 
contraltos generally lack), so that passages running 
across the " break " can be sung with an even 
quality of voice. The classic composers expect 
their solo singers to go much higher. Beethoven 
in Engedi requires two-D (D 2 ) ; such things must 
be done by voices professionally trained. In psalm 
tunes written for trained choirs one-G (G') may be 
used even on holding tones ; but, psalm tunes 
written for congregations should not even touch 
the small register, because the mass of women's 
voices in a congregation are not trained to its use. 






106 



THE VOICE MODULATOR. 



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QLOTTIg. 








NOTE. The thick horizontal line shews the " great break " between the Thick and Thin 
below G. The thin line, an octave above, shews the " small break" between the Thin and Small 
The dotted lines shew the average place of break, the other lines the highest place that is safe. 

St. Co. (New.) 



Registers, 
Registers. 



FIFTH STEP. 



107 



The small register, like the other registers, can 
overlap downwards ; but it does not so frequently 
do so as the thin register in men's voices. It may 
often be of advantage and a relief, especially to a 
second soprano, to take one-F (F') habitually in 
the small register. 

The Lesser Breaks of the voice divide both the 
thick and the thin registers into upper and lower 
parts. The break between the upper and lower 
thin register, is quite manifest in ordinary soprano 
voices between one-C (C 1 ) and one-D (D 1 ). The 
upper thin may overlap downward, but does not 
commonly do so. The break between the upper 
and lower thick registers is easily noticed in male 
voices between A-one (Aj) and B-one (B ( ). The 
upper thick register may overlap downwards, but 
seldom does so in male voices. Madame Seiler says 
that in women's voices this break occurs one-third 
higher, between C and D ; but we have noticed 
that many women habitually make the upper thick 
register overlap downwards, so that they change 
into the lower thick, just where the men do, on 
A-one -(A|). 

Speaking Registers. Men commonly speak in 
their thick register. Tenor voices, however, use 
the pleasant higher thick register. Very rarely a 
man may be heard speaking in his thin register, 
with a thin squeaking quality. Those who have 
to do with partially deaf persons ought to know 
that men are better heard when they speak gently 
at a high pitch of their voice, than loudly at a low 
pitch. This constant speaking in the thick register 
is the reason why men are tempted in singing to 
strain their voices too much upward, and to neglect 
the cultivation of their thin register. Women 
commonly speak in their thin register ; but some 
contraltos use their rich upper thick tones, and 
occasionally a woman may be heard to speak in the 
rough lower thick register. It is this common 
habit of using the thin register in speech which 
tempts them, in singing, to employ it downward 
more than is necessary and so, to neglect and 
ignore the better tones of the upper thick register. 

Mechanism and Feeling of the Registers. In 
the lower thick register, the whole length and the 
whole substance of the vocal membranes are thrown 
into full vibration. (See the Diagram at the side 
of the Voice Modulator). The air must, therefore, 
press upon the membranes with a greater volume 
than in the other registers. "We feel the air passing 
into the windpipe from all parts of the lungs. This 
widens the rings of the windpipe, and as a con- 

St. Co. (New.) 



sequence, draws down the larynx. " One thus haa 
a sensation," says Madame Seiler, "as if the whole 
body took part in this formation of sound." 

In the upper thick register, while the whole 
thickness of the membranes is still in vibration, 
their length is greatly shortened. " The sensation," 
says Madame Seiler, " is as if the tones came from 
the upper part of the chest." These physical sen- 
sations do not show how the sounds are generated, 
but what parts of the nervous system are excited 
in the process. They help us, however, to recognize 
the distinctions of register, and they account for 
some of the conflicting names by which the registers 
have hitherto been known. 

In the lower thin register the whole length of 
the membranes is again employed ; but only their 
thin edges vibrate. " The feeling is as if they had 
their origin in the throat." 

In the upper thin register the membranes are 
again shortened, and the feeling is " as if the 
throat had nothing to do with the tones as if 
they were formed above in the mouth." 

In the small register only a small part of the 
glottis to the front of the larynx is opened, and 
" one has the feeling," says Madame Seiler, " that 
the tones come from the forehead." Thus the 
singer is like the violin player who sometimes uses 
a thin string, sometimes a thick one, sometimes a 
short string, sometimes a long one. These points 
of information will help to fix the pupil's attention 
on the various changes of his voice. 

Boys' Voices we find to be much the same, in 
their various registers, as women's voices, but they 
are commonly used more roughly and coarsely. 
The practice of permitting boys to shout against 
an instrument in village schools and chuiches, not 
only tears the voice to pieces, but destroys that 
tenderness and fineness of feeling which music 
ought to promote. It is this coarse use of boys' 
voices which has produced the impression that they 
are different in quality from those of women and 
girls, and incapable of gentle training; but of course 
the greater physical strength of boys gives a 
greater volume to their voices than girls possess. 
It is a great mistake to set all the boys in a school 
to sing the contralto, and all the girls soprano. 
The soprano and contralto voices are found in 
about equal proportions among both boys and 
girls. When the time of the " change of voice " 
comes, the practice of singing should, for a time, 
not be even attempted, and should be only gradually 






108 



FIFTH STEP. 



and carefully resumed. Many voices have been 
ruined by the neglect of this precept. 

Voices and " Parts." The four principal 
"parts" of choral music are marked at p. 29; 
but for glees, anthems, and men's voice music, we 
require a more minute classification, and as the 
cultivation of the thin register has probably made 
some good tenors, and that of the thick register 
some good contraltos, the teacher should now 
advise each of his pupils as to the part or parts 
for which his voice is adapted. The " parts " 
which women have to sing are often divided into 
first soprano, second soprano, and contralto, Occa- 
sionally we meet with four-part women's music 
requiring the contraltos to be divided into first and 
second. The " parts " which men have to sing are 
frequently marked first tenor, second tenor, and 
bass ; ( an additional part being sometimes written 
for a 'first or second bass. Those who have analysed 
a great number of voices know that there is an 
almost boundless variety. Nothing should satisfy 
a teacher who wishes to use his class for the higher 
kinds of music, but an individual examination of 
each voice, on the plan of the " Voice Report 
Book." 

The prnresx of examination ia simple but needs 
to bo conducted with deliberate care. The teacher 
gives in the case of women and boys, the pitch of 
(T, and in the case of men G-one (Gj). If only a 
tuning-fork is used, the greatest care is necessary 
to secure the exact pitch. Beginning with G or 
G-one (Gj),the pupil laas downwards, (in long tones, 
taking breath before each), s, f, m, &c., while the 
teacher points on the " Voice Modulator."* The 
teacher takes notes or dictates them to an assistant. 
Doubtful tones should be tested over again. The 
various " breaks " should be crossed both upwards 
and downwards. When this has been done, the 
pupil, starting again from G or G-one (G ( ), laas 
upwards, s, 1, t, d 1 , &c., while the teacher again 
studies and records the present condition of his 
pupil's voice. The teacher can bracket together 
several tones of the scale at the side of his Voice 
Report, and mark either by words or by figures 
(1 for fair, 2 for good, 3 for very good), first the 
quality then the volume ; or, he can mark the tones 
singly in the same way. Figures showing degrees 
of excellence in the blending of the registers should 
be given in each case. The most useful men's 
optional tones should bo named, and the place at 
which M woman's voice breaks, between the upper and 
lower thick registers, should be marked. After 



this it will be easy to mark the full compass of the 
voice and its best region. These considerations 
will decide the name to be given to it, as first or 
second soprano, &c., first or second contralto, &c. 
A faithful " Voice Report Book " will be invalu- 
able to the teacher when he wishes to select singers 
for any particular purpose, and it will lead the 
pupil to study and cultivate his own voice. 

A first Soprano cannot easily be mistaken , she 
possesses in addition to a good thin register, a 
few tones of the small register which easily blend 
with it. A second Soprano is distinguished by the 
possession of a good upper thick register, along 
with a good thin register, even if she cannot com- 
mand more than a tone or two of the small. 

A Contralto voice is that which possesses good 
full tones in the distinguishing region of the con- 
tralto " part " the upper and lower thick registers. 
The teacher must not be misled by the great 
compass upward which some of these voices possess, 
for their thin register is commonly weak and tune- 
less ; whilst their small register, though strong, is 
hard. When first contraltos are wanted, the teacher 
will naturally select those which are weaker in the 
lower thick, and better in the upper thick registers 
than the rest. This last voice is sometimes called 
mezzo (med'zoa), soprano. 

A first Tenor (as it is now called in Germany 
and France), or an old English "counter tenor," 
cannot be easily mistaken. He has a light and 
pleasant quality of voice in the upper thick and 
lower thin registers. Well-trained counter tenors 
can give good tones up to one-F (F') at the top of 
the upper thin register ; but such a range is not 
common. The highest reach of men's voice " parts " 
in Palestrina's time was one-C (C 1 ), or one-D (D') ; 
the counter-tenor in Tallis and Morley's music 
reaches A and B|?, and the first tenor in German 
men's voice music does not often go above B?. It 
is quite common for tenors to force their wpper 
thick register as high as this tone, but it is the 
distinctive quality of the first tenor that he uses 
with pleasure his thin register, and produces with 
it bright, yet soft and fiute-like tones. This first 
tenor, counter tenor, or tenor alto was used in 
England for the highest parts in men's voice music 
throughout the famous Elizabethan and Madri- 
galian age. But at the restoration of Charles II., 
the Italian Opera brought along with it the Eunuch 
singers, whose rich, strong contralto voices sug- 
gested to bass singers the employment of their 
equally powerful, but not rich, upper thin registers. 



St. Co. (New.} 



* Large " Voice Modulator," Is. 



FIFTH STEP. 



109 



This unfortunate discovery led to the neglect of 
the softer and brighter counter-tenor, and all the 
contralto music through Handel's period was 
written for the hard-toned bass-alto, and the same 
voice is still used instead of the richer female 
contralte, in cathedrals and choral societies, in 
which eighteenth-century traditions are preserved. 
It has been observed above (See " Small Register ") 
that contralto, as well as bass singers, possess the 
power through their larger larynx and stronger 
chest of forcing the highest register of their voices. 
Like them the bass-altos are weak and breathy in 
the next register below, so that there is DO con- 
tinuity and equality of voice across the break at 
G, and the change of register is marked and 
unpleasant. This peculiar, unsympathetic voice, is 
often uncertain and out of tune, and its cultivation 
is very undesirable. The Tyrolese basses use this 
thin voice in their Jodl songs ; but do not attempt 
to employ the region of voice lying between. The 
true counter-tenor or tenor-alto is no more wanted 
to take the place occupied in modern times by the 
contralto than is the bass-alto. But, for men's 
voice music, and for solo singing, it is very valu- 
able. The teacher will notice that many tenors 
have of late been misled by the false talk of a chest 
G or a chest A, so as to force their thick voice 
upwards, leaving the beautiful tones of their thin 
voice entirely uncultivated. The practice of men's 
voice music, either separately or for half an hour 
after a mixed-voice class, will remedy this, and 
restore to England her long lost counter-tenors. 
The second Tenors are known by the excellence 
of their lower tones ; they have but little use for 
their thin register except on G. There, however, 
it should be truly cultivated if not also, as an 
optional register, on F. E. D. Tenors of both kinds, 
of the highest eminence, habitually change to the 
thin register on D or E. The shouting of the tenor 
part on a forced upper thick register is most pain- 
ful to the ear, and a fruitful source of flattening. 
The First Bass, or Baritone Voice may be dis- 
tinguished from the second bass by its not possessing 
fulness below C-one (Cj), or B-two (B 2 ). Such 
voices seldom have the proper tones of the thin 
register, but they often find it a relief to employ 
that register as an optional one, instead of the 
higher two or three tones of the upper thick 
register ; it saves them from straining and flatten- 
ing. The second Bass is distinguished by its full 
robust tones on A-two(A 2 ),G-two (G 2 ),F-two (F 2 ), 
and even lower. In the upper part of the voice it is 

St. Co. (New.) 



not very dissimilar to the baritone. Those basses 
which have the so-called bass-alto or " head- voice *' 
generally (though not always) of a shrill and 
screamy character, are advised not to use it. The 
examination of voices, here recommended, cannot 
occupy less than from fifteen to thirty minutes for 
each person, and should be regarded as a separate 
private lesson of great value to each pupil. 

Compass. It will be noticed that in these 
instructions for the classification of voices, we have 
avoided any reference to compass as a criterion of 
judgment. This is not only because we are thus 
free to secure the best quality and the best volume 
for each "part," but because of the great injury 
done to voices by the habit of singing beyond the 
range of their proper part. Teachers and psalmody 
conductors are specially exposed to this danger. 
They wish to show other people the right tones 
and are careless of the manner in which they pro- 
duce them. Previous teaching by quiet pattern 
is really a quicker, as well as a better way, of 
reaching the desired result. f Some highly trained 
solo singers may with impunity cultivate a great 
range of voice, but others are found to injure the 
tones of their proper compass by going much out 
of it. When the more minute classification of 
" parts " is required (each of the ordinary four 
parts being divided into first and second), it may 
be useful to note that few composers go beyond 
the limits marked on " The Voice Modulator," 
p. 106. The highest men's voice, the counter- 
tenor, and the lowest women's voice, the second 
contralto, coincide ; they sing the same part. 
From this point upwards and downwards the 
common compass of parts rises and falls by thirds. 

The Causes of Flattening are 1st, Physical 
Weakness. In this case the singer should restrain 
his enthusiasm for the sake of others, and sing 
softly, and listen. 2nd, The forcing of the Upper 
Thick Register in the higher part of men's voices 
which is immediately cured by the cultivation of 
the thin. 3rd, Breathiness of Tone and other 
defects in various parts of particular voices. 4th, 
Defects of Ear, to be cured by long and atten- 
tive listening, and by study of mental effects. 
5th, Careless and lax-delivery of Piano or 
violent and coarse delivery of Forte, which can 
easily be avoided. 6th, Habitually singing with 
" tempered " instruments, with their flat fifths and 
sharp thirds, putting the ear out of tune. 7th, 
Sympathy with bad singers who are near, and 
inattention to the leader. 8th, Bad posture in sing- 



110 



FIFTH STEP. 



ing. 9th, Neglect of breathing places, and the 
consequent exhaustion, and 10th, Worst and com- 
monest of all want of interest, and its consequent 
drawling delivery. The teacher should make 
the maintenance of pitch a distinct object of his 
care, and should call the attention af his pupils to 
it, often testing them at the end of a piece. The 
close of one verse and the beginning oi another is 
the commonest place for inattention and, therefore, 
for flattening. Let the teacher beware of it. If 
he is acting as a precentor, let him make his voice 
heard on its effective tones, especially at the start- 
ing of the lines. An organist may maintain the 
pitch without playing loudly, by a skilful manage- 
ment of the more piercing stops. A cadence 
(78 to D) delivered at a high pitch in an interlude, 
will impress the ear better than the loud roaring of 
the lowest tones. 

Solfaa-ing the Break. Tenor singers should, at 
this stage, be required to mark the places at which 
it is most advisable to change from the thick to 
the thin, and from the thin to the thick registers. 
See p. 68 ; but note that when the registers are 
well equalised, so that the change from the one to 
the other can scarcely be noticed by the hearer, it 
may be better always to change at one point of 
absolute pitch, instead of trying to suit the musical 
phrase ; this is done by some of our best singers. 
Each pUpil should study the capabilities of his own 
Toice. Other voices, as well as the tenors, should 
form a habit of "Solfaa-ing their breaks" as soon 
as the key is pitched. Thus, for example, a second 
soprano, with a bad "upper thin" tone on one-F 
(1H), who is advised to cultivate her "small" regis- 
ter on that tone, should learn to calculate the Sol-fa 
note on which it will fall. While Key C is being 
pitched, she calls to mind that the note she has to 
watch is f ; while D is pitched, she thinks of her 
re and m ; while E is pitched, she reminds herself 
of de and r, and so on. Mark the optional tones, 
and the places of change in the manner adopted in 
Exs. 170 to 175. See questions at close of this step 
No. 73. 

Sixths, Eighths, and Ninths of a Pulse are 
very little used except in instrumental music. The 
Eighth* of a pulse are thus named, tanafanatenefe>ie, 
:1 1,1 1.1 1,1 1 1 . The Exercise of singing them to the 
teacher's beating, quicker and quicker, will be very 
amusing to the pupils, and will greatly help to 
refine their sense of time divisions. There are two 
ways in which a pulse may be divided into Sixtht. 
It may first be divided into thirds and then the 
St. Co. (New). 



thirds into halves thus taataitee, tafatefetijt, 
:1 1 ,1 1 ,1 Ij which we may call thirds-sixes," or 
it may be first divided into halves, and then the 
halves into thirds thus TAATAI, tarnlaterele, 
:1 1 1 .1 1 1 | which we may call " halves-sixes." 
The Ninths suppose the pulse to be divided into 
thirds, and then each third into thirds again, thus 
taataitee, taralatereletirili, :1 1 1 ,1 1 1 ,1 1 1 1 . It 
will be a useful exercise for the teacher while 
beating time to call for " halves," " quarters," 
"eighths," "thirds," "thirds-sixes," "ninths," 
"halves," "halves-sixes," and so on. 

Eare Divisions of Time. It will be useful here 
to give the notation for some of the less common 
rhythms. When a pulse is divided into a quarter 
tone, a half tone, and a quarter tone, it is M-ritten 
thus | t ,1 .,s : or better thus | t ,1 .-,s : When a 
pulse is divided into a three-quarter tone and two- 
eighths, it is written | r ,,mf : When a pulse is 
divided into a three-eighths tone, an eighth -tone, 
and a half tone, it is written j d,-r.m : When a 
pulse is divided into a half-pulse continuation, and 

Q 

three halves -sixths, it is written : - .fmr | In 
instrumental music, especially for strings, it is some- 
times necessary to divide a pulse into less than an 
eighth when the same tone has to be very rapidly 
repeated ; in this case we place as many dots over a 
note as the parts into which it is to be divided. In 
the instrumental score of "Hallelujah to the Father," 
from Beethoven's Mount of Olivet we find a half- 
pulse divided into six and another into nine ; they 
would be written as follows : 



.sltd'r'm'l 



.n'r'd'tlsfnrll 



These exceedingly rare cases of rhythmical division 
require careful examination before they are sung, 
in the Common Notation as well as ours. It will 
be perceived that the Tonic Sol-fa Notation does 
not make any lower division of the pulse than 
that into eighths, and that division it indicates 
by the simple absence of a mark. The occasional 
practice of writing, in the Established Notation, 
two measures as though they were one (See 
"What is a pulse?" p. 66), makes it necessary, 
in that Notation, to have a more minute sub- 
division of pulse. In the Tonic Sol-fa Notation we, 
in Buch pieces, put two measures for each one of 
the Established Notation. We find, practically, that 
this mode of writing secures a more ready appre- 
ciation, and a more exact execution of the time. 



Ex. 233. KEY E(j. M. 96. 



FIFTH STEP. 

GIVE UNTO ME. 



Ill 



Gebhardi. 



i s :- |1 :- .t d 1 :- 

' Give un - to me, 

: 1 : 
Id 1 :- - :- It :- 

spi - rit 

. if . __ 
The 

li it, .d |r .d :ti .1 ( s ( 


:t 

made 
Bb- t. 

d'f :d 

of self 

df, :- 

Give 

: |n 

. con - 

:1, .t, |d 


1 :t .d |r'.d':t .1 s :1 .t , 


low 

. 

sac 

H. :- .1 

un - t 

:f .n r 


ly wise, The ' 

:ri |s :- ' 
ri - fice; 

d :- - :t, I 

o me, made ' 

:n .f is :f 


n - de 

t ;d' 
truth, Thy 

d : 

fice, 

And 
n :n 

light of 

the 
n :1 


nee of free - dom | 
rit 

11 :- - =1 j 

bonds - - man ' 

:d t, :d .r ( 


low ly wise, The spi 

"it :s |d' : :d' 't :t 

1 give, And in the light of 

) dg :s |s :n r :n .f s .f :n .r 


1 of self - sac - ri - fice, self 

|se :se 1 :- .1 |d' :- .1 

let me live, And in tl 

n .r :d .t| 1 ( : ll : 


- sac - ri - 

.1 n l : _ 

le light, 

s :- .f | 

in the 
light, In 

|s :f 

bonds - man 

d 1 :- 

live, 

n :- I 

live. 


self - sac 
f :- .f |1 :- .t 

in the light of 

f :- If :- 

truth And 

It :n' 1 :r' 

light of truth, Thy 

f 

.8 .f y 
me live 

in the light of 

de : | :de 

in the 


ri - fice ; And 

d 1 :- :d' - :t 

truth, In the 

n :- .r |d :d r :s 

in the light of truth, Thy 

is :d' d 1 :- |t :- 

bonds - man let ma 

:n r :1 |s :f 

Thy bonds-man let me 


let 

:s 
And 

And 



St. Co. (New.) 






112 



FIFTH STKP. 



f 
truth, 

r 

light 



:f 


s :s 


Is 


:r 


n 


Thy 

:r 


bonds-man 

t, :- 


let 

1 


me 

:t, 


live, 
d 


of 


truth, 




Of 


truth 



: I 



Thy 

:n 

Thy 



bonds 

f : 

bonds 



It :- 


d 1 :- 


in : 


r : 


IS 


man 


let 


me, 


let 


me 


|r : In : 


Id :- 


d : 


It, 


man 


let 


me, 


let 


me 



n 

live. 

d 

live. 



PRAISE TO OUR GOD. 



Rinck. 



s :s .s |s :d 
* Praise to our God and 

f : , : 

Praise to our God 

f .s :1 i : 


d 1 :t | : 

glo - ry, 

r :r .r |r :s 

Praise to our God and 

t .de 1 r'.n" :f 


s :s .s is 


:1 .t 


d'.r'in 1 | : 

flo - ry, I 
:d .d |d :r .n\ 
Praise to our God and 

r' | : 


Praise to our God and 

f :n I : 

glo - ry, 

- .n 1 :r> .d 1 t .d 1 : 


and 

d 1 :- 

glo 
f .r :n 


glo - ry, 

r :r .r | 

Praise to our 

- |t :s .s 

ry, Halle- 

.f |s .f :n .r 


and 

r :n .fe 


glo - ry, 

s .1 :t |- .1 :s .f \ 


glo - xy, 

s :s .s |s :d 
\ Praise to our God and 

j n .r :d | :n .n 


God and 

n'.r':d'.t |1 


glo - 

Halle- 

B :f .n 


ry, and , 

r'.d':t .1 |s :s .s 


lu - jah, 

d :d.d fl . 


lu - jah, Halle-/ 

r :r .r |s .f :n .rt 


, glo - ry, Hallc- 

d' :- |- :t 


lu 

d 1 :- 

jah, 

n :- 

jah, 


- | :s .s 

Halle- 

1 ;n .n 


jah, Halle-lu 

1 :1 1 

lu - jah, 

f :f 1 


:t .t 

Jlallc- 

:r .r 


jah, Halle-lu 

d 1 :- Id 1 : 

lu - jah ! 

n .f :n .r |n : 


In 
n :d .d |f .1 :s .f 


( jah, Ilallo-lu 





Ex. 235. KKY Bb- M : 96. 

'S\ | : 1 . t 

Love thy 

: I : 

St. Co. (Xev>). 



LOVE THY NEIGHBOUR. 



d :ti |d 
neighbour as 



thy- 



self, 



Love 



thV 



J. Mainser. 

I : 



fi :n. If, 

neighbour as 



thy- 



FIFTH STEP. 



113 



:f i :n 


r :- .d |ti :d .r 


n : | :r 


f. Eb- /- is C. 
d s :n | : ba.se 


Love thy 

li : is, : 


neigh - - bour 


as thy - 

d :t| |d :S| 


self, Love thy 

i,n : |r : 


self. 
1 :se |1 it 


Love thy 

d' :t jl :se 


neigh - - bour 

1* CP 1 T*' 
* oC | 1 


as thy 

-.d':t .1 lse.1 :t .d 


neigh - bour 

d :n | : ba.se 


as thy 

1 :se |1 :t 


self, Love 

d' :t IPI : 


thy neigh-bour, 

' 


self, Love thy 


neighbour as thy - 


self, Love, 


- 



:n 



in 1 



Love thy neigh 
:se | 



Bb.t 



rl 


rr'.d 1 


It .d 1 :r'.t 


d '. t 


Love 
If 


:s 

thy 

:n 

thy 


f :s 


.f 


|PI 


bour 

:d 

bour 


hour 

-.d':t,l 


as thy - 

|se.l :t.se 


self, 

1 :s 


neigh 

r :t 


- 


Id" 


Love 


thy 


neigh-bour, 


Love 




neigh 


- 


- 



sd 


: 


Iti 


: 


d 


1 





as 
t,Pl, 


:1, 


thy 
|S| 


:f~i 


self, 
"I 
self, 


:d, |- 

Love 


rri.Pi, 


as 




thy 




thy 



Love 



thy 



neigh-bour, Love thy 



|d 



:r 



neigh-bour as thy - 
Pii :s | ! :t, 
ueigh-bour as thy - 



self, 

d 



self, 



: 
si : 


n :r .d 

Love thy 


Iti.d :r .n 


r > s, 

Love thy 


|s : 

r igh :f 

thy 


:f .n |r .n 


:f .r 

thy- 

:r ,ti 


neigh-bour, 

1 :- 


bour as 

f .n:r .d |t,.d 


Love 


- 


- - 


neigh-bour as 


thy- 



n :r | :r .r 


n :r | :r .r 


n .:r |S| : . 


:l : .t| id :r 


self, Love thy 


neigh-bour, Love thy 


neighbour, Love, 

d :si | :. 


Love thy 


self, 

n :r |n .s :f .n 


PI .r :d .r |n :r 


d :s, |- :l,.t, 


Love thy 

d :r |n :f 


neigh-bour, Love thy 

d :tj |d .n :r .d 


neigh-bour as thy - 

S|.f,:ni.f, |s, :f. 


self, Love thy 

PI, : |S| : 


neigh-bour, Love thy 
:l|.t| id :r 


neigh-bour, 




Love, 


Love thy 



i d :t, |d .n :r .d si.f, 

\ neigh-bour, 



s :n | :r.,r 

neigh-bour, Love thy 

n :d | :t : .,t| 

neigh-bour, 
St. Co. fNewJ 


n .n 

neigh-bour 

d :tai 


|.f :r 


d : |t, : 


as 


thy 







d :- |- : 

self. 



114 



FIFTH STEP. 



QUESTIONS FOR WRITTEN OR ORAL EXAMINATION. 
DOCTRINE. 



1. Describe your own voice. What 
if its easy compass its quality and 
volume in each register its host 
region ! By what name is it called ? 
p. 81. 

2. Under what name is the chord '8 
disguised, by notation, in cadence 
transition to the first sharp key ! How 
is the same chord disguised in passing 
transition to the first flat key ? How do 
you know when the chords ~f''R, and 
''I) are transitional, and when they are 
chromatic ! p. 83. 

3. What are the three principal 
things -which intensify the mental effect 
of particular tones in a tune ? p. 83. 

4. When any particular tone of the 
iseale is strongly emphasised through- 
out a tune or part of a tune, how is 
this fart described in words, and in 
what parts of the world is modal music 
till used in the greatest variety. 

5. Which are the modes with a 
major third above their principal tone 
or tonic which are those with a minor 
third ! Of the major modes which is 
the one almost exclusively used among 
Western nations ! Of the minor modes 
which is the one exclusively used in 
:;onnertion with modern harmony ? 

: 1 1 1 1 historical changes through 
which the tune Dundee or Windsor 
has passed. What is the mental effect 
of tin- introduction of itl and what 
is the difficulty which, especially in this 
tune, it occasions the singer 1 

6. Why is the Ray mode peculiarly 
suited for worship ? what is the pecu- 
liar cadence which distinguishes the 
Bay mode from the Lah mode I p. 85. 

7. What is the chief principle of 
modern harmony ! In what respect has 
the Doh mode better chords for its 
Tonic, Dominant, and Sub-dominant 
than any other mode ! What kind of 
rlini-d dm > the ear object to when two 
ue.h chords occur consecutively among 
the last four chords of a cadence ? 

8. How did the first harmonists 
overcome the difficulty of three minor 
chords in a cadence of the Lah mode J 
What is now found the most satisfac- 
tory arrangement for introducing 
variety in this cadence T p. 86. 

9. Where does the tone bah stand, 
Mid how is it related to it 1 Why is it 
introduced ! How manv alternative 
tones are there in the modern minor, 
and which of them is most used ? 

10. Describe the six chief difficulties 

St. Co. fNf- ) 



| which arise to the singer from the in- 
troduction of se and bah in the niiuor 
mode. p. 86. 

11. Using the words Tonic, Domi- 
nant, Super-tonic, &c., as indicating 
the "Chord Relation," what is the 
chord relation of minor LI of minor 
Dtof *vMiot minor T1 of SKI 
of BAH and F1 of minor ft 1 
How do we distinguish the chord names 
of the major from those of the minor, 
mode in writing, and how do we dis- 
tinguish them in speech T 

12. What is meant by the word 
Modulation ? What are the commonest 
modulations from major to minor, and 
from minor to major t -p. 88. 

13. What is meant by Transitional 
Modulation ? What is the commonest 
change of this kind, and what new dis- 
tinguishing tone does it introduce ? 
What other change of this kind is 
common, and what distinguishing tone 
does it introduce ! 

14. What is the meaning of the 
word Accidental, and how are acci- 
dentals expressed in the Tonic Sol-fa 
Notation ! p. 88. 

15. Describe six cases of very rarely 
occurring sharps and fiats with the 
names given to them. 

16. What is the practice chiefly to 
be avoided in chanting ? p. 94. 

17. In marking passages for recitu- 
tion what is the first thing which the 
student should do, and what are the 
faults he has to avoid in doing it ? 

18. What is the great distinction 
between the recitation and the cadence 
of a chant ? What kind of pulse should 
always come before the beginning of a 
cadence T What kind of pulse should 
always come after the end of a cadence ? 
What relation should there be between 
the speed of the reciting tone and that 
of the cadence T 

19. What is the difference between 
the rhythms of public speaking and 
private talk ? 

20. In choosing chants, what are the 
two blemishes which should lead a 
precentor to reject some I 

21. What re the principal elements 
of expression in mane ! What are tho 
common defects of singers who do not 
study expression T p. 94. 

22. What is the principal habit to be 
formed in the delivery of tones ! and 
for what quality of tone should we lis- 
ten in out "vcn voice ! 



23. By what other names is a good 
" attack " of the tones described ? Give 
illustrations of its importance. Des- 
cribe generally the sensations which 
accompany it both in the larynx and 
the mouth. p. 95. 

24. How do the breath and glottis 
act together in the clear attack ? in 
the gradual or breathing attack ? in 
the check .' in the jerk J in the slur ! 
What is the difference between a slur 
and a glide ? 

25. What is meant by a clear Re- 
lease of the Tone, and what is its 
importance ! 

ilii. Describe the manner in which a 
teacher should introduce his first exer- 
cis.-s on the degrees of force. p. 96. 

27. What are the names and signs 
for a long tone, or a phrase increasing 
in force .' diminishing in force ? first 
increasing and then diminishing ? 

28. Describe the Pressure and Ex- 
plosive tones. 

29. Describe the Staccato, the 
Detached, and the Legato styles. 

30. What are the two considerations 
which principally guide us in applying 
various degrees of force to music ! 

31. How is it that it is possible for 
classes to go on singing a large quantity 
of muiic without really learning 
anything .' 

32. What points in a tune have to 
be considered with the view of deciding 
whether it should be sung loudly or 
softly, or with a moderate degree of 
force \ -p. 98. 

33. How should a true piano be 
sung! 

34 . How should a real vibrating /ork 
be sung'! 

86. what is " phrasing " t Show its 
importance. Mention three or four 
ways in which musical phrases can be 
marked off, and distinguished by the 
singer. 

36. What is usually the best form 
of force in ascending passages, and 
why ! 

37. What is usually the best form 
of force in descending passages, and 
why? 

38. How should Repeated tones be 
delivered, and why ? 

39. How should prolonged single 
tones be delivered, and why ! 

40. What is the best way of ' setting 
off" the inu<ical imitations in a 
melody ? p. 100. 



FIFTH STEP. 



115 



41. How should the entrance of a 
" part " previously silent be treated T 

42. In -what two cases should any 
of the parts, in music, be subdued and 
subordinate ? 

43. How should accompaniment be 
delivered ? 

44. Describe the three ways of pro- 
ducing what is called a humming 
accompaniment. What should be 
specially noticed in the imitation of 
natural sounds ? 

43. What are the tones of the scale 
most congenial to a quick and stirring 
tune, and what to a slow and solemn 
time ? In what ranges of his voice is 
each singer able to make his tones 
most effectively heard in the midst of 
the harmony ! p. 101. 

46. If in the harmony a singer finds 
a tone placed in an effective part of his 
voice, which is congenial with the sen- 
timent he is singing, how should he 
deliver it ? 

47. How should rapid passages and 
runs be sung, and when such pieces are 
sung in chorus, what point is it impor- 
tant to notice 1 In the management of 
the breath for a run, what point has the 
singer to notice at the beginning, and 
what at the end t 

48. What kind of feeling is naturally 
expressed by the explosive tone, and 
what by the pressure tone ? Which of 
these forms of tones is the exaggeration 
of the legato style, and into which of 
them does the staccato naturally break 
out ? p. 103. 

49. In what manner should unison 
passages be sung, and what should each 
singer strive to do ? 

50. In what style should cadences be 
sung, and why ? 

51 . How should distinguishing tones 
be sung, and why ? 

52. In cases of dissonances, what 
should every singer know in reference 
to his own part ? How should the 
resisting tone be sung, and how the 
phrase which contains the dissonating 
tone I p. 104. 

53. Why is it difficult to parse the 
rhythm of pieces in which there are 



f ugal imitations ? What is the name 
given to a fugal imitation which has 
been heard before, but which now 
follows its leader sooner ? p. 104. 

54. Describe the highest register of 
female voices. State the pitch at which 
they pass into it. What is the name of 
this register 1 Why should contraltos 
generally refrain from using it '! p. 105. 

55. What is the highest pitch which 
classic choruses require the first Sopra- 
nos to sing ? What is the highest pitch 
which should be used in church choirs 
where the congregation does not join ? 
What is the highest pitch that can be 
expected fromx:ongre"gations ? 

66. What kind of voice will some- 
times find it a relief to sing one-F (F 1 ) 
in the small register ? 

67. Describe the lesser breaks of the 
voice. How, and at what pitch-sound 
are these manifested in female voices ? 
How in male voices ? 

68. What registers are commonly 
used by men in ordinary speaking, and 
what by women ? What is the conse- 
quence of these habits on the singing 
voice 1 

59. What is the mechanism of the 
Lower Thick register, and what are the 
physical sensations felt in producing 
it i 

60. What is the mechanism and sen- 
sation of the Upper Thick register ? 

61 . "What is the mechanism and sen- 
sation of the Lower Thin ? 

62. What is the mechanism and sen- 
sation of the Upper Thin ? 

63. What is the mechanism and sen- 
sation of the Small 1 

64. What points are noticeable in 
boys' voices when compared with voices 
of women 1 What course should be 
taken at the " change of voice ? " 

65. Name the four "principal parts" 
into which voices are most comm&nly 
classified. What other " parts " are 
sometimes required ? p. 108. 

66. Describe the manner in which 
voices are examined and recorded. 

67. What are the characteristics of 
first Soprano ? What of a second 

Soprano ? 



68. What are the characteristics of 
a first Contralto ? What of a second ? 

09. What are the characteristics of 
a first Tenor ? What of a second ! 
From what class of men's voices 
do we get the most agreeable tone* 
in the upper thin register ? Give two 
powerful reasons why basses should 
not use this register. 

70. What are the characteristics of 
a first Bass ? What of a second ? 

71. What are the two reasons why 
in classifying voices you do not take 
compass for your guide ? In what 
choral part, as in Handel's choruses, do 
the voices of men and women coincide, 
singing identical tones ? In men's 
voice music, what is commonly the 
highest tone of first Tenor, and the 
lowest of second Bass? In women's 
voice music, what is commonly the 
highest tone of first Soprano, and 
lowest of second Contralto ? 

72. State all the causes within your 
knowledge of "flattening." Mention 
anything you think likely to prevent, 
arrest, or correct it. p. 109. 

73. Mark in the heading of Exs 
188 to 191, 193, 195, the Sol-fa names of 
the optional tones, at the command 
of a tenor voice, mark also the places 
at which you think it desirable to 
change the register. 

74. In what cases may singers form 
the habit of changing the register al- 
ways on the same tone in absolute 
pitch 1 In what cases should other 
than tenor voices study carefully their 
optional tones ? 

75. What are the chief uses of 
sixths, eighths, and ninths of a pulse in 
music ? How are eighths of a pulse 
named and written ? How are third- 
sixths of a pulse named and written ! 
How are half -sixths of a pulse named 
and written ? How are ninths of a 
pulse named and written 1 p. 110. 

76. Give the Time names for the 
following : 

:t ,1 .-,s I! :r . ,m f y 



:d,-r ,m 



PEACTICE. 

77. Hold a steady tone with one i the Exs. 177 to 179 whichever the 



breath for twenty-four seconds. 

78. Sing with a beautiful forward 
quality of tone, to the Italian lah. 
Ex. 176. 

79. Analyse the harmony of one of 



teacher chooses. 

80. Give an example different from 
those quoted of increased intensity 
given to the mental effect of a tone by 
accent by cadence by the interval of 



St. Co. CNew.J 



a fifth or under fourth. 

81. Write from memory or sing tn 
three versions of the tune Dundee or 
Windsor. p. 84. 

82. Draw from memory the diagram 
which shows the difference between the 






116 



FIFTH STEP. 



Ux. 236242. 



Ijih mode and the Ray mode. Write 
and sing the tune Nowell in the Ray 
mode and also in the Lab mode. 

83. Laa from the teacher's pointing 
on the modulator all the exercises given 
in the paragraph " Difficulties of the 
singer." p. 86. 

84. Name the tones of the minor 
mode which belong to the following 
chord relations: Tonic, Sub-dominant, 
Dominant, Super-tonic, Leading 
Tone, Sub-mediant, Mediant. 

85. Analyse any one of the chants, 
Exs. 181 to 186, which the teacher may 
require. 

86. Point out examples, without 
having to look for them, of modulation 
to the relative minor, and of modula- 
tion to the relative major. p. 88. 

87. Point out examples, without 
having to look for them, of transitional 
modulation to the relative minor of the 
first flat key, and to the relative minor 
of the first sharp key. 

88. Sing with correct time, tune, and 
expression, one of the Exs. 188 to 195, 
selected by the teacher. 

89. Taa-tai on one tone the recita- 
tions of Kxs. 177 and 178. 

90. Mark the following passages of 
scripture for cadence and recitation. 
Psalm 1, 8, 20, 84, 93, 98, 149. 
Isaiah. 12. 

91. Deliver the vowels aa, ai, and ee, 
as forward in the mouth as possible, 
and with the best quality of voice you 
can produce. p. 95. 

92. Deliver the vowel aa, with clear 
attack, with breathy or gradual attack, 
with the check, with the jerk, with 
the slurred attack. 

93. Sing the vowel aa, and end it 



with a clear release. p. 96. 

94. Perform any one of the Exs. 
197 to 201, which the teacher may 
select. 

96. Select from memory and sing a 
crescendo passage, a diminuendo pas- 
sage, a swell passage. p. 97 

96. Sing Ex. 202. 

97. Select and sing a passage with 
staccato tones, with detached tones. 

98. Select and sinf a legato passage. 

99. Sing a tone with medium force 
of your voice, forte, piano ; with 
which degree of force should the fol- 
lowing pieces be sung through the 
greater part of their extent I Ex. 134, 
141, 144, 188, 192, 194. 

100. Select and sing a passage with 
true vigorous piano. p. 98. 

101. Select and sing a passage with 
clear vibrating forte. 

102. Perform in the presence of the 
teacher any one of the Exs. 204 to 210, 
which he may select. 

103. Select and sing an ascending 
passage in the proper manner. p. 99. 

104. Select and sing a descending 
passage with proper expression. 

105. Select and sing with proper ex- 
pression a good example of repeated 
tones. 

106. Select and sing a good example 
of the prolonged single tone. 

107. Select and sing a good example 
of imitations in melody. 

108. Select and sing a good example 
in which the marked entrance of a 
" part " is required. 

109. Select illustrations of subordi- 
nation of parts, humming accompani- 
ment, and imitative sounds. 

110. Perform in the presence of the 



examiner one of the Exs. 211 to 214, 
chosen by him. 

111. Perform any one of the exer- 
cises 222 225 which the examiner may 
select. 

112. Perform any one (chosen by the 
examiner) of the runs named in the 
paragraph " Bapid Passages," with 
proper delivery and proper manage- 
ment of breath. 

113. Select and sing a good example 
of the Explosive tone, of the Pressure- 
tone. 

114. Sing a Unison passage with 
some other voice in perfect blending and 

unanimity of attack. 

115. Select and sing a cadence in a 
proper manner. 

1 16. Select and sing three different 
examples of distinguishing tones. 

117. Select and sing two different 
examples of dissonances, your teacher 
holding the resisting tone. 

118. Describe or parse Exs. 194, 190, 
or 197, which ever the examiner 
chooses. 

119. If your voice is soprano sinjr 
two tones, at least, in the Small 
Register. 

120. Show, by singing, the place of 
the lesser break or breaks in your own 
voice, and what part or parta of the 
music you can sing best. 

121. If you are a tenor or contralto 
singer mark, in presence of the ex- 
aminer, the optional tones and the best 
places of change in any one of the Exs. 
174, 175, which he may select. 

122. Tell your examiner what are 
the 8ol-fa names of your optional tonos 
in key C, F, B flat, E flat, O, D. 
A, 



DICTATION J5XERCISES. 



NOTE, that TAA standing alone may be used to indicate a whole pulse, and that after the first measure 
the accents are not necessarily marked by R and L. Observe also octave marks, p. 29. 

f, TA.A.SAI 1 SAAlM. 8 TAATAI S, TAA d. 

Ex. 240. TAA 8 aafatefe 1, s, 1 tafatefe 
and TAATAI d, 
d saataitee s 



Ex. 236. Write in correct time TAAtefe d, r, m 
TAATAI f m, TAA r, TAA d ; and tafaiAi d, r, m 
lafaTAi r, m, f, TAATAI m, r, TAA d. 

Ex. 237. TAAfe 8, f, TAAfe m, r, TAA d, 
TAA t-one TAAfe 1-one, r TAAtefe d, t-one, d 
TAA r TAA d. 

Ex. 238. tafatefe d, r, m, f TAATAI 8, m 
TAATAI 1, 8 TAA one-d tafatefe one-d, t, 1, 8 
tafatefe f, m, r, d TAATAI a, 8-one TAA d. 

Ex. 239. TAATAI d, t TAA&4J m TAATAI 

St. Co. (New.) 



m 
f 



f, 8, f, 8 tafaxAi m, r, d ; 
taataitee r, m, f TAATAI m, 
taataitee m, r, d TAATAI r, d. 

Ex. 241. SAATAi 8 tafaTAi m, f, 8 
SA ^TAI s tafaiAi 1, t, one-d SAA-iM 8 

TAATAI f, m TAAfe I, d TAA d. 

Ex. 242. SAATAi d taa-aitee m, r - 
taa-aitee d, t-one taataitee 1-one, t-one, d 

TAA -AA 8. 



117 



SIXTH STEP. 

Continuation of Chest, Klang, and Tuning Exercises. To perceive the Physical Facts and Mental Effects of 
Two Removes in Transition, and to sing such a Transition. To perceive the Physical Facts and Mental Effects 
(if Three Removes and to sing such a Transition. To understand Principles on which various degrees of Force 
and Speed are applied to Words, and to make use of them. To practise the Phrasing of Words. To exercise 
the Organs in sustaining voivel sounds clearly and correctly. To understand the Principal Forms of Vocal 
Music. To understand the Resonances and their use. To exercise the Voice for Strength and Agility. 



Chest, Klang, and Tuning Exercises. Exer- 
cises for strengthening the chest, for the cultiva- 
tion of a pure and beautiful klang and for the 
exact tuning of the voices one with the other, 
should still be pursued, at the opening of every 
lesson. The various voice exercises in the begin- 
ning of the last step and the minor mode chants in 
three parts will answer the purpose well. The 
teacher will choose the kind of exercise which he 
finds his class requires. " Wall Sheets " will enable 
the teacher to use more complex voice exercises, 
while leaving him at liberty to walk among the 
ranks of his class and superintend the posture and 
vocal delivery of each pupil. See Nos. 21, 22, 23. 



n I r ! s 



r s a 1 
t 

a f 
t 1 



1 r s df 



s d f 



t n 



Two Removes. Transitions to the 
first sharp key or to the first flat key 
(p. 50) are transitions of one remove. 
But the music often passes over the 
key of the first remove to the key of 
its first remove ; this we call a transi- 
tion of two removes. The teacher will 
first lead his pupils to observe the 
physical facts connected with these 
removes. First, they will notice, that 
the second sharp key raises the key 
tone and with it the whole music a 
full step, that it blots out f and d of the 
old key and introduces in their place 
m and t of the new key as marked in 
the signature, and that, of the two 
distinguishing tones, t is the more 
important because it distinguishes 
I the second sharp remove from the first. 
Second, they will notice, that the second fiat key 
depresses the key tone and with it the whole music 
a full step, that it blots out the tones (which the 
sharp remove introduced) t and m, and it intro- 
duces, for the new key, the tones (which the sharp 
remove blotted out) d and f, and that of these two 
distinguishing tones, the f is the more important as 
distinguishing the second flat remove from the first. 

St. Co. (New.) 



t n I r 

I r s a 
t 
.t/. 

t| n 1 



These physical facts will prepare the mind for 
observing in the exercises which follow, that the 
second sharp remove with its raised d and its effec- 
tive t is even more expressive of rising emotion 
than the first sharp key, that the second flat remove 
with its depressed d and its effective f, is even more 
expressive of seriousness and depression than the 
first flat remove. Compare p. 51. A transition of 
two removes from the principal key (a principal tran- 
sition) is seldom used except for imitation and 
sequence. A transition of two removes from a 
subordinate (not principal) key of the piece is not 
uncommon and if the transition is from the key of 
the dominant to that of the sub-dominant or vice 
versa it is generally quite easy to sing. This kind 
of " oscillation " across the original key keeps that 
key in mind, and lessens the violent effect of the 
two removes. See " How to Observe Harmony," p. 
54, and the " Common-places of Music," p. 111. 

THE EXERCISES. The following two exercises 
should be done with great care, every transition 
passage, being taught by pattern from the modu- 
lator. No words are provided, in order that atten- 
tion may be given exclusively to the various points of 
difficulty in the transitions. Each part should be 
first solfaad and then clearly laad. If, in teaching 
the parts any difficulty arises, it is a good plan to 
teach the first phrase of the new key separately 
before the transition is attempted; for when the 
pupil knows what is on the other side of the bridge 
he crosses more boldly. This plan of introducing 
transition is even more important when the parts 
are sung together. Great assistance may be given 
to the pupils by shewing them on the modulator the 
first difficult interval or intervals which the new 
distinguishing tones create, and by likening these 
intervals to some others with which the ear is more 
familiar. The pupil must not begrudge any 
amount of patient care required in mastering these 
transitions, for such transitions occur in every 
classic work and sometimes very frequently. A 



118 



SIXTH STEP. 



good study of the modulator with a thoughtful 
exercise of his voice will not only teach him 
these particular tunes, but will shew him the way 
to master similar difficulties in other music. 

In Ex. 243 the transition to the second sharp key 
becomes comparatively easy when the pupils realize 
the exact imitation there is in all the parts. As 
mentioned above, t~ is the more important of the 
two distinguishing tones. If the third part strikes 
it firmly and promptly the second part will have 
little difficulty. In teaching the parts separately, 
the ear is not assisted by harmony to establish the 
new key ; it will therefore be useful to show on the 
modulator what the notes would have boon in the 
old key. Thus the third part would have de l t r 
and the second part would have m de r. The 
second distinguishing tone m is felt to be a little 
sharp but is seldom a difficulty. This should be 
traced on the modulator. 

In Ex. 244 the difficulty of the " principal " 
transition of two removes is again lessened by imi- 
tation. The second distinguishing tone comes in 



first, and then the second part strikes the first and 
more important distinguishing tone. When the 
second distinguishing tone is heard first the transi- 
tion is easier to sing. It is something like taking 
one remove at a time. But the second case, that of 
a subordinate and "oscillating" two removes,at mea- 
sure 9, is more difficult to sing because there is not the 
same help from imitation and second because the first 
distinguishing tone is first introduced. The next 
transition has a perfect imitation note for note in 
its second part, and in its first part there is an exact 
imitation of the melodial waving of the previous 
phrase one step lower. This last phrase would be 
r f m r (two more flat removes) if it were not har- 
monised chromatically, and so retained in the origi- 
nal key. 

Other examples will be found in " Additional 
Exercises," p. 65 for imitation, pp. 68 & 72 for 
oscillation and to give effect to the next transition, 
and p. 83 a transitional modulation to the minor for 
special effect, also to prepare effect. 



Ex. 248 KEY F. 

n :n .f |s :s d :r 

d :d iti.r :d .ti l|.d :- 


|n : 1 :t |d' :n 
.t, |d f :f |s :d 


r :- |d :- 
d :t, id : 


A ^ 1 1 m f 1 

s r |n : 


Id : f .n :r |n .r :d 

O. t. m. f. C. 

i s :r |n f d' : 


s, :- |d :- 
s |1 .t d 1 


r t, |d : 


T :ti |d d s : 


n |f s .n 


ti s, |d : 


det, :s, |d i,n.r : 


d |f .r n .d 


r i _ |fli :_ 
f - |n : 


f. F. 
r'l :t |d' n r : 

taf ; f |s d d : 


Id 

t, |d - 


s, id : 

Ex. 244. KBY F. M. 70. 

P 

' d :r |n :s 

d :t, |d :d 


taf :r in d s, : 

s :n in :r n : 
ti :d |d :ti d : 


- |d 

W. G. M'N. 

s Is :f 
d .tailli :li 


di J 
:S| Id :ni 

St. Co. (NewJ 


8, :d Si :BI d 


n, If, :f, 



SIXTH STEP. 



119 



cres. G. t. m. 



' r :n |d 





n :r |f 


n 


fen :r |f 


n 


ti :t, Id 
s, :si |d 


~~ 


d :t| |r 

d :S| Is, 


d 

1, 


'd :t, |r 

r d :S| |s, 


{ 


f. 0. / 






( 


L. f. Bb- dim. 




' in 1 :s' If 


r 1 


1 :t Id 1 





d'r :f In 


r 


1 dg :n If 


1 


r :s .f |n 





H, :r |d 


t, 


[ ^d :de |r 


f, 


s, :si id 





'si :s, |s, 


8, 


F. t. dim. 













df :la |s 


f 


n :s |f 


r 


li :t, Id 





i,r :f |n 


i 


d :de |r 


1, 


f, :s, |n, 





l,r :ti Id 


s. 


1 * m 1 f 


f. 


r, :s, ]d| 






OH, I'M THE BOY 'O THE MOUNTAIN". 
Ex. 245. M. 80, twice. (Words adapted from UHLAND, by J. S. STALLYBKASS.) 



l.The 

2. When 

S.But 


s, :d 


:n |s :n 


herd 

:d 

be- 
the 


Moun 

s :d 


- tain Shep - 

:n |s :n 


thun 
when 


der clouds 
some day 



boy, 



ir 

am I, 



t, :- :t, It, :- 

low me crawl, 

church bells ring, 



Your 



A- 

And 



lof - 

1 :r 



:f 

ty 
:f If 



A. L. 0. 
1 :- :s 

tow'rs be - 

:n 



bout 
vil 



me stands 
lage maids 



a 

ia 



s :- :f in :- 

low me lie ; 

n :- :r |d :- 

bright blue hall ; 

gar - lands sing, 



Here 



I'll 



Si :d :n 



s, :d 



the sun 

:n |s :n 



know 
take 



them well, 
the tru 



:d' 


s :- 


his 

:d 


ear - 

ti :- 


they 
est 


hear 
for 



Is :- :f 
long - est 

|n :- :r 

fa - ther's 
by my 



n :- 

while 

d :- 

cot - 
own 



:r |d :- 

he stays. 

:t, Id :- 

tage wall ! " 
fire-side. 



f. Bb 



rnt| 


d :- 


Oh, 
ds,.f, 


I'm 

n, :- 

I'm 
more 


Oh, 
No 



the boy o' 

:n Is :n 



d':- 

I'm 

n :- 

I'm the boy o' 
more the boy o' 

-S7. Co. (New.) 



the 



the 
the 



s :- :f 



Id" :- 

tain, 

tain, 
tain, 



id |s, :d 

the boy o' 

;HI |S, :n; 

the boy o' 
the boy o' 

f. F. 
11 d 1 :- :n | 

the 
:d I 

the 
No more the 



:f |r :- 


:1 s :- 


:n ^ 


ly rays, 


With me 


the/ 


:t, it, :- 


:f n :- 


:d \ 


me call : 
my bride, 


" Oh spare 
And sit 


m y\ 

me ) 




C. 


t.m. 


:n n :- 


:r |d :- : 


det v 


the moun 


tain, 


Oh, / 


:d, sj :- 


:f, ;n, :- : 


!,.> 


the moun 
the ' moun 


tain, 
tain, 


Oh,] 
No/ 



n :- 



s :r :f 

boy o' the 

t| .'t, :1| 

boy o' the 
boy o' the 



n :- T jd :- 

tain. 
|fli \ 

tain, 
tain. 



moun 
moun 



120 



SIXTII STEP. 



Ex. 246. KEY C. 

s : :s 

Ho - ly, 

:n :d 

Ho - ly, 



HOLY, HOLY, HOLY. 



Telemann (1750) 



1 

ho 
f 

ho 


. .1 

':- > 

ly, 


ta : :1 


s 

iy, 


:n .r 


:d' 


ho 
8 


":n :f~ 


Lord 

:n .d 


ho 


- - ly, 


ho - 


iy, 



:t .d 1 :r' 


r 1 :d' 


of 
:s 

of 


n 1 


:r' :d' 


t 

oth, 
S 
oth, 


:s 

Ho 


- :l y ' 

Lord 


r :- .n :f 


God 

n : 

God 


Sa 
f 

Sa 


ba - 

:- :fe 

- - ba - 


Lord 



(I 



d 1 


:- .t 


:d' 

of 

:n 

of 


r 1 .n 1 


:f 


God 


:f 


Sa 
t, . :- 
Sa 


God 





ha - 

:d 

ba - 



r 1 

oth! 

S 

oth! 



:s .s,sl 
Heaven and I 



earth are full of thy 



d 1 .s :d' 

glo - ry full 



f. C. 



.f 



of thy glo - 



G. t. 

:d'f.s,s 



Heaven and earth are full of thy 



1 .s,l:t .l,t 



d 1 .s 

glo - ry, full, 



: d 'f j- .n,r:n 

Hea - I - ven and earth 



land! 



f . F. L is D. 



- .t,l:s .f 


n .n,f : r'.n'.d'.r 1 


t .d l ,r':n l ,f'.r 1 ,n l 


d 1 . :*n .n,n 


ba .m,ba:se.ba,se 


of thy glo 

r :- .r 


ry. Ho - san 

d .,r :nt .1 


na! Ho - son 

S -l.t:d .t 


na ! Heaven and 

1 .n ;lri 


earth are full of thy 

r 


full, are 


full, are 


full of thy glo - 


ry. Ho - san 


. 



G. t.m. 
1 .n :*s 

glo - ry, full 

d :is..s.s 



na ! 



Heaven and 



.f 

thy 

1| .8j,l|:t| .l|,t| 
earth are full of thy 







f. C. 












n 


.n 


: d s .s,s 


1 .Sj. 


:t 


.l,t 


d 1 . 


s 


:d' 




glo 


-T. 


Heaven and 


earth arc 


fuU 


of thy 


glo- 


i-y. 


full 




d 


.8, 


:d g 





:f 


.f ' 


n 




:- 


.f,s 


glo 


-ry, 


full 




of 


thy 


glo 



- .r',n':f : 


n 1 .d 1 ,r' :n' ,f .n',f ' 


r 1 .t ,d' :r',n' .r'.n 1 


d 1 .1 ,t id'.r'.d 1 ,! 1 


are full 
1 :- .t 


of thy fflo 

d> :d' 


ry, Ho - san 
t .8 ,1 :t 


na! Ho - san 

1 :- .1 


. 


ry Ho 


san 


na! Ho- 



St. Ci. (2feic.) 



SIXTH STEP. 



121 



t .8 :d' - .t ,1 :t .t d 1 is 





d : 1 

ert. 

! 1 
est. 


na in the high 

s :- .f ,n r .r d :s 


Ban na in the high 


GOOD NIGHT. 




Words translated by J. S. STALLYBRASS. 


A. L. C. 


Ex. 247. KEY A. 

s, :- Id : 

l.Good night! 
2.Good night ! 

n, : In, : 


[To illustrate chromatics.] 

S| :d |n : 


= 

r 

We 

May 

t, ! 


- .re |n :d 

have fought our 
the star - ry 

- .1, |se, :1, 


good night ! 
good night ! 

HI : Is, : 


3.Good night ! 
, 4. Good night! 


good night ! 
good night ! 


There's 
Heav'n 


an eye that 
- ly Fa - ther, 


s :- .f |n : 


r :- ..de~[r :re 


1 .. 
-' 

n : 


^~.7"|d :s, \ 


dai - ly fight; 
splen - dour bright 

t, :- .t, |d : 

knows no night ; 
with thy might 


Peace of mind and 
Cheer the eye that, 

t, :- .le|t, :1, 

Child of man, while 
Bless, and streng - then, 


rest 
sick 

SB, : 

thou 
and 


fromhea - ven j 
withsor - row f 

- .se,|l| :n, i 

art sleep - ing, 
re - store us, / 


r :- .de |r :re 


n r^~.r |d :si 


f 

s : 


dim. 

.fe|s :n 


To re - ward our 
Weep - ing watch - eth 

ti :- .lei|t| :1| 


toil are giv - en; 
for the mor - row, 

sei :- . sei 1| :HI 


Noi 
Star 

n : 


sy day has 
ry splen - dour 

- .re |n :d 


Faith - ful watch and 
For the new day's 


ward 'tis keep - ing ; 
work be - fore us, 


There's 
Heav'n 


an eye that 
- ly Fa - ther 


n :- .re |n : 

tak - en flight : 
soft and bright ! 

s, :- .fe,|si : 

wakes all night. 
\ with thy might ! 


P 

d : |d : 

Good night ! 
Good night ! 

rii :- .re,|ri| : 


PP 

1| 


- -Si |S| : 


good 
good 

f, : 

good 
good 


night! 
night! 

In, : 

night! 
night! 


Good night ! 
Good night ! 


St. Co. (New.) 





, : : | : s :f 

il.On the woods there broods Deep re 

mi" r\ + ll + + 

'2. In the heav'nly land An - gel 
n : |n :r d .ti 


|n : n :r |d : :n |n : \ 

- pose, deep re - pose, Not one 
No pain 

|d : s, :f, |m : : | :d 

s sing, an - gels sing, Not 
No 

:d ,1| |sei : - .seiil .ti |d :ti 


breath stirs A - mong 
or care Can en - 

d .ti :d .1| |86| :- . sei li .se 


the firs, And no ze - phyr 
ter there, But sweet voi - ces 
111 .ll |P1| '. ,n\ f\\ !I |Pl| !l'| 


one breath stirs A- mong 
pain or care Can en - 


the firs, And no ze - phyr 
ter there, But sweet voi - ces 


F. t. .= 
1, : | : .'et, d .,r 

blows. The birds 
ring. On earth 

blows, 
ring. 

; . ta d'|d' .d 1 :d' .t,l 

The birds ha ve ended their 
On earth we soon end our 

d .,r :n |n :- .r,d 

birds have all end - ed their 
, earth we must soon end our 

Hi : t '.-flS 


> d.f. E b- 

:n |s :- .f,n r : | : \ 

iave all end - ed their song, j 
we must soon end our song, 

: .|d|n .n :n .r,d ti : 1 : ,i,tl 

The birds have ended their song, The] 
On earth we soon end our song, On/ 

se : I : 8 :- ,n ,d' 


song, Wait a- 
song, 

ti : | : ti :- ,d ,n 


song, Wait a- 
ong, 

/ F. t.m. 

|r : is :- ,n .d 1 |s : > 


\ while, ere 

i in : r :- ,d ,r 


long, Wait a - while, 

Iti : dti :- ,d ,n m : ( 


( while, ere 
St. Co. (NewJ 


long, Wait a - while, 



SIXTH STEP. 



123 



ere 
r 



|r 

long. 
It, 
long, 



f. Bb- 

: '1, 


l 


Thine 

: ta if| 


eye 

n, 


Thou'lt 


with 





d 


si |li :ti 


shall gent - ly 

s, |fe, :f, 


close, 
HI 


the an - gels 


sing, 



rail. 
S| 
Thine 

Thou'lt 


Si :- ,fe,,S||l| 


eye 
n, :- 


shall gent 
,rei ( P1| |f| 


with 


the an 



* d f ' 
t n'Z 



r s 



Three Bemoves. Almost the only cases of three 
removes are those of three flat removes with modu- 
lation to the minor, or of three sharp removes with 
modulation to the major. In these cases the 
similarity of the upper part of the two modes (m 
ba se 1 and s 1 1 d') assists the ear in passing over from 
one key into the other, especially if that form of the 
minor mode containing bah is 
used. The third flat remove is 
the more difficult to sing simply 
because the minor mode into 
which it enters is itself artificial 
and difficult. The third sharp 
remove is the less difficult, 
because the major mode into 
which it enters is more natural 
to the ear. The Physical 
Changes, therefore, made in 
three removes, vary with the 
varying use of bah and se. 
They may be greater or smaller 
than those of two removes. 
The Mental Effects are obvious, 
for a modulation from major 
to minor and a flat remove 
together naturally produce a 
gloomy depression of feeling, 
and a modulation from minor 
to major combines with a sharp 
remove to produce a strange 
kind of excitement. 



t n I r 1 s d f 
t n 

1 r s d 1 / 
se t m I T 
s df 

ba t n 1 r s d 
f se t 
n I r B d f 

ba t m I 
T s d f 
t n I 



d/ 
t m 



r s 



s df 
t n 

1 r s d/ 
se ti n I r 
s df 
ba t n 1| r s d 



THE EXERCISES. In the same manner as above 
the teacher will shew his pupils on the modulator 
that in Ex. 249 the transition to the third sharp key 
is not very difficult, first, because it moves to the 

St. Co. (NewJ 



gels 



close. 

n 

sing. 



more familiar and more natural major mode, and 
second, because the second distinguishing tone (m) 
enters first, after that the third (1) and the most 
difficult (t) last of all. In teaching each part 
separately it may be well for the third part to 
remember that f m is the same thing as r de of the 
the preceding key, and for the second part to 
notice d 1 fe is the same as f t,. All three parts 
should hold out the d its full length in order to get 
it well into the ear before taking the new transition. 
The section in key C should be practised separately 
before it is united to the previous section in E (7. 
This also should be the case with the section in key 
B \), which is difficult, being a sudden remove from 
the major to the artificial minor. Although the 
distinguishing tone of the second remove (f ) comes 
late, it is only an alternative tone with bah, and so 
is awkward to sing. This tune contrasts very 
plainly the natural boldness of the "relative major " 
and the cold brightness of the "tonic major." In 
Ex. 250 the transition to the minor of the third 
flat key is very difficult to sing, first, because it is 
to the minor, and, second, because it introduces the 
" alternative tone " (f ) so early. If the third part 
sings f, f correctly and boldly, the second part will 
have no difficulty. In learning the third part 
separately it may be well to remember that 
:li |fi :f .n|r islike :ri |d rd'.t I 1 of 

another key. It may scarcely be necessary to note 
that, in the second part, d r f is like ma f la of the 
previous key, and in the first part m 1 is like s d'. 

Other examples may be found in "Additional 
Exercises," pp. 78 & 94 for special effect, p. 86 for 
subordinate transition and return, and pp. 79, 84 
& 92 for returning transition. 






124 



SIXTH bTEP. 



Ex. 249. KEY Eb- 



W. G. M'K. 



I :se |1 :t d'.t :- .1 |se :n 
d .n :- .n |n :f n .r :n .f |n :n 


s :s "I :t 

n :n |f :f 


d :ti |d :r 1 .t :d .r In :d 

| :n 1 se |1 :t 
| :d d .n - .n |n :f 


d :d if :r 

C. t. m. 1. 

d .t :- .1 ise :"i8 
n .r :n .f |n : m s 


| :d .t, 1, ti |d :r 


1 .t :d .r In :*f 


^ / d 'd f .- Bb - 
r 1 |n' :r d 1 : d 'r 

1 [d 1 t jd 1 - |- :'e se| 
f |s :s, d | :rn. 


iHCZ. 
d :ti (I, :se, 

HI :n ( |f| :ni .r, ' 


f. Eb. p 
ti .d |r :rl d :t .1 It :se 


1 :- 1- 


f, .1, |se, :l|n f :f .1 se :n 


.r d : |- 


r ( .ni ifi : f |d.t| 1 ( :r .f |n 'n. 


li : 1 



n | 

(| - i- 

-== 
d 1 

s 
n 



Ex. 250. KEY C. 
s :s .s 71 Id 1 


s. d. 

~-=^ 
s :s |s 


-=c 
n 


. L is C. 



1 rl.sell :d' 


di 
t 


W. G. . 

C. t.n 

m. ~^^z 

("s 


ifty. 

1. 1. 

==- 
\ 
j 


n :n .n |f ;n 


r :n .f |n 


mad 


.r :f if :n.l 


se 


|"s 


c ! 


d :d.d If :d 


ti :d .r |d 


d l| 


fi :f .n ir :1, 


n 


l n |S| 




s :s7s~jT :d' 


^==~ 
s :s |s 


-= 
86 





d 1 


1- 




n :n .n |f :n 


r :n .f |n 


n 


f :f~|s :-.f 


n 


1 





d :d.d |f :d 


ti :d.r |d 


d 


f :fe Is :si 


d 


_ 1 l 

1 






Ex. 251. KEY C. Andante. 



THE LULLABY. 



s :- .s |1 


:s d 1 


:- .r' |d' 


:t n 1 


Peace - ful slum 

n :- .n |f 


b'ring on 

:n n 


the o 

:- .f in 


cean, Sea 

:r s 


St. Co. (New.J 









A. L. C. 

:- .r 1 jd 1 .t :d' .1 , 

- men fear no danger ' 

:- .f |n .r :n .fe) 



SIXTH STEF. 



125 



s : 


I ' s 


* Q t 1 * <S 

0(1 o 


d 1 


:- .r 1 |n' 


:d' 


nigh, 

S . ~ 


I- .f :PI .r 


Winds 
PI 


and waves in 

:- If :- 


gen 
PI 


tie mo 

:- .f |s 


tion, 




The winds andi waves 


in 


gen 


tie mo - 


tion. 


s :- 


.n |1 .1 :s .fe 


rit. 
S 


PP 

: |f .n :f .s 


n 


: i 


II 


Soothe 

PI :- 


them with their lu-la- 

.d If .f :PI .re 


by, 
n 


lul -la, lul -la- 

: |r -d :r .ti 


a ky ' 


: 1- 


: 1 


s.d.f. Efr. J 


.n |f :n 


d 1 


:- .t |1 :se 


n 


:- .r |d .t, 


:d .r \ 


1. When 

ma d :- 


the wind tern - 

.d ir :d 


pest 

PI 


uousblow - ing, 

:- .r |d :t| 


Rolls 

PI 


the billows mountains' 

:- .r |d .ti :d .r \ 


2.'Neath 

CA ._ 1 
. t.in.l. 


a hea - ven 
1 : 


black 
S 


and scowl - ing, 




Trust 


ing One a 




bove the/ 


:- .s |1 :s 


d 1 


:- .r 1 [Pi 1 


high, 


I- .f :PI .r 


Still 
They 

n 


no fear of 
in hor - rid 

:- if :- 


dan 
tern 

n 


ger know 
pest's how 

:- .f |s 


- ing, 
- ling, 


sky, 


E'en then no 
They in the 


fear 
hor 


of 
rid 

: If .n :f .s 


dan 
tern 

n 


ger know 
pest's how 


- \?s> 

- ling, 


( S : ~ 


.PI |1 .1 :s .fe 


S 


\ They 
( Hear 


in storms hear lulla- 

.d |f .f :PJ .re 

a mo-ther's lul-la- 


by, 
n 

by, 


lul -la, lul -la- 

: |r .d :r .t, 

lul -la, lul -la- 


r 

by. 


: I 


= I 




MUSIO 


OF THE SPHERES. 






Ex. 252. 

d :- 

l.Stars 

PI, :- 

2.See 


KEY A. Words tr 

.d |d :s, .d 

are giv'n us our 
Pll |P1| JPI| .PI, 
yon star written 


inslated from BESSELD, by J. S. Si 

n :- .r |r :d 


rALLYBRASS. 
d .t| ill .Se,|l| 


A. L. C. 

:li -t, 


life 
S| 
con 


to bright - en, 

:- .f| jf| in, 

so - la - tion ; 


And 

n, 

" Here 


our dim 

:f, If. 

is past 


earthly 

:fi -f. 


all 


d :d .1, |1, :s, 

path - way to light - en ; 

PI, :1, .f, |f, :PI, 

earth's tri - bu - la - tion ; 


PI 
They 
S| 
Pil - 


in |n .,d :f .n 


r 

scourg 

fe, 

cour - 


:d |t, 

- ing rod, 

:fei is, 

age high, 


:- .(s,)j 


can sweet - en the 
.'S| | S| .,PI| ' 1| . Si 


grim, keep your 



%. Co. (New.) 



126 



SIXTH STEP. 



s.d.f. C. 


s :s .f |n :d .r 


n :r |d : 


ma d' :d' ,,t il :se 


\ raise up the soul to her 
1 t| :t .t |d *n, ,f| 


Fa - ther, God. 
s, if, |n, : 


See you the sol - emn 

"id.,r :n .,n |f :f 


, If thro' the dark you would 


climb the sky." 


Hark to the ho - ly 


' 1 .t :d' .r 1 |n' .,re' 


ing: 

:n 

ing, 


1 : 1 . 1 | se : se . se 

"All that is earth - ly shall 
1 :1 .1 |se :se .se 
They to the worlds and the 


1 

soon 
1 

a 


:f .f |f :n 


i words there glow - 
f .f :f |PI .,re 


be go - ing; 

:f .f |f :n 


mel-o - dies ring - 


ges are sing - ing: 


A. t.m.l. 


f 1 :f .Pi'|r' :r'.d' 


t :- .1 |se : 

bi - deth sure ; 

r :re |n : 

thou shalt move, 


id :- |s, :d 

Souls that are 
Or - der'd a - 


n : | : 

pure, 

d : l : 

right, 


No - thing on earth a- 

1 :1 .s |f :f .n 


There is an or-bit where 


'8 : |S :f 


n : |d :r 


n : ir : 


d :- | : 


} Souls that are 

/ t, :- It, :t, 

1 Or - der'd a - 


pure shall for 

d : |n, :f, 

right by e - 


aye en 

i :- Ifi : 

ter - nal 


dure." 

PI, : | : 

love. 



Ex. 253. KEY C. 



SOUND THE LOUD TIMBREL. 
Words by MOOHB. 



A. L. C. 



s :- .n :s 

I.Sound the loud 
2.Praise to the 


PI I PI '. T 
tim - brel o'er 

Con - que - ror, 


d 1 :t :1 

E - gypt's dark 
praise to the 


s : :s 
sea! Je - 

: :s 

Lord, His 


s 1 :- .n 1 :d' ' 

ho - vahhath ( 

n :- .d :n | 

word was our t 


s :d' :d' 


d 1 :-.t :d' 


-i . . 
* 


G. t 


. . 


tri - umph'd his 

8 :n :d 


peo - pie are 

n :- .s :d' 


t : : 


Sing for the 

r s, : :n, .s, 


pride of the 

n :n :r 


ar - row, his 


breath -was our 


sword! 


Who shall re- 


turn to tell 


ty - rant is 
d :t :1 


bro - ken, His 

1; IS, : S, 


s :- .fe:s 

cha - riots and 

n :- .re:n 


PI :d :n 

horse-men all 

d :d :d 


f :f :f 

splen-did and / 


E - gypt the 


sto - ry Of 


those she sent 


forth in the 


hour of her / 


St. Co. (New.) 



SIXTH STEP. 



127 



f. C. 



f :n : 


vain was 

f :f 

Lord hath 


their 
:f 

looked 


boast - ing ! The 

f :m : n 

out from his 


Lord hath but 

n :r :d 

pil - lar of 


brave, How 

d : :ds .s 


pride ? For the 


s.d.f. E b- 

n 1 :r' : d 'l .t 


P 

d 1 :t 

cha - riots. 

d :t, 

all her 


and 
brave 


ritard. 

n :n :d .r 


n :n :n \ 

sunk in the 

d :n :n I 

dashed in the / 


spo - ken, And 


horse - men are 

sei :se, :1| .ti 


glo - ry, And 


thou - sands are 


1. :- : 


PI s ; ,n 


:s 


n' :n' :r 


d 1 


:t :1 


wave. 

1, :- : 


Sound the loud 

den :- .d :m 


tim - brel o'er 

s :s :f 


E 

n 


:r :f 


tide. 












, s :- :s s 1 :-.n':d' 


s :d' :d ! d 1 :- .r 1 :t 


d 1 :- : .I 


) sea; Je - ho - vahhath 

[ n : :s n :- .d :n 


tri - umph'd his peo - pie are 

s :n :d n :- .f :r 


free. 



TRUE LOVE. 



Ex. 254. KEY G. 



s, : |d :n 

l.True love can 

n\ '. |l*1| IS| 
2.True love can 



A. L. C. 



n .r : 


Id : 


r * 


|1 : 


s : 


Hi 


never 

si.fi: 


die, 

in, : 


True 

f, :- 


love, 

If, : 


true 

PI, : 


love 
Ifl 


never 


die, 


True 


love, 


true 


love 



s.d.f. B 



n .s : 


if.r 


: 


d 


:- i : dj^ 


d :- .d |d 


:r 


never, 

S| .n, : 


nev-er 
- Hi -f| 


; 


die, 

HI 


Al- 

| 1 I 


though its first 
Pll ', iHi 1 1| 


bright 


never, 


nev-er 




die, 


Life's 


spring may pass 


a 


n : 

gleam 
d : 

way, 


1 

1 


:n 

May 

:d 

Soon 


S 

fly 
t, 

fade 


:- .f [I, :t, 

like child - hood's 

If, r* 
i |fi :fi 

its sum - mer 


d :- l 

dream, 
PI, I 
day, 


P. t. 


Yet 

: fe !t, 
But 


St. Co 


. fNew.J 









128 



SIXTH STKP. 



cres. 

r pi :r .PI |s if .n 


1 : : 

fire, 

f : : 

gloom, 


G. t.m. 

TiU 
rd 
True 


cres. 

r .n |s :f .n j 


burns its se - cret 

d :t, .d [I, .ti :ti .d 


life it - self ex -( 

ti .d |1, .t, :t, .d ( 


bright 'mid win - try 


love will ev - er ' 


1 : | :s .,fe 


cres. 

s : IPI :1 .,t 


d 1 : 


is : 


pire : Ev - er 

f : | :n .,re 


glow - ing, Ev - er 

n : |d :f .,f 


grow 

n : 


ing, 

in : I 


bloom, Still un- 


dy ing, Timede- 


fy - 


- ing, 


P 

i n : | :r d : |- 

? TiU we die, 

/ d : is, :f, n, : |- 


PP 

: si : (I, 


we 


d 

die. 
PI, 


: I : 
1 ' 

A. L. C. 
S . :n .,re 


TiU 

: f. :- 


If. 


COME, FAYS AND FAIRIES. 
Ex. 255. KEY D. 

d 1 . :s .,fe s : n : : 


Come, fays and 

n . :n ,,re 


fair 

n : 





d :n ,,n 


n 


: 




Come, fays and 
n . :s .,fe 


Come, 

d . : 


: 




Come a - 

:d ..d 


way, 

d 


: 




Come, 

d . : 


n' : 


d 1 : 




:? 


V .d 1 :n' .,r' 


d 1 .t :l,t.d' 


fair 

s : 


ies, 

n :n 


-,n 


Yes, 
n :f 


Come,a - way 
n .n :s 


jr 


fays and fair -ies 

n .r :f .n 


' : 


Come a - 

:d .,d 


way, Yes, 

d :t| 


d . 


:d 




d . :d . ! 










Come, come, 


come, come, 


8 .8 :s.fc.s.l 


8 .f :r . 

shin - ing bright, 

n .r :t t . 

8| . *8| . 


s .d 1 :n' ..r 1 

Now for - sake the 

n .n :s .,f 
d :d . 


d 1 .t :l,t.d' 


r .r 1 :r',d'.t,d 


While the moon is 

n .n :n,re.n,f 


wood's deep sha-dows, 

n .r :f .n 
d . :d . 


Come and dance in her 

t .t :t ,1.8,1 


d . :d . 


s . :B . 


Come, come, 


come, come, 


Come, come, 


come, 


come, Come, come, 


St. Co. fXew.) 









SIXTH STEP. 



129 



t .1 :s .s 

sil - ver light,yes 

s .fe :s .f 


s .d 1 :n' .,r' 

, Cornea - way, ye 

n .n :s .,f 


d 1 .t :1, 


t.d 1 s .s :s,fe.s,l 


s .f :r . 

shin-ing bright, 

n .r :t| . 


fays and fair -ies, "While the moon is 

n .r :f .n n .n :n,re.n,f 


r .r :s .t. 


d . 


:d . 


d . :d 


d . :d . 




i 


. :BI . ' 


come a - way,yes 


Come, come, 


come, come, Come, come, 


come, come. 


















FINE. 


S 


d' :n' 


r' 


d 1 


.t :i 


_,t .d' i 


' .t :s .1 ,t n 


.r 1 :d' 


Now for - sake 

n .n :s 
d . :d 


the 
,f 


woods' deep s 

n .r :f 
d . :d 


tia - dows, < 
.PI 1 

1 


Dome and dance in her sil 


- ver light. 


;\ . :t si 


.8, :d 


Come, 


come, 




come, come, 1 


Dome, come, 


come a - way. ; 


d.f. C. 


L 

'W .d 


Id 1 ,! 1 . 


n 1 


r' .t 


:" 


P 

r' .d',d':t . 


L 


S 


.f :n .v 


Come 
.maf 


, trip it 

n .n 


merri-ly 

:n ,f .s 


ho, ho, ho, 

s .s :s 


List to the li - ly 

ri .d',d':t .1 


bell's sweet sound,! 

s .f :n ,| 


.d r 


d d 


:d,d. 


d 


t, .r 


:s 


r 1 .d',di:t .1 


L 


s 


.f :n . 


Come 


, trip it 


merri-ly 


ho, ho, ho, 


List to the li - ly 


bell's sweet sound,/ 


.14.' 


d> .d 1 :d .r'.pi 





1 .t 


> j 

:s 



r' .t :s .1 ,t 


n 1 .r' :d' 


Come, 
.f 

.r 


trip it merri-ly, h 

n .n :n ,f .s s 
d .d :d,d-d t 


o, ho, 
.8 

.r 


ho, 

:s 


Lightly trip it 


round and round. 


t| . it . 


t, .t, :d 


Come, 


trip it merri-ly, h 


o, ho, 


ho, 


Trip it 


round and round. 


A. t.m.l. 
PP 


S| . 


P 

:*dr ,r 

Wea-ry 

: si . 


n :n 


n :- ,re t n 


S 


:- r .f 


mor - tals now 


are 


sleep 
t| . :tj . 


La 
de n . 


la, 


la, 
HI 


' 


la, 
HI . 


la, la, 
d, :d, 


la, la, 


la, la, 
S| . :s, . 


n 


.ll -,ti d 

Sil -ver si 


:d 

ars the 


d 


:- ,t,4 n 


:- ,-,r d :s .,fe 


s : 

fair 


watch 


are keep - ing, Fays and 


d . 


:1, . s 





S| . 


Si . 


:S| . 86 


:sei. 1| . :n .,re 


PI : 


la, 
d, . 


La, la 

:f, . n 


i, la, 
. JPli 


la, 

n, . 


la, la, 

: pii . pi| 


la, la, 

. :PII . 1, . : 




Come, come, 

d . :d . 


St. 


Co. (New.) 

















130 SIXTH STEP. 


n :n .,re 


n : 


d : 


r .t,4:r . 


: , 


ies, Fays and 

d : 


fair - ' - 

d . :d . 


ies, 

d . :d . 


Come from the glen, 

t, . :t, . 


t, . :t, , | 


d . :s, .,fe 

> come, Fays and 


Come, come, 
8, :- 

fair - 


come, come 
HI . rd; . 
ies, come, 


Come, come, 
S| . !S| . 


come. come, 
Si . :s, . 


n .d,r:n . 


:s .,fe 


s : 


n :n ,,re n : 


Come from the hill, 

d . :d . 


Fays and 

d . :n .,re 


fair 

n : 


ies, Fays and 

d : 


fair 

d . :d . 


Come, come, 
d| . ;di . 


come, 

d, . : 


d . :d . 


d . :si .,fei 


Come, come, 

s, :- 






Come, come, 


come, Fays and fair 


d : 


r .ti,d:r .ti 




f 

n .d,r:n 


D. D.S. 


ies. 

d . :d . 


Come from the foun -tain, 


t, . :t, . 


Come from the rill, 

d . :d . 


yes. 
ta, : 


come, come, 

PI, . :di . 


Come, come, 

S| . IP . 


come, come, 

Si . :s . 


Come come, 
d| . ' di . 


yes. 

m it, : 


{ ies, come, 











More Distant Removes are much used in modern 
music. Thev can be studied on the extended 
modulator. See also my "Construction Exercises," 
p. 154, and "The Staff Notation." 

Effect of Speed and Force. We all know that 
when we are excited our pulse moves quickly, and 
that when we are calm and meditative our pulse 
moves more gently and slowly. This is the general 
principle which must govern our speed of move- 
ment in singing. It should be regulated by the 
character of the emotion we are expressing. We 
may also notice, that the same state of our feelings, 
which naturally suggests that we should speak 
quickly, generally leads us, at the same time, to speak 
aloud. And the same emotions which lead us to 
speak slowly, commonly also suggest that we should 
speak softly. Hence the connection between speed 
and force. In this study, however, the following 
caution from Dr. Lowell Mason should be kept in 
mind. He says, " The very same words may be 
sung by different persons, or even by the same per- 
son at different seasons, in different moods of mind, 

St. Co. (New.) 



and so with a pervading difference of expression. 
The hymn commencing, "When I can read my 
title clear," would be sung by one man (looking at 
his Christian hopes through the tears of penitence and 
sorrow) with a subdued trembling confidence, and 
by another man (who has long taken Jesus ' for ' the 
Christ,' in whom his soul trusts) with the free full 
triumph of gratitude and faith. The Israelites, 
before they crossed the Red Sea, might have sung 
such a hymn as that which begins 



h' almighty power of God, 
That made the mountains rise ; 
That spread the flowing seas abroad, 
And built the lofty skies. 

But they would have sung it, in a very different 
strain after they had crossed the Red Sea ! It 
might be said, that, in both these cases, th&gocond 
way of singing is the right way. But allow- 
ances must, nevertheless, be made for this difference 
in the general style and manner of delivery." 
The principles here laid down are necessarily 
incomplete ; but they will serva the purpose 
of setting the pupil to think. Each case given 



SIXTH STKP. 



131 



below, should be brought before the class, and sub- 
mitted to the judgment of the> pupils. They 
should then be requested to find other cases illus- 
trative of the same principles, or cases developing 
any new principle. Let the pupil remember that 
this exercise of independent thought and feeling is 
the only exercise, in connexion with this subject, of 
any real value to him. The mere learning of rules 
for expression, without apprehending and testing 
their meaning, and without trying to apply them 
for yourself, or to invent others if need be, would 
be just the putting on of so many weights and 
shackles to hinder all free movement. * 

Loud and Quick. These principles will naturally 
suggest to us that passages of music expressing 
joyful praise, gladness of heart, and other excited 
emotions, should be delivered with force, and with 
quick and sometimes accelerated speed. Besides 
this, among the many passages where music 
seems to act the wards, there are some in which this 
dramatic delivery naturally assumes the same qual- 
ities of loudness and quickness. 

Joyful praise. Illustrations of this will be found 
in " Jacksons," p. 2, v. 4, last line, "Swiftly" p. 32 
"Nature's," &c., and St. Co. Ex. 111. 

Gladness. See Sunshine, p. 45, last two lines of 
verses 1, 2, " Spring life," p. 3, where full voiced 
gladness bursts out on the words " Hurrah," " grow 
away," &c., see also St. Co. Ex. 174, at the open- 
ing and at the close before " FINE." 

Excited emotion. By this we mean other exciting 
emotions besides those of praise and gladness ; and 
any of these emotions when suddenly aroused. See 
the feeling of patriotism in p. 13, first 8 measures 
and last 8 measures, see exulting confidence in 
" Rise my soul," p. 33, v. 1, see a change to excited 
confidence in " Nearer my God," p. 34, v. 2, lines 
1 to 5, in " Hope will," p. 12, close of each verse, 
in " Hear me," p. 18, third score, where the words 
are those of prayer but the feeling is that of exult- 
ing confidence, and in "Saviour breathe," p. 91, 
third score, where even the depressing sentiment of 
confession is naturally overlooked in the rising 
urgency of passionate entreaty. See cases in 
which the excited emotion suggests also, acceller- 
ated speed, in "We fly," p. 20, through the whole, 
and in " Awake," p. 62, end of second score, con- 
trasted with the slow and sustained music which 
precedes it. 

Dramatic effects. Cases in which our mental asso- 
ciations naturally suggest loudness and quick-no-^ 
St. Co. (New). * This subject is more fully treated 



in the " picturing out " or acting of a musical 
passage may be found in " Quail," p. 14, score 2, 
" Ruthless the winter comes on," " Awake," p. 64, 
score 4, see also St. Co. Ex. 175, accompaniment 
in Tenor and Bass " rushing along." 

The student should here be cautioned against an 
unnatural straining after expression, against giving 
such expression to a single word, or to a single 
line of the poetry, as will distract the attention 
from the general sentiment the pervading and pre- 
dominating feeling of the piece. 

The author of " Our Church Music " cites two 
striking illustrations of this. " The following 
stanza," he says : 

Sinners rejoice, and saints be glad, 
Hosanna, let his name be blest ; 

A thousand blessings on his head 
With peace, and joy, and glory rest : 

"is evidently throughout a jubilant one; and the 
individual word peace does not change its charac- 
ter. I once heard a leader, with a powerful voice, 
singing this hymn. Catching at such words as 
' rejoice] l be glad,' &c., he bounded on exultingly. 
But suddenly his eye fell upon the word ' peace.' 
This ' gave him pause. ' He was startled. But, with 
ready presence of mind, he checked his musical 
career, and sinking his voice to a whispering 
pianissimo, faintly articulated the word peace. This 
accomplished, however, he rallied manfully for 
the remainder of the line, to depict the ' JOY ' and 
' GLORY ' of it." The following stanza : 

See, the storm of vengeance gathering, 

O'er the path you dare to tread, 
Hark ! the awful thunder rolling 

Loud and louder o'er your head : 

our author heard sung with an AWFUL crescendo on 
the third line, and a great thundering of the organ- 
pipes. But the true feeling of the verse is that of 
subdued solemnity. The attitude both of speaker 
and hearer is that of quiet listening. " Would not 
an effective reader," he says, " sink his voice to a 
whispor, and turn the listener's ear inward, to the 
thunder of his own conscience, rather than stun it 
by material noise P " 

Let the student always ask himself " What 
should be my own state of mind (excited, or quiet, 
&c.), while uttering this sentiment?" Let him 
determine first to feel the sentiment quietly and 
fully, next to speak it feelingly, and then to sing it 
so as to make others feel. If he does this he will 
never be found labouring to bring out expression 
in "Musical Theory," Book IV. 




132 



SIXTH STEP. 



Ex. 256259 



from unimportant words, and forgetting the main 
sentiment which he is uttering. 

Loud and Slow. Passages which express some 
grand idea on which the mind delights to dwell 
should be sung loudly, and not only without quick- 
ened movement ; hut often in a delayed and 
sustained manner. 

Grand Ideas. See examples in " God speed," p. 1 
"Spring Life," p. 4, " praise and pray," where, in 
the same place, the other verses would he sung loud 
and quick, and in "Quail," ' p. 15, end of third verse, 
where after trembling and fear, there comes a sol- 
emn confident utterance of thoughtful faith on the 
words "God for his creatures will care," "How 
lovely," p. 61, first score "throughout" to "tid- 
ings," expressing the universal triumph of the 
gospel. Musically considered, this forte, rallen- 
tando prepares the way, by contrast, for the light 
piano which follows, in " Sunshine," p. 45, where 
the singer is contemplating with strong satisfaction 
the blessings he has realised, and where, in the same 
place the previous verses would be sung loud and 
quick. See also St. Co. Ex. 139, last line v. 3 & 4. 

Ex. 256. "What musical expression is suitable 
to the words in " Morning prayer," p. 80, " I feel 
my being new created?" in "May time," p. 5, 
opening of v. 1 and 3 ? 

Ex. 257. What expression would you give to 
" Quail," p. 15, " God be thanked," and " Look she 
goes?" to "Home," p. 76, "tell me heaven ?" 
and to "Saviour," p. 92, "for we are safe if thou.' 

Ex. 258. What expression would you give to 
"The stout limbed," p. 77, last score and p. 78, 
third score ? and to "How lovely," p. 58, last score. 
Give your reasons in both cases. 

Ex. 259. What general musical expression 
would you give to the words in St. Co. Ex. 134, 
and what special expression to Ex. 113, scores 1, 2, 
3, 6, 7 ? in Ex. 175, on the words " The sea," 
"The deep blue sea for me?" what expression 
would you give to St. Co. Ex. 143, "Great is the 
Lord," " He makes his promise good." 

Soft and Slow. The principles stated at the 
commenaement of this subject naturally suggest, 
that words which express Worship, Sadness, or 
other Subdued Emotions as well as those which 
place the mind in the attitude of Meditation, Des- 
cription, or Repose, should be sung more softly and 
often more slowly than other passages. There are 

St. Co. (New.) 



also several Dramatic Effects which can be well 
expressed by soft and slow singing. 

fPorship. See examples in " Hear me," p. 17, at 
the opening, where the second score, being a repe- 
tition section and expressive of rising urgency is 
naturally sung louder than the first ; but still piano, 
" Lord in this," p. 33, v. 2, where the worshipful 
feeling is deeper and humbler than in v. 1, and 
should be suflg more softly and slowly. This 
expression prepares for rising urgency of prayer in 
v. 3. See also St. Co. Ex. 135, v. 1. 

Sadness. See illustrations in " Shepherds 
lament," p. 89, score 4, where the closed door, pro- 
duces a sadness, which sobs in the words " and all, 
all," and deepens into utter desolation, delaying 
the utterance of the words "me, a dream to me," 
and in St. Co. Ex. 188, v. 2, second and third scores, 
Ex. 190, v. 2, last two lines. 

Subdued Emotion. See examples in "Jackson's" 
p. 2, v. 2, first and last lines, add v. 4, second line. 
Note that in this piece, the last line of the last 
verse would be sung with a contrasting expression, 
" Quail call," p. 14, " Ah ! but " to " defend," also 
the same, "cold" to "cries," and the subdued 
feeling of the listener, v. 1 and 4 of the same, 
" Come freedom's," p. 13, v. 2, lines 1, 2, " Fortune 
hunter," v. 5, last two lines, " Hope will," p. 12, v. 
1, line 1, and v. 2, line 1. See also St. Co. Ex. 139, 
v. 3, first line. 

Meditation, Description, or Repose. See examples 
in " If I had," p. 45, last score " But thoughts " to 
" here,' ' " How lovely," p. 58, duet, " Swiftly," p. 
31, "sweet," &c., "My lady," p. 21, where soft 
respectful " description " mingles with " excited 
emotion," which, see above, requires a different 
treatment, " Spring life," p. 3, "Hear me," p. 18, 
" I will," where the singer anticipates the sense of 
repose. See also St. Co. Ex. 119," oh, sweet content" 
" oh, punishment," Ex. 193, where, the whole is 
descriptive and subdued ; but where, in the second 
and third verses, the second half is made softer and 
slower still by the " subdued emotion." 

Dramatic Effect. See illustrations in " Night 
around," p. 22. The accompaniment imitates the 
effect of a night breeze, "The woods," p. 73, last 
score "and vanish," &c., when the diminuendo, 
pianissimo pictures the passing away of a dream, 
" Ye spotted," p. 83, fourth score, " Beetles black," 
where the low voiced horror of the fairies, when 
thinking of the "beetles," is contrasted with their 
loud defiance of the spiders. 






Ex. 2601 



SIXTH STEP. 



133 



Soft and Quick. On the same principles it is easy 
to see that passages expressing Gaity or the feeling 
of Cunning and Inuendo are naturally delivered 
in a soft, light, and quick manner. 

Gaiety. See examples in " Come let," p. 24, 
"trip it to and fro," "Fortune hunter," p. 5, 
"Gipsies' tent," p. 35, and" O the joy," " The 
woods," p. 71, where the light gaiety of the music is 
moderated by the descriptive character of the vords. 
See also St. Co. Ex. 78, "Tra, la, la," Ex. 174 
where the gaiety of the first half of the music is 
contrasted with the holdness of its opening and 
close, and with the more legato descriptive passage 
which follows. 

Playful Cunning. See examples in "Fortune 
hunter," p. 4, v. 8, " Without asking my lady," and 
v. 10, last line where the fun would he increased by 
a pause after "not," " Quail," p. 14, v. 3, "here I 
lie." See St. Co. Ex. 145 on the last words " my 
love loves me," as though playing with a pleasant 
secret, Ex. 120, where after the importunate " Tell 
me," another set of voices seems to reply "Oh! 
no," and p. 42, from "all among" to "dwell," 
where the pretty little secret is let out. 

Dramatic Effect. See examples in "Swiftly," p. 
29, where first the quick fleeting shadows and after- 
wards the quickly glinting sunbeams are imitated, 
See St. Co. Ex. 102, where the rise and fall of 
laughter is not only imitated but enacted. 

Ex. 26O. What expression would you give to 
"O Saviour," p. 86, 6 measures beginning "Save 
us ?" " Father my," p. 34, v. 1, lines 5, 6 ? "Lord 
in this," p. 33, v. 4, line 2 ? " Saviour," p. 92, 
" Though " to " fly ? " " Loud the storm wind," p. 
95, "soft comes?" 

Ex. 261. What expression should be given to 
St. Co. Ex. 97, v. 1, line 1, v. 3, lines 1 and 2 ? to 
Ex. 194, v. 1, "In silence" to end, and in what 
different manner should the mingled emotions of 

{"oy, and sustained, intensified agony, in " Jerusa- 
em," &c., be expressed? Ex. 137> first line of each 
verse ? Ex. 139, v. 3, " and quiet lie ? " 

Loud to Soft. Passages which suggest " Excited 
emotion " at their opening, gradually changing to 
" Subdued emotion," will naturally be sung dimin- 
uendo. See "Spring," p. 51, "Cloe" to "gone," 
"Going home," p. 2, v. 2, last line, "Morning 
prayer," p. 79, where the ma in the contralto twice 
hushes the outburst of greeting at the solemn sense 
of the Divine presence, and where,on the repetition, 
the feeling, still more deepened, may be expressed 

St. Co. (New.} 



\>j & pianissimo, rallentando finish to the diminuendo. 
The words of the second verse do not require such 
refined expression : but those of the third verse in 
the same place, demand all the feeling which con- 
ductor and singers can throw into them. See also 
St. Co. Ex. 79, score 4, v. 1. 

Single tones may take the same shape, but in that 
brief and condensed form, which we call the explo- 
sive tone, when the singer wishes to express vig- 
our and energy in a somewhat spasmodic manner. 
Let the pupils sing the scale upward and down- 
ward with a feeling of resolute determination, to 
the words, "No! I will not! No! I will not!" 
See also illustrations in the fairies saying " Hence, 
hence," to the spiders, p. 83, "Where the gay," 
p. 65, score 4, the energetic climax of a remarkable 
crescendo passage, "Hear me," p. 18, first and 
fourth scores, "The Shepherd's," p. 88 in which 
a number of explosive tones must be excused on 
account of the state of passionate excitement which 
the singer has to impersonate, "Harvest Home,'' 
p. 39. 

Soft to Loud. Passages which suggest "Sub- 
dued emotion" at their opening, gradually chang- 
ing to "Excited emotion," will naturally be sung 
crescendo. See "At first," p. 54, first score, where 
the gathering force of a mountain stream is repre- 
sented by crescendo and accelerando ; and the same 
thing, p. 55, score 4, "Loud the storm wind," pp. 
94 and 95, "loud," &c., where the subdued feeling 
of description gradually changes into dramatic 
excitement. See also St. Co. Ex. 139, v. 2, "And 
in," to "to be," Ex. 175, " Beautiful " to "free," 
where contemplation rises into ecstasy. 

Single tones may take the same shape but in that 
brief and condensed form which we call pressure 
tone, when the singer wishes to express the breath- 
ings of desire, entreaty, or any deepening emotion. 
Let the pupil sing the scale slowly upward and 
downward to the words " Oh ! do, pray do ! Oh ! do, 
pray do! " See "Jackson," p. 3, on the words, v. 
2, last line, " Father," p. 34, v. 1, where a pres- 
sure tone on each syllable of " From human agony," 
would well express the deepening emotion, " Hear 
me," p. 17, score 2, " 0," ditto p. 18, second score, 
"prayer," "0 Saviour," p. 86, score 2, "Save,* 
" Help." It should here be noticed, however, that 
the same emotion is sometimes expressed violently 
and passionately by the explosive tone which 
in other moods would require the desireful pressure 
tone; see ''Saviour," p. 87, "Save," "Help," and 



134 



SIXTH 81' KP. 



Ex. 262271 



"Homo," p. 76, score 1, "shall." See also St. Co. 
Ex. 189, Ex. 194, each syllable of "the anguish 
of our soul." 

Ex. 262. Mark for expression the following 
stanza, first on the supposition that the poet wishes 
the mind strongly impressed with the contrast in 
the picture, for the sake (for example) of some lesson 
he means to draw from it, and, secondly, suppos- 
ing the sentiment to mean nothing more than a 
descriptive meditation : 

In winter, from the mountain, 
The stream, like a torrent, flows , 

In summer, the same fountain 
la calm as a child's repose. 

Ex. 263. Mark the following from Gersbach's 
"Little Singing Bird," translated by Mr. James 
Stally brass: 

On airy wings 

The skylark springs 
Toyonder cloud on high ; 

His thanks to God 

He flings abroad. 
And fills the wide blue sky. 

O songster rare. 

You swing up there 
Creation's morning bell ! 

My songs I'll blend 

"With yours, and send 
Them up to heaven as well. 

Ex. 264. Ditto, ditto. 

Oh ! never fear 

Old Winter's cheer, 
Though rude and sharp his greeting ; 

His coat is rough 

His voice is gruff. 
But warm his heart is beating. 

He wears no smile 

And for a while 
He'D seem to hide our treasures ; 

Hut in the end 

He'll prove a friend 
And bring us back Spring pleasures." 

Ex. 265. Ditto, ditto. 

When Spring unlocks the frozen ground 
And scatters all its treasures round, 
How sharp and active then is found, 
Old Master Spade the Gardener ! 

When 'mong the crops feeds hungry Bun, 
Oh ! who will rise before the tun 
To scare the rogue and make him run T 
Old Master Spade the Gardener ! 

Suppose the last line in each stanza repeated, what 
would be your feeling in the repetition, and how 
would you mark it ? 

St. Co. (New.) 



Ex. 266. Ditto, ditto. 

Oh ! there's not a sweeter pli-asuiv 

Than to know a faithful heart. 
Ye that own so rich a treasure 

Never, never with it part ! 
Blest are we, in joy and woe, 
If but one true heart we know. 

Ex. 267. Ditto, ditto. 

Your cage is nice and ready ; 
Though green boughs, pretty bird, 
Are now your home delightful 
And rightful, 
Yet spiteful 

Is Winter, and he'll pinch hard. 
The eage has long been ready : 
What says the pretty bird ! 
I'm still to freedom clinging 
And swinging 
And winging 

My flight o'er the bright green sward ! 
Ex. 268. Mark this from "Favourite Welsh 
Hymns," by Joseph Morris : 
Far on the ocean, one cold starless night 
A small bark was sailing in pitiful plight ; 
The boom of the billows, as on rushed the storm, 
O'ercame the stout hearts of the men with alarm. 
But one in that lone boat was fearless the while, 
The captain's bright boy, looking round with a smile ; 
" The storm," he said, " threatens, but still do not fear, 
We safely shall land, for my father doth steer." 

Ex. 269. Mark this, by the Rev. W. B. R. : 
Never forget the dear ones, 

What songs, like theirs, so sweet ! 
What brilliant dance of .strangers 

Like their small twinkling feet ? 
Thy sun-lights on life's waters, 

Thy rainbows on its foam ; 
Never forget the dear ones 

Within thy house at home. 

Ex. 270. Mark this, from Barry Cornwall : 

Oh ! the summer night 

Has a smile of light. 
And she sits on a sapphire throne ; 

Whilst the sweet winds load her 

With garlands of odour, 
From the bud to the rose o'erblown. 

But the winter night 

Is all cold and white, 
And she singeth a song of pain ; 

Till the wild bee hummeth 

And warm spring cometh, 
Then she dies in a dream of rain. 

Ex. 271. How would you treat the last verse 
of " Oh ! where and oh ! where is your Highland 
laddie gone ? " We once heard it sung all in one 
piano. Should question and answer be given alike f 

Suppose, and suppose that your Highland lad should die '. 

The bagpipies should play o'er, him and I'd lay me down 
and cry; 

And 'tis oh ! in my heart I wish he may not die. 



SIXTH STEP. 



135 



Will you take the first line as a simple thought- 
less remark of the questioner, as a solemn fear 
seriously entertained, or as a heartless mocking sug- 
gestion ? Is the opening of the second line the sad 
musing of sorrow as it pictures the parting scene ? 
Or is it the earnest voice of a momentary triumphant 
feeling, claiming, even in death, some honour for 
the Highland lad ? Does the last line imply hope, 
or a troubled heart near despair ? Mark the verse 
according to all these various readings. 

Finally, on this subject of expression, let pupils 
be always reminded, that, in the preceding exercises, 
we have only introduced them to certain gen- 
eral principles and instruments of ART. But, to use 
the memorable words of M. Fetis, " ART WITHOUT 
LOVE is POWERLESS. To persuade we must BELIEVE 
in what we say. To MOVE WE MUST OURSELVES BE 
MOVED." If you want to see how this principle is 
forgotten, and how little the highest art can do 
without TRUTH and LOVE, go listen to the well-paid 
chorus in some first-rate opera-house of England 
or France, or to the unbelieving choir and organist 
in some of our greatest churches. 

Phrasing of Words. From the commencement 
of the course, as at pp. 9, 16, and 30, the attention 
of the student has been directed to the proper 
division of the melody into portions, marked by 
breathing places. At pp. 69, 70, instructions and 
exercises have been given in the art of quickly detect- 
ing the natural divisions of musical sections and 
phrases, and at p. 98, the principles of " Melodic 
Phrasing" are still further developed. But to the 
singer a yet more important art is that of dividing 
the words so as to give the sense most clearly and of 
making the hearer receive that sense as the singer 
feels it. When singers take breath in the middle of 
a word, or between words which so belong to one 
another as properly to make up a compound word, 
they commit an outrage on the poetry they sing. 
" Who would do so ? " exclaims the irritable reader. 
" Let him listen attentively," says Mr. Wordsworth, 
" to the next ten singers and out of the number, 
nine shall be caught in what appears an impossible 
fault. Intelligent people have sung words thus 
punctuated, 

I saw the vir, tuous man contend 
With, life's unnumbered, woes. 
And, he was poor with, out a friend. 
Pressed, by a thousand foes." 

The singer should form the habit of looking on 
words not singly but in groups joined together 

St, Co. (New.) 



naturally by the sense. In other languages than 
our own the little words are absorbed into the 
larger ones. Thus, in Latin or in Hebrew nearly 
all the "groups" marked in the verse below could 
be expressed by single words. Without studying 
deeply the details of grammatical analysis,the musical 
student will easily see, by his common sense, what 
words belong to one another. Let not such words be 
separated. When the smaller grou ps the compound 
words are readily distinguished, the student will 
begin to form these again into larger groups. Thus 
each line of the following verse may be divided into 
two larger groups as well as into three or four 
smaller ones. The stronger the retaining power 
of the lungs the larger the phrase they can easily 
deliver in one breath. 

With all my powers of heart and tongue 
I'll praise my Maker \rith my song 
Angels shall hear the notes I raise 
Approve the song and join the praise. 

Mr. G. F. Root proposes that a verse, like the 
following, should be sung by the class to some 
familiar tune : 

While shepherds watched their flocks by night, 

All seated on the ground, 
The angel of the Lord came down, 
And glory shone around. 

Let the pupils be first required to take breath in 
the middle of the words "shepherds," "seated," 
" angel," and " glory." " All would feel," he says, 
"that taking breath between the syllables of a 
word is wrong, and thus one rule would be deduced. 
Next, the pupils might be asked to take breath 
after the words ' their,' and ' by ' in the first line, 
and after ' the ' in the second, &c. It would then 
be seen that the breath must not be taken after 
words that are in close connexion with other words. 
Finally, the pupils should sing the verse, taking 
breath where the stops occur, and after emphatic 
words. That will be found agreeable and expressive, 
and thus the rule for correct breathing would be 
established." 

The musical and poetical phrases, in ordinary 
cases, coincide with each other. But where thai 
is not the case, the words must rule. In the follow- 
ing illustration, from W. A. Wordsworth's " Trea- 
tise on Singing," the musical phrasing would 
suggest, as breathing places,, those where the cross 
is placed. But such a phrasing would, in two 
places, be false to the sense. The other marking l 



136 



SIXTH STEP. 



Ex. 2723 



therefore necessary. Sing the passage in both 
ways. 

KEY A. t x x 



it 



:-.t, 



not that 



meads are green, It 



t 
:- .r |n 

not that 



its 



r 

hills 



:f .n |r : 

are fair. 



In a chorus it is a point of special importance 
that all should be agreed as to the principal places of 
taking breath. It produces a delightful effect of 
unity and clear expression thus to make the " phras- 
ing" unanimous. 

Ex. 272. Divide the words of Ex. 191, 144, 
140, into smaller groups and mark them after the 
manner of the verse above. "With all," &c. 

Ex. 273. Divide into larger groups, and mark 
in the same way, the words of " Hope will," p. 12, 
"Come freedom's," p. 13, "Lord in this," p. 33, 
" Father my spirit," p. 34. 

Vowels. The importance of vowel sounds to the 
singer has been shown, and the consonants have al- 
ready been studied, pp. 69, 60. Whenever a class 
grows careless in the utterance of consonants.the "ar- 
ticulation exercises" Nos. 146 to 152 will have to be 
revived. This study of the consonants is sufficient 
to render intelligible the rapid recitations of a 
chant, or the quick speech of a comic song, but not 
to produce any lengthened tones with clearness and 
beauty. It is to the vowels that we owe the chief 
charm of speech in song. Unfortunately also it is 
the vowels in which the dialects of the different 
parts of the country principally differ. The local 
teacher may not always think it advisable to fight 
against an accepted and well confirmed local habit 
of speech. But he should at least know what the 
received sounds are, and how to produce them. 
Again, those vowels which are commonly short in 
speech have often to be sung to a long note, but few 
speakers have been accustomed to notice the exact 
formation of these vowels, or to sustain them, except 
for a passing moment. Now these vowels in Eng- 
lish are rarely shortened utterances of the corres- 
ponding well known long vowels. They generally 
require some parts of the vocal organs to be differ- 

St. Co. (New.) 



ently arranged. Hence the power of sustaining 
them has to be learnt as a new art. So difficult 
are they that Kollmann and some other writers on 
musical pronunciation, misled by the word short, 
and not noticing that these vowels really differ from 
others in quality, take for granted that " the short 
vowel, cannot be prolonged." But to hear the 
quality of a vowel altered in singing, as for example 
steal, sate, cart, fool, substituted for still, set, cat, 
full, produces a most disagreable, often painful 
effect even on the uncultivated hearer, whereas a 
pure vowel is a pure delight. The following 
explanations will help to make the subject clear to 
the pupil's mind. 

Mechanism of the Vowels. Vowels are produced 
by giving certain fixed forms to the cavities 
between the larynx and the lips. Those cavities 
act as a "resonator" to the tones produced in the 
larynx, just as the body of the violin acts as a reson- 
ator to the tones generated by its strings. By their 
varying shapes they modify the quality, and tend 
also to modify the pitch, of the vowelb. Not only 
are some vowels of a much pleasanter quality than 
others, but some vowels are more easily and clearly 
produced at a low or a high pitch than others. As 
any fixed shape of the vocal cavities will produce a 
new vowel, the number of possible vowels is practi- 
cally infinite, and the number acknowledged in var- 
ious languages and dialects, without reckoning 
individual peculiarities, is very great. We shall of 
course confine our attention to the principal Eng- 
lish vowels, indicating their commonest dialectic 
varieties. 

The following diagram is a kind of vowel modu- 
lator, the vowels being for convenience expressed 
in glossic letters. The arrangement is according to 
natural pitch. If the vowels oo, on, an, an, ai, ee, 
are pronounced in a whisper, without any effort to 
give them any particular musical character, and run 
up quickly, the rise in pitch will be as perceptible, 
and much of the same character, as the rise in pitch 
produced by pouring water from a height into a 
jug till it is full. The exact relation of vowel 
quality to absolute pitch is still under investigation, 
but it is believed that when the change of register 
does not interfere, the character of the whispered 
vowel system is generally maintained, ee being best 
adapted to the higher, and oo to the lower pitches, 
and so on. 



SIXTH STEP. 



137 



SCALE OF ENGLISH VOWELS/ 



OE.NEUALLY LONG. 

/ EE, in beet. 



GENERALLY SIIOHT. 



AI, in ba<t. 



AA, in baa, bazaar. 
AU, in Pawl. 



OA, as o in pole. 
00, in pool. 



I, in bt't. 

E, in bet. 
A, in bat. 
U, in bwt. 



O in pol. 



UO, as u in pwll. 



In speaking of the vowels it will be most con- 
venient not to call them by their sounds, but by the 
usual alphabetic or spelling names of the letters 
composing their glossic form : ce will be " double- 
e," i will be "eye," ai will be "a-eye," and so on. 
The teacher will thus be able to call for a sound 
without first pronouncing it. 

The open Italian aa forms the centre of this vowel 
scale. Proceeding upwards from aa the middle 
of the tongue is raised for each higher vowel. The 
lips are open throughout this series. Below aa the 
lips are gradually more and more rounded, being 
closest for oo or uo. At oo or uo the back of the 
tongue is highest, and the tongue is altogether low- 
est at au or o. The tongue is in precisely the same 
position for oa and aa, but for aa the lips are not 
rounded, and the larynx is lower. 

Just as in studying tune we took the boldest tones 
of the modulator first, so in studying the vowels we 
commence with those most readily produced by the 
singer or most familiar as separate sounds to the 
speaker. The vowels will therefore be studied in 
five groups in the following order, first aa ; second 
an, oa, oo ; third ai, ee ', fourth u, a, c, i ; fifth uo, o. 
Here the first group stands alone ; the second are all 
t poken with rounded lips ; the third are the less 

. ,, jj, . For pictorial diagrams, see Teacher's Manual, p. log. 



sonorous long vowels ; the fourth are all short vowels 
with open lips ; and the fifth arc peculiar vowels 
with rounded lip. 

FIRST GROUP; AA. 

aa in baa, papa, father, harp,calf , ass,chance,aunt , 
laugh, guard, heart. This sound is formed with th. ; 
lips well open, and the teeth considerably separated. 
The tongue is depressed, lying almost flat, and quit(' 
free in the lower jaw. Pouting the lips, or clos- 
ing the corners, so as partly to cover the teeth. 
much injures this, and all the upper vowels. It 1 
the tongue is lowered too much as for au (the lips 
not being rounded) a deeper, thicker, lower sound 
is formed, the glossic ah, which is much used in 
Scotland in place of both aa and au. A short form 
of aa or ah is used in the North in place of a, and 
in the West a long form of a is used for long aa. 
All these variations materially injure the quality of 
tone in singing. The ah is felt to be uttered in the 
throat, the long a is almost a bleat, driving the 
sound against the palate. Obtain the pure aa by 
keeping a medium position of the tongue, and en- 
deavouring to drive the breath against the upper 
teeth, but keeping the teeth well opened. A still 
finer sound, the glossic a', is made by keeping the 
tongue flat but altogether raising it in the mouth 
to the same position as for u, and is heard now in 
Paris and very much in London, in place of aa (in 
ask, grant, pass, path, and such words not containing 
r) but its use detracts from the pureness of the 
quality of tone. 

As this Italian aa has been so much used in pre- 
vious exercises, it is not necessary to give new 
exercises upon it here, but if from not perceiving 
the importance of pure vowels the pupils have been 
allowed to change aa into au, ah, oa, or a, they must 
now go through the klang and tuning exercises of 
this step over again with exclusive attention to the 
vowel aa. If there remains any difliculty in pro- 
ducing the Italian aa, let the plan recommended 
by Fredrick Wiek, of Dresden, and Madame Seller 
be adopted, of beginning with oo, and then chang- 
ing the vowel into aa, thus : oo-ca. The oo puts the 
mouth in a forward position and so prepares it for 
the best quality of tone that can be got on aa. Of 
course the teacher will be careful not to stop at oa 
or au on the road. 

As aa is the central vowel we do not expect any 
marked difference to arise from the change in the 
pitch. Its tendency however to alter into au in the 



138 SIXTH STEP. 

lower part of men's voices is very noticable. Try 
with the class such passages as second part of St. Co., 
Ex. 78, ms. 11 and 13, Ex. 136, sc. 2, m. 8. Add. Ex. 
p. 2, sc 4,m. 3, v. 2, Bass, p. 9, sc. 1, m. 3, Bass. And 
it sometimes has a tendency to alter into M at the top 
of the soprano voice. Try such cases as St. Co. Ex. 
172, lasf'Amen" 1st part, and Add. Ex. p. 5, m. 1, 
soprano. 

SECOXD GROUP, ATT, OA, 00. 

au as in Paul, daub, cause, caught, laud, law, 
all, talk, broad, brought, cord, fork, &c. The 
tongue is much lower than for aa, the back of it 
being as much depressed as possible. The middle 
parts of the lips are widely separated, but they are 
slightly rounded at the corners. The jaw is de- 
pressed. 

As, in the North, deep ah is used for an, so in the 
West an is substituted for au, as kaard for " cord." 
Thesound ofo (see Diphthongs p. 143) is frequently 
confused with au by people in the South, who for 
"more" (properly maor), will say maur, or even mau.', 
and even confuse "court," (properly kaort) with 
"caught." Sometimes au is used provincially for 
a", and no or on for au. 

Ex. 274. After striking the tonic chord of Key 
G. sing the vowel au in lengthened tones, first 
downwards from G, then upwards from G, and 
always piano till the sound is securely struck at all 
pitches. The teacher will find it necessary to set a 
pattern for his pupils. He should guide them in 
the beginning and ending of the tones by means of 
the " manual signs. " The pupils should take 
breath before each vowel, and deliver it with that 
clear and perfect attack (without breathiness, force, 
or hollo wness), that "good touch," on which the 
quality of tone so much depends. Even on this 
almost invariably long vowel the pupils will soon 
perceive how difficult it is to hold a vowel position 
without change, for even a second of time. They 
will feel the constant tendency to relax the rounding 
of the lips so changing into a/i, to rise into aa, to fall 
into on, or to end with a slight u, representing a final r. 
If there is any difficulty in getting a good quality 
of tone on this vowel it should be practised on 
Wiek's plan described above. The singer will feel 
that this, like all other vowels, is more difficult to 
produce at certain pitches than at others. At no 
moment must his attention be withdrawn from the 
purity of the vowel sound. As high pitched and 
low pitched voices have different difficulties to con- 

8t. Co. (New.) 



Ex. 2746 



tend with in producing vowel sounds with purity 
the women's and children's and the men's 
should be practised separately and alternately ; the 
alternation will give them rest and opportunity for 
self-improving criticism. As this is not an exer- 
cise in strength of lungs or compass of voice, cer- 
tain voices will be allowed to drop out when the 
majority of the class has gone beyond their reach. 
The tendency to change this vowel in the high 
part of the Sopr. voice may be studied in such 
cases as Add. Exs. p. 45, sc. 4, " thoughts." 

oa. as in load, shoal, coat, blow, hoe, globe, 
grove, most, folk, though. The tongue lies llat 
and free in the lower jaw, in the same position as 
for aa. The lips are much more rounded than for 
au, a considerable portion about the corners being 
quite closed. But the teeth inside the lips should 
be kept well apart, and the lips should not be pursed 
or outwardly rounded into the shape of an O, as 
either error much impairs the quality of the tone. 
In the South of England there is a tendency to 
finish the vowel by closing the lips still more and 
raising the back of the tongue, producing a final 
oo ; this should be avoided in singing. In many 
places the larynx is too much depressed, producing 
the broader sound ao, which too closely resembles 
au: this is particularly unpleasant to a Southerner. 
Care must also be taken not to commence the vowel 
with a sound resembling u and then finish with oa ; 
this arises from not rounding the lips at the moment 
of striking the vowel ; it is very common and should 
be carefully avoided. The Cockney fault of almost 
conf using oa with the diphthong ou, making "no hoe" 
into " now how," (which is also the practice in 
Ireland, when the sound of long OH should be heard 
before /, as in " cold soul,") must of course never be 
tolerated. We may say the same of stain and 
bain or steen and been, sometimes heard in the far 
North for stone and bone. 

Ex. 275. Practise this vowel in key F#, and in 
the manner described Ex. 274. Guard against the 
tendency towards ah or au in the lower, and M in 
the higher pitches. Study it at high pitches in St. 
Co. Ex. 175, last sc. m. 2, "home," and Add Exs. 
p. 41, sc. 4, m. 4, " home." See it at low pitches in 
St. Co. Ex. 136, 2nd verse, last word, 2nd part. 
Add. Exs. p. 17, sc. 3, m. 2, bass, and p. 24, sc. 4, 
m. 3, bass, " fro." 

Ex.276. Sing thefollowing words to longsounds. 
Each pair should be sung to the same tone and the 
same breath: bought boat, caught coat, groat 



Ez. 277280. 



SIXTH STEP. 



Grote, abroad road, flawed flowed, sawed sowjd, 
gnawed node, naught note, sought creosote. 

oo. as in fool, cool, whose, lose, you, soup, two, 
rheum, wooed, rude, rule, hlue. The back of the 
tongue is raised nearly into the position required 
for k, and quite conceals the uvula, but the tongue 
is thick and not wide, the back part of it lies be- 
tween, but does not touch the back teeth, and the 
tip presses gently below the lower gum. The open- 
ing of the lips is much more contracted than for 
on, but the teeth must be kept wide apart to secure 
a good quality of tone. Be careful not to pout the 
lips, making a funnel of them, and thus muffling 
the tone. Be careful also not to raise the middle, 
instead of the back of the tongue, for if you ap- 
proach the ee position with the tongue while the 
lips are rounded, you will get one of those French 
sounds so common in Scotland (glossic eo, oe or ue, 
French eu eu or ?<) , and sounding like at or * to 
English ears. Thus, as Mr. Melville Bell observes, 
when a Scotchman says " John has gone out to cool 
himself," an Englishman is apt to hear "to kill 
himself. ' ' As this vowel has been so much used in the 
klang exercises it is not necessary to practise it here 
except by way of comparison. Its natural changes 
at high pitches may be tested by the sopranos in 
such cases as St. Co. Ex. 175, sc. 9, 1st note. See 
instructions under uo. 

Ex.277. Comparison exercises as above, Ex. 276: 

groove grove, coot coat, doom dome, room roam, tool 

toll, gloomy gloaming, boon bone, noose nose, stool 

stole, whom home, hoop hope, loof loaf, poop pope. 

THIRD GROUP, AI, EE. 

ai. as in paid, ail, aim, ale, flame, hay, they, 
weigh, grea.t, gauge. For this vowel the lips are 
wide open ; any contraction of the opening spoils 
the sound. The teeth are wide apart, the middle 
(and not the back) of the tongue is raised. No 
part of it presses against the palate, though the 
edges lightly touch the back teeth, the tip of the 
tongue lies loosely near and slightly higher than 
the lower teeth, but must not touch them. There 
is a great tendency in the South to raise the middle 
of the tongue still higher towards the end of the 
sound, thus making it taper into i. Some elocu- 
tionists consider that this tapering ai-i gives a soft- 
ness and a beauty to the speech ; others think it may 
well be dispensed with. In singing, endeavour to 
produce ai without the tapering. In the North the 
tapering is not used, but there is a contrary ten- 
dency to broaden the sound into that heard in the 



. Go. fNewJ 



, South only before r, as in " air, care, pear, pair, 
pare," which is the long sound of e explained below. 
The indefinite article a is commonly spoken of as 
ai, but it has this sound only when emphatic ; other- 
wise it is e, u, a, a' or aa, according to the habits 
of the speaker, and u, aa. are best adapted for sing- 
ing. Notice the tendency of ai to change at low 
pitches, while the Basses sing Add. Ex. p. 33, sc. 2, 
last note "Face," and p. 45, sc. 1, last pulse " rain." 

Ex. 278. Practise these vowels in Key E and in 
the manner of Ex. 274. 

Ex. 279. Sing the following pairs of words on 
any tone, each pair to the same breath, and dwelling 
on the important syllables : pay-er pair, obey-er 
bear, a stay-er a stair, decay-er care, lay-er 
lair, pray-er prayer, array-er rare, sway-er swear. 

ee. as in meet, meat, mete, me, tea, grief, seize, 
quay, people. The middle of the tongue is brought 
close to the middle of the palate, against which 
and the teeth it is pressed close on each side, leav- 
ing a narrow channel at the top for the breath to 
pass through. The tip of the tongue is directed 
down towards the back of the lower teeth, against 
which it is pressed in ordinary speaking, but in 
singingit should be kept free, as it will have to assume 
slightly different positions for different pitches, andas 
thetightpressureinjures thequality of the tone. The 
teeth must be kept open, but cannot be opened so 
widely as f or ai, without impairing the pureness of the 
tone. The larynx must be as high as possible, but as 
this cannot be maintained for low pitches, there is 
a constant tendency for this vowel to sink into a 
lengthened i. Notice this tendency while the 
Basses sing St. Co. Ex. 136, 4th verse last word, 
Add. Ex. p. 1, m. 3, " speed " and p. 74, m. 3, 
" dream." It can only be sung in great purity at 
high pitches, Before r it always falls into i, as in 
"ear, mere, pier." Singers must be careful not to let 
" leap, steal, feel, seen, green," sound the same as 
" lip, still, fill, sin, grin " lengthened. When, how- 
ever, short or " brief " ee does not run on to the fol- 
lowing consonant, it may be always sung as i, if 
more convenient. 

Ex. 280. Practise this vowel in Key B and in 
the manner described above. Men should guard 
against this sound descending into i (as in still) 
only lengthened. 

FOURTH GROUP, U, A, E, I. 

u. short, in but, brush, judge, tun, sun, dun, 
blood, rough, money. For this vowel the tongue is 
almost flat, and altogether higher in the mouth 




14U 



SIXTH STEP. 



Ex. 281284. 



than for aa, but it is quite free from all the teeth, 
loose and unrestrained, filling nearly the middle of 
the hollow of the mouth. Many persons drop the 
tongue too deep, which destroys the beauty of this 
simple natural sound and gives it a disagreeable 
roughness or thickness. Care must be taken not to 
round the lips in the least. The teeth must be wide 
apart. If the larynx is lowered, as in the low 
pitches, the sound naturally approaches aa, but all 
approach to oa can be avoided by keeping the lips 
open. Notice this vowel at low pitches in the Bass, 
St. Co. Ex. 119, m. 8. "punish," and Ex. 145, m. 
10, joyows thrush." Add. Ex. p. 47, sc. 4, m. 3, 
"shuts." Try to sustain it purely although not at 
low pitch in Add. Ex. p. 58, scs. 1 and 2, " lovely," 
St. Co. Ex. 98, last word, Istv. " done," and Ex. 
99, ms. 6 and 8, " hove " and " love." The deeper 
vowel (glossic MM) is common in North Wales and 
in the Provinces. 

As a short vowel it is the commonest of con- 
versational sounds and all our unaccented vowels 
have a tendency to fall into it. But notwithstand- 
ing this, many writers on elocution condemn it as 
slovenly and obscure. In the South of England 
this vowel is long before R in accented syllables, 
the R being generally omitted, as in mirth, earth. 
In none of these should e long (the modified at of 
air) be tolerated. Other examples are in nurse, 
purse, murmur, word, world. In these a deeper 
sound, made by lowering the back of the tongue 
and much heard in the West, should be avoided. 
No approach to ka should be allowed. In both 
these sets of words tho singer must learn to insert 
the r as a very slight rapid trill following the 
vowel. In Scotland these sets of words are pro- 
nounced with different short vowels before a tril- 
led r'. 

Ex. 281. Practise this vowel in Key D and in 
the manner described as above, Ex. 274. In order 
to guard against its great tendency to change, let 
the pupil think, while he sings, of one of the above 
words containing this vowel. 

Ex. 282. Comparison exercise as above. Ton 
tone, nuns nones, run roan, pup pope, sup soap, sun 
sewn, rut rote, rum roam, stirring starring, bird 
bard, occurred card, deterring tarring, serve salve, 
firm farm, gird guard, herd hard, girl garland, 
pearl parlance, further farther, serge sarjeant. 

Ex. 283. Sing on any tone each pair to the 
game breath : buck book, luck look, cud could, 



tuck took, knuckle nook, rush push, gullet bullft, 
pulp pulpit, null pull, hull bull,hulkbulk (u in both) 

a. in tap, pat, pant, sad, mash, flax, plaid, 
plait, bade. The whole tongue is greatly higher 
than for aa, and the middle of the tongue is moro 
raised than for . It is however much lower thau 
for ai, and should be quite free of the back teeth, 
below which it hangs freely, the tip of the tongue 
being slightly higher than the lower teeth, but not 
obstructing the free opening of the mouth. Both 
teeth and lips must be wide open. Persons who 
mince their words in England pronounce the word 
man almost as though it were men. Mr. Bell 
accuses the mincers of saying " the ettidudc is 
edmirable." The sound which they really use is 
the open sound of at (glossic ae) so much heard in 
France, Italy, and Germany, (e, a,) and frequently 
in some English provinces in place of e. Tho 
larynx is lower for a than for ae ; partly for this 
reason, there is a natural tendency to convert a 
into ae at high pitches, which require the larynx 
to bo raised. See a at high pitches in St. Co. Ex. 
134, m. 3, v. 3, " happy," and Ex. 137, m. 7, " man- 
fully." Foreigners always confuse a and ae. It is 
heard as a long vowel in the West and in Ireland 
in place of aa, and in Ireland it is the name of the 
first letter of the alphabet. In Scotland short ah 
(the deeper sound of aa) is constantly substituted 
for a, and the teacher should carefully correct any 
tendency to say aa for a, except in such words as 
" pass, glass, ask, path, lath, aunt, haunt, gauntlet, 
grant, sha'n't," aa is commonly used in these 
cases ; the use of a is only common in the West and 
among the educated classes in the North. See cases 
St. Co. Ex. 133. v. 4, last line, " everlasting." Add. 
Ex. p. 21, sc. 3, m. 3, " glass." The unaccented a 
in iden, China, against, passable, is generally pro- 
nounced M and may be so sung, but the effect of ' 
(see aa,) or aa, is much finer in singing and is always 
admissible. See Add. Ex. p. 47, sc. 1, "alone," 
and p. 34, sc. 4. m. 4, " around." Any final trilled 
r in such cases must be avoided most sedulously, 
especially before a following vowel. In -al, -an, 
final, an u sound is generally used in speaking, but 
an a sound is admissible in singing. See Add. Ex, 
p.32,sc.4,"universal,"p.34,sc. l,"humaii." Singers 
should never sing/,n, without any vowel when there 
is the least excuse for their inserting one, as the 
quality of their tones is BO bad. 

Kx. 284. Practise this vowel in the Key D and 
in the manner described above, Ex. 274. 



St. Co. (New). 



This exercise should be introduced later, as 2906. 



Ex. 285289. SIXTH STEP. 

Ex. 285. Comparison exercises as above : pat 
pate, pad paid, bat bate, back bake, ban bane, tap 
tape, tack take, dally dale, cap cape, can cane, gap 
gape, fat fate, fan fain, sat sate, sham shame, lack 
lake, mat mate, nap nape. 

e . short, in threat, dead, health, friend, said, 
ncif er, leopard, any, many ; long, before r and ta- 
pering into , in there, where, ere, e'er, stair, 
stare, pear, bear, bare. The tongue ia precisely 
in the same position as for ai, but the larynx 
is lowered. Hence in high pitches c has a ten- 
dency to become a>, or else the tongue is lowered 
into the position of a, and ae is substituted. See 
St. Co. Ex. 133, v. 4, "commend," Ex. 171, m. 4, 
"Amen," Ex. 144, v, 4, "where," Ex. 145, m. 3. 
v. 3, " ere." The sound of ae is so commonly used 
for c in Scotland (where e is reserved for our /, the 
Scotch j-n' being Bounded like our pen] and in the 
provinces, and even by many Southern speakers, 
that the use of ae for e need not be corrected, but 
care must be taken to avoid a for e, as is some- 
times heard in Scotland. When e is written brief 
in unaccented syllables either i or e may be spoken 
hut e is generally the best for the singer. Sec St. 
Co. Ex. 137, last note. The singer must bo very 
careful not to prolong such words as " kept, set, 
met, wed, ell, Ben," into "caped, sate, mate, wade, 
ail, bane, &c., and hence must practise the prolon- 
gation of this vowel sound. 

Ex. 286. Practise this vowel in Key D. in the 
manner described above. 

Ex. 287. Comparison exercises as above : pet 
pate pat, bet bate bat, tell tale tallow, dell dale 
dully, kennel cane can, get gate gat, fell fail fal- 
low," sell sale Sail, shell shale shall, let late lattice, 
met mate mat, neck snake knack. 

i. as in hip, pit, bid, cliff, his, gild, lynx. The 
tongue and lips are precisely in the same position 
ns for ee, but the larynx is lowered, so that the 
voice naturally sinks from ee to i in lowering pitch 
and great care is required to sing both ee and i to 
the same pitch. The vowel i is very characteristic 
of English, and although it does not occur as a 
recognised long sound, it has to be constantly pro- 
longed in singing. All meaning is lost if " lip, sit, 
grit, bid, hid, sick, sin," are prolonged into "leap, 
seat, greet, bead, heed, seek, scene." Such words 
as " happy, vanity, unity," have constantly a 
long tone to their last syllables, which must never 
be called ee. See prolonged tin St. Co. Ex. 116, 

St. Co. (New.) 



t41 



sc. 2, "kill," Ex. 139, m. 2, "little," Ex. 140, v. 
3, " fill," Ex. 174, m. 12, " hill," Add. Ex. p. 30, 
sc. 3, " village." The great fault of English speak- 
ers is to use t long for ee, and of foreigners to use 
ee short for i. Before r, i long is always used for 
ee long, and after r many speakers find the pure ee 
difficult. Most bass voices take i for ee. In the 
Comparison exercises prolong the final y as in baby, 
etc, singing it to a note as long as that for the fol- 
lowing e or ee, etc. 

Ex. 288. Practise this vowel in Key E in the 
manner described above. 

Ex. 289. Comparison exercises as above : let 
baby be, a palfry free, with ugly glee, a tiny knee, 
the glassy sea, make worthy thce, a wintry tree, 
thy enemy me, a flashy she, best city tea, they 
chiefly flee, cried gruffly flee, the lucky key, fit 
feet, sit seat, mill meal, knit neat, whip weep. 

FIFTH G-nour, UO, 0. 

uo. as in full, wool, could, book and foot. The 
tongue, teeth and lips are in precisely the same po- 
sition as for oo, but the larynx is lower. Most 
elocutionists consider tio to be the same as oo short, 
but the Scotch pronounce " book, look, cook," with 
a real oo short, and the effect is so different from 
the English, that they are wrongly supposed to say 
oo long. Compare Yorkshire book, with oo long ; 
Scotch Idol;, with oo short, and Southern buok, with 
uo short. Also compare English pool, French piiol, 
written "poule," and English puol, written "pull." 
The distinction between oo and uo is precisely the 
same as between ce and t ai and e, au and o. But 
a good imitation of uo (not of oo) can be made with 
widely opened lips, and sung at any high pitch on 
the scale, where oo cannot be touched. This sound 
is therefore valuable to singers. It is a common, 
fault to say ruom, suon, and evenfuod, with uo shoit. 
in place of room, suon, food, with oo long. But 
when "pull, full, could, would" are prolonged, the 
singer should never say "pool, fool, cooed, wooed." 
The words "wool, woman, would," present great 
difficulties to Scotch arid Welsh, and even many 
English speakers. The pure wuo should be heard 
in each. In the provinces ^l and uo are constantly 
interchanged, so that "bull" is pronounced "bul" in- 
stead of "buol," and "foot" is pronounced "fut" in- 
stead of "f uot." Observe that uo and not u should be 
heard in bull, full, pull, (and their derivatives, bul- 
lace, bullet, bulwark, bullion, fuller, f ullage, fullers, 
Fulham,pulpit,pullet,butcher,cushion,cushat,sugar, 
cuckoo, huzzar, huzzay! hurrah! push, bush, to put. 



142 



SIXTH STKV. 



Ex. 2902. 



The game of put has u. The word fulsome ia 
pronounced both ways. All other words with M 
short have M not uo. In blood flood, oo is sounded 
u ; in soot both u and uo are heard. 

Ex. 200. Comparison exercises, as above : pool 
pull, fool full, cooed could, wooed would, shooed 
should, food good, who'd hood, shoot put, goose 
puss. Ex. '290A see above, Ex. 283. 

o. as in nod, pond, stock, odd and dog. The 
tongue, teeth and lips are precisely in the same po- 
sition as for au, but the larynx is lower. Hence 
this sound has often been thought to be the same as 
ait short, and most elocutionists put it down as such 
But if any singer inadvertently prolonged the name 
of God into <iaud, he would feel ashamed of the ir- 
reverence. The following exercise will shew how 
the sense may be utterly destroyed by not attend- 
ing to this distinction. The difference between au 
and o, is of precisely the same nature as that be- 
tween ee and ', m and;, ooand wo. Let the student 
prolong odd, he will find it distinct from awed. 
Next let him shorten awed as much as possible, 
and he will not get odd. Foreigners usually say an 
short in place of o, which is a peculiarly / 
vowel. The accented syllable <>r when no vowel 
follows is nearly always aur ; the au is long and 
the r' should be slightly trilled for distinctness, though 
it is frequently altogether omitted. The words 
" soft, often, office, broth, groat, gone, cross," and 
sometimes "dog, long," especially in America, are 
pronounced with ax, but either o long, or no long 
are preferable, and o short is much used, and is 
indispensable in " dog, long." See prolonged o in 
St. Co. Ex. 68, m. 2, "song," Add. Ex. p.l, m. 3, 
"God,"p. 4,sc. 3,m. 2, "spot," p. 14,sc. 4,m. 2,"on.' 

Ex. 291. Comparison exercises as above : odd 
awed, pod pawd, sod sawed, holiday haul, Moll 
maul, stock stalk, yon yawn, nod gnawed, fond 
fawned, God gaud, pollard pall, rot wrought, hock- 
ey hawk, solid salt, totter taught. 

Ex. 292. Error exercises on the vowels. The 
teacher sings on G the wrong pronunciation, and 
the pupils immediately (on the same tone, and pro- 
longing the syllables) sing the correct pronunci- 
ation of that word, and of the other words like it. 
" a/tone " atone, adore, among, alone, amaze, alarm, 
awake, above, about, amidst. " Divert," divert, 
digress, direct, divulge, engine. "Teatimoany," 
migratory, patrimony, dilatory, and matrimony. 
"Cummand, 1 ' command, complete, comply, commend, 
correct, and corrupt. "Goodni ss, ' ' goodness, endless, 

St. Co. (New.) 



matchless, boundless, anthem, forget, yes and in- 
stead. " Evidwnce," evidence, silence, prudence, 
ardent, excellent, providence, influence, content- 
ment, judgment. "Regelar," regular, educate, 
singular, articulate, perpendicular, particular. 
" Fee-aar," fear, near, their, more. " Ai \\ 
a house, a mile, a town. "Thee bee," thu bee, thu 
house, thu mile, thu town. "Thu evening," th<>e 
evening, thee upper, thee open, thee apple, th 
tumn. " Aimen," aamen. " Jeroosailum," JITIMI- 
salem. " A nice house," an ice house. " A nox," 
an ox. " This sour," this hour. " Our roan," 
our own. "This sage," this age. " On neither 
side," on either side. "Bear u sonward," bear us 
onward. " Tai kit," take it. " Ree din," read in. 
"Glory yand honour," glory and honour. "The 
glory, ooand the power," the glory and. 

Note that in the solemn style of music, the word 
"my" is pronounced fully, but in the familiar 
style, as it is in the last syllable of " clammy," 
" mummy," " Tommy," that the termination "ed" 
is in sacred music sung as a separate syllable. 
that the word " wind" is sometimes in poetry pro- 
nounced weind, that the word "heaven" is some- 
times pronounced as one syllable, and sometimes as 
two, and that when pror.ounced in two syllables, 
the second should be very lightly dwelt upon. 

Diphthongs. There are four principal diph- 
thongs in the English language ; ei as in height, oi 
as in foil, im as in foul, and eu as in feud. It will 
be convenient to treat along with the Diphthongs 
the vowel no, as in pore, because although it is not 
a diphthong it is used in English only as the first 
element of one. A diphthong is not merely two 
vowels put close together. The word " cawing ' 
might be repeated ever so quickly without its two 
vowels producing the sound of oi as in "coin.' 1 
The two vowels must be cemented and bound to- 
gether by the Glide already explained, p. 61. 
Thus in the phrase " pap is a Tonic Sol-ii'st," 
we have two cases of vowels put close together. 
The second vowel in each case has a clear separate 
"attack." If we allowed the voice to continue 
while the organs are passing from one vowel po- 
sition to another, we should make these double 
vowels into diphthongs, thus, " papeiz a Tonic Sol- 
feist." Let it be noticed that the common letters * 
and M, as usually pronounced, are really diphthongs 
though single letters, and that the sounds au, ee, etc., 
are simple vowels although they have two letters, and 
are hence properly distinguished as Digraphs. One 



Ex. 2936. 



-SIXTH STEP. 



143 



ol the vowels which form a Diphthong is much 
shorter than the other. In a Diphthong, the Glide 
which is the characteristic part should always be 
longer than the shorter of the two vowels, and one 
of the two vowels should he formed hy a closer ap- 
proach of the lips or of the tongue and palate to 
each other. It is important to nbtice that the ac- 
cent is generally laid on that vowel which has the 
widest opening. 

ei. as in I, eye, isle, buy, tie. This diphthong 
is very variously pronounced in speaking. The 
second element is always the same, i, not the foreign 
sounding ee. The first element, although it has 
the principal stress, is extremely short and diffi- 
cult to catch, but is generally u, ' (not it) or aa. 
The stress suggests to the singer that the first vow- 
el should be dwelt upon, but its indefiniteness, as 
fcpoken, leaves him to chose his own vowel, and he 
selects the beautiful aa. The Glide between aa and 
t should be very marked. When ei has to be sus- 
tained, in 'singing, prolong the pure aa sound, and 
finish rapidly, clearly and distinctly with the glide 
and t. See St. Co. Ex. 65, sc. 2, Ex 116, last word. 

Ex. 293. Sing the following pairs of words on 
any tone, beirg careful not to raise the pitch on the 
final sounds. Sing the first word of each pair as 
short, and the second as long as possible. Pie pipe, 
buy bribe, tie tight, die died, fie fife, thy scythe, 
sigh size, sly slice, my mine, nigh nine. 

oi in boil, boy, buoy, buoyed, toy, toyed, quoit, coin, 
joy. The proper first element of this diphthong is o, 
not au, and those who have learnt to prolong o will 
find a great refinement from its use, but others may 
use CM. Even in speaking, the first element is some- 
what prolonged ; much more so in singing. Avoid 
the vulgarity of singing oi as ei. See cases in St. 
Co. Ex. 134, 174. When oi occurs before a vowel 
as in " toying," sing oi distinctly and commence the 
next syllable with y thus toi-ying. 

Ex. 294. Sing on any tone or group of tones 
the following words. Anoint, ointment, oil, boil, 
broil, coil, foil, foist, froise, groin, hoise, hoist, join, 
joint, joist, loin, moil, point, poise, poison, soil, spoil ; 
destroy, decoy, loyal, royal, voyage. 

ou as in thou, how, npw, cow, out, down, town, 
plough, round, house. This diphthong resembles 
ei in character. The first element is the same as in 
ei, and is always short in speech, having the stress. 
The second element is always uo, and may be 
lengthened in speech. Do not use the foreign oo for 

St. Co. (New.) 



uo. In singing select aa as the first element, and when 
the diphthong has to be sustained, prolong the pure 
aa (taking great care not to round the lips before 
the glide), and finish rapidly, clearly, and distinctly 
with the glide and uo. Be careful not to lower the 
pitch in finishing off with uo. The rule of making 
aa always the first element will prevent all sorts of 
vulgarities and provincialisms. See cases in St. Co. 
Ex. 80, 134. 

Ex. 295. Sing as in Ex. 267, descending on ei 
and ascending on ou : how hound, now noun, cow 
cowed, about out, found out, round about, round 
sound, thou doubt' st, cow house. 

eu in pew, imbue, tune, dew, cue, few, view. 
This diphthong is always preceded by a consonant. 
In wnite, wnion, wse, &c., a y is always prefixed in 
speech. The first element is i which is always 
short and without stress. The second element is oo 
and in' accented syllables, is long, having the stress, 
but in unaccented syllables, as dotranent, may be 
short. The glide from i to oo is very short, but 
longer than the i which is just touched. To make 
the first element long, as ee with the stress, in tree- 
oo See-oo-zwt for "true Susan," is a great vulgarism, 
especially offensive in singing. This diphthong 
always becomes oo after r , as rue, imbrue, crew, 
etc., but not after /, n, s, z. In singing, dwell on 
the second element. See cases St. Co. Ex. 146, 
score 2, Ex. 174, score 9. Be careful not to change 
t and d into ch and j before eu, and not to pro- 
nounce - ture, - dure, - as in nature, verdure, either 
as - chur, -jur, or as -tur, - dur, but keep the t, d 
and the diphthong e>t quite pure in singing, what- 
ever may be your practice in speaking. 

Ex. 296. Sing as above : lieu, lute, illumine, 
new, news, nuisance, newt ; sue, consume, resume, 
pew, tune, dew, cue, few, view. 

ao as in roar, tore, ore, more, four, is never u-sed 
in received English except before r, forming part 
of a diphthong, and is hence placed here. But it 
is a pure vowel in itself. The tongue, teeth and 
lips are precisely in the same position as for on ; but 
the larynx is more depressed and hence the pitch is 
naturally deeper. It may be obtained by pronouncing 
oa and thinking of aa. If the student will sing aa to 
a very prolonged tone, and first round his lips and 
then open them successively, without interrupting 
the tone or in any way changing the position of his 
other organs, he will pronounce aa, ao, aa, ao, 
alternately, and gain much knowledge of the effect 






144 



SIXTH STEP. 



Ex. 2978 



on vowel quality produced by rounding the lips. 
When clearly produced, an is a. very beautiful 
vowel, much finer than either au or oa. It is very 
eommon in the provinces in place of oa, it is the 
true Welsh o long, it is the Italian open o, and is in 
general use on the continent. It may be used to 
replace oa in low pitches, but never when pure oa 
it be produced. It always replaces oa before r, 
and is sometimes used in place of o or an in such 
words as "soft, often, office, broth, gone, cross." 
It will require some practice for the pupil to hold 
the fixed position of this vowel. The learner will 
1)0 assisted by remembering some familiar word in 
which it occurs. It is important to distinguish 
such words as moiv-er, one who mows, from more, as 
in the Comparison exercises ; the first words have 
"a and two syllables ; the second ao and only one 
-syllable. 

Ex. 297. Practise this vowel in the key of F 
in the manner described above. 

Ex. 298. Comparison exercises as above : bloro 
Mower, ore ower, tore tow-er (one who tows), gore 
x;oor, roar rower, hoar hoer, shore shewer, lore 
lower, sore sower, more mower, store stower. 

Other Diphthongs such as ai-i in day, oa-uo in 
known, i-u in beer, c-u in bear (see Ex. 279), ao-u 
in boar (with the above vowel ao in place of oa), 
HO-H in boor, need not be separately practised. 
The singer should in the four last cases always 
trill the r even when final, at least slightly. 
And when r comes between two vowels as in weary, 
.l/ary, glory, ho should bo careful never to omit the 
glide to u ; wee-r'i is Scotch, Mai-ri is very vulgar, 
:ind yloa-ri is old fashioned. 

The South of England custom of ending at with 
:i vanishing i and oa with vanishing no, rather 
spoils the vocal effect. Hence it is best to practise 
avoiding it in singing. 

Special Forms of vocal music.* Of the various 
forms of vocal music adapted to special purposes, 
the simplest is, 

The Response. Tills may bo only the word 
'Amen," on one tone and in unison, or the same 
harmonized, or it may be a more lengthened sen- 
tence like the responses after the commandments. 
1 n any case, if a response is intended to be really 
sung by the whole mass of a congregation it must 
be as simple and natural as the " Gregorian tones," 
and must have a pitch and range easy to all kinds 
of voices. A. humble full-voiced unisonous 



"Amen" cannot be got at a higher pitch than E 
orF. 

The Chant. The practice of reciting a verse of ;i 
Psalm on one tone and ending each recitation with 
a natural cadence was older than Gregory or even 
Ambrose. It is the "form" of every exiiii s 
speaker. Its essentials are a reciting-tone and ;i 
cadence. The length of the reciting-tone depends 
on the length of the words. The cadence m:. 
of one, two, three or more tones. The regular 
form of the Anglican Chant (a reciting-tone with ;t 
two-measure cadence, followed by another with a 
three -measure cadence), p. 35, originated in 
England at the time of the Reformation. It has 
as much variety and beauty as can be desired in so 
elemental a form, but tho reciting-tone is often 
placed too high or too low for tho common voices 
of the people and the cadence is often made too 
wide in its intervals to be smoothly sung, thus 
unfitting it for its proper use. Instructions in 
chanting are given, pp. 36, 27, 59, 63, 47, 82, 93. 

Hymn Tunes. There were metrical hymns, as 
distinguished from prose chants, in the earliest ages 
of the Christian church, and although " time " and 
"measure" were not then written in music the 
tunes for these hymns were necessarily miny with 
the accents and measure of the hyrmis. At the 
time of the Reformation many of tho old Latin 
hymn-tunes were revived, and others made. Thu 
attempt to sing them with large masses of voices, 
in simple people's harmony, encouraged musicians 
to study tho progression of plain sustained chords, 
and so helped to form modern harmony. It is still 
this march of plain chords which is the glory of 
the hymn-tune. Tho introduction of chromatic 
resolution of unprepared discords other than those 
which (like 7 S, 7 T, i**M, and 7 SE) are familiar to 
the common ear of difficult transitions and modu- 
lations like those in tho Tonic-minor, of the sharp 
sixth of the minor bah, except when moving from 
and to the seventh se, of extreme compass for the 
" parts," and of difficulties in time is ruinous to 
the congregational character of a psalm or hymn- 
tune. Let not the precentor be misled by the great 
names of composer, or harmonist attached to such 
tunes. Very few great composers ever taught a 
psalmody class or took the trouble to make them- 
selves acquainted with the capacities and incapac- 
ities of the common people's voice. We have 
many hymn-tunes for the Organ and many for tha 
Choir, but only a few for the People. 



St. Co. (New). 



' Musical Theory," Book m., treats this subject more fully. 



SIXTH STEP. 



145 



The speed at which a hymn-tune is sung affects 
its harmonic character its rhythmical impression 
and its adaptation to the emotion of the hymn. 
When a tune before sung at moderate speed is 
sung very quickly, every two pulses (in two and 
four-pulse measures) or every three-pulses (in three 
and six-pulse measures) become practically to the 
ear, one-pulse, and the harmony should be altered 
accordingly ; the chords being made to change less 
frequently, and many "passing tones" allowed. 
Thus if "Jackson's," p. 2, were meant to be sung 
rapidly, as a la, la, la tune, the chords would have to 
be changed once in a measure (as they do in dances or 
quick marches) instead of twice; and if the 
" Waits," p. 8, were altered, by exceedingly slow 
singing, into a mournful hymn-tune, the chords 
should be made to change twice or three times as 
frequently as now so as to suit the slow and sol- 
emn tread of the music. To sing at great speed 
a tune harmonized for slow singing, and changing 
its chords at every pulse, produces a heavy jogging 
effect. To sing slowly a tune harmonized for speed, 
produces a drawling effect. The precentor must 
look to his harmonies. 

The more rapidly a tune is sung the more marked 
is the rhythm, and the greater necessity for Rhyth- 
mical Balance and proportion between the lines. 
The popular ear demands this balance. Witness its 
delight in dance-tunes and marches. If the tune 
books do not make the lines of equal length, it will 
be easy for the Precentor or Organist to do so, be- 
cause ''balance of rhythm" comes naturally to the 
people. 

In selecting a tune for a hymn, the Precentor 
will have to consider what is the general sentiment 
of the hymn. He will find it convenient to clas- 
sify hymns as first, the bold and spirited, second 
those expressive of cheerful emotion, third those 
which are didactic and varied in character, and 
fourth those which are solemn and prayerful. To 
the first class of hymns, tunes in two or four-pulse 
measure, moving somewhat quickly, and having 
doh, me, and soh placed in effective positions in the 
melody, are well adapted. Tunes of this character 
when sung very slowly and firmly, change their 
effect into the grandly solemn. To the second 
class of hymns, tunes in three or four-pulse measure 
having te, ray, //zand lah placed in the mosteffective 
positions, are well adapted. These cheerful tunes can 
be changed by slow and firm singing, not into grand 
tunes,but into prayerfully solemn tunes,of the fourth 

St. Co. (New.) 



class. To the third class of hymns, tunes must Lo 
adapted which give no special effectiveness in their 
melody either to the strong or to the leaning tones of 
the scale. These non-emotional tunes have generally 
a step- wise melody, and they cannot bo much al- 
tered iii mental effect by speed of movement. 

Different speeds are used for the same tune in 
different places, but the natural force of habit pre- 
vents any great change of speed in the same tune 
at the same place. To some extent however change 
of sentiment from verse to verse may be indicated 
by change of speed. If the congregation are ac- 
customed to the ways of their precentor, a bold 
tone or two from his voice will rouse them into 
spirited expressions as by electric sympathy ; and 
a pause after a verse will easily suggest that the 
precentor desires the next Terse to be sung softly 
and more slowly. This art of adapting music well 
to the words is a great secret of spiritual success in 
the precentor's office. 

Anthems differ from hymn tunes in giving mu- 
sical expression to particular words rather than to 
the general sentiment of a hymn of many verses. 
See "Hear me when I call" p. 17, and " O Saviour" 
p. 85. The anthem is free to introduce repetitions 
of music and words, the silencing of parts, and fu- 
gal imitations, which are inadmissible in a hymn of 
many verses. Although these contrivances are es- 
sentially characteristic of an Anthem, they must 
be carefully used in one which is intended to be 
sung by a whole congregation. It will be well not 
to leave the tenors or contraltos, who are often 
weak in a congregation, to take the lead in a fugal 
passage, and it is unwise to attempt a fugal entry 
on a half -pulse, or to introduce any other perplexity 
of the time. The Motet is the ancient form of 
the anthem. Anthems often consist of various dis- 
tinct movements, with changes of key and measure 
and speed, one movement being so contiived as 
to set off by contrast the other movements. Cathe- 
dral anthems are written for choirs which are seated 
in two divisions, one on the Dean's side (that is on. 
the right hand as you enter from the nave) called 
Decani; and the other opposite on the Precentor's 
side called Cantoris. Some parts of the anthems 
are sung by the full choir (marked" Full"), and 
other parts antiphonally, that is alternately by the 
two halves of the choir. Portions marked "verse" 
are to be sung by one voice to each part. Thcso 
anthems also include solos, duets, &c., and bold rc-- 
citations in unison, which are called choral recitu- 



146 



SIXTH STEP. 



tives. Anthems are generally intended to be sung 
with organ accompaniment, though many of the 
full anthems may he well performed without it. 

The Madrigal is the oldest form of secular vocal 
music in parts. It partakes of the old style of har- 
mony, abounding in fugal entry and imitation. 
No one part predominates over the others, but each 
takes its turn in specially claiming the ear of the 
listener. Any number of voices may join in a 
madrigal. The same style of music was used in 
the old anthems, of which "Bon accord," p. 11, is a 
short example. Some quaint point of sentiment at 
the close often characterizes the madrigal. There 
is no good example of a madrigal in the Additional 
Exercises. " The time for joy" p. 15, is the near- 
est. See however examples in the Tonic Sol-i'a 
Reporter "In going to my lonesome bed" No. 6S, 
"The Silver Swan" No. 274, and "Flora gave me" 
No. 287. Many pieces are called madrigals which are 
only harmonized airs, such as " My lady " \>. 21. 
A light form of the madi7 jal is the Jiatlet, which 
was sung chiefly to "fal-la," as an accompaniment 
to dancing. Instrumental accompaniment is out 
of place in this class of music. 

The Glee is a musical form of English birth. It 
is meant for single voices, and therefore gives each 
an opportunity of display, and develops every nicety 
of time and tune. It is commonly extended, like the 
anthem, into several distinct movements, one reliev- 
ing, by its variety of style, the general effect of the 
others. See "Swiftly " p. 29, " Come let us all" 
p. 24, "The Spring " p. 50, "Awake" p. 62. "The 
Stout limb'd oak " p. 77, and " Ye spotted snakes " 
p. 81. These glees will boar a number of voices on 
each part, though great care should be taken to 
secure unity and delicacy. But many glees con- 
tain too minute divisions of time for this. Instru- 
mental accompaniment was never intended for such 
glees and would defeat their object in displaying the 
Toices. But accompanied glees have been written 
by Sir Henry Bishop and others, in which the in- 
struments play special parts and produce special 
effects. 

The Part Song differs from the glee as th Hymn 
tone differs from the Anthem. The Part Song 
and Hymn-Tune repeat the same music to several 
verses, which the Glee and Anthem never do. The 
Part Song is claimed as of German birth. It is 
intended to bear many voices on each part. It 
differs from the madrigal in not admitting so much 
of the fugal style, in depending more upon modern 

St. Co. fNew.) 



choral effects, and in permitting the upper JKU-I 
generally to predominate. Specimens of th< 
man part songs are to be found on pp. 1. : . 
13, 14, etc. The Part Song as naturally 
England, is to be seen in " Sunshine after rain ' ' p. 
44, and " Harvest Home " p. 39. The greatest 
refinement of this style is to be found in the com- 

Switions of Mendelssohn (pp. 71 and 79) and 
enry Smart (pp. 45 and 88). The Hmmom:,,! 
Air is practically a part song, but from the nature 
of its origin a greater comparative interest attachep 
to the melody. See the examples on p. 12 and pp. 
57 and 65. rhe plainer part songs, like those first 
named, would bear accompaniment, but are better 
without it; suchpart-son^.sas those of Mendelssohn 
and Smart with their fine development of voice 
and expression, would be injured by it. 

Oratorio Choruses are meant to be sung by lun/e 
- of voice, and to receive full band accompa- 
niment, though the harmonies are generally com- 
plete without it. See " Hallelujah " p. 26, "How 
lovely " p. 58, and " Theme Sublime " p. 66. 

Operatic Chortles are generally of a light style 
requiring accompaniment, but not a great mass of 
voices. See examples in the Tonic Sol-la Reporter, 
"Market Chorus," No. 487 and"Carnovale," No. 142. 

A Canon is a fugal imitation in which the music 
of the leading part is imitated through its whole 
length in the other parts. A fine example is "Thou 
shalt shew me" p, 7. It has four voices engaged 
on two subjects and is called a Canon " four in 
two." The leading subject is announced by the so- 
prano, and continued to the first note of the second 
score of p. 8, after which it is repeated as far as its 
first cadence. This leading subject is again taken 
up by the tenor, but not till after six measures, and 
is carried on to the end, the tenor having time only 
just to commence its repetition. Meanwhile the 
counter subject has been announced by the contralto 
in the third measure. This is carried on to the end 
of the first measure of the second score, p. 8, the 
contralto having time to repeat nearly half of it. 
This counter subject is imitated by the bass, also 
after six measures. The bass has no time for repe 
tition. The Counter Subject in this case closely 
resembles the leading subject itself, and may be 
called a "fugal imitation " of it. A A'owW is a 
canon with one subject, and in one " part 1 ' which 
is taken up successively by the different voices. 



SIXTH STEP 



147 



A. Fu//ue does not' require its subjects to be imi- 
tated exactly as in a Canon, or through their whole 
length. But it is a more lengthened piece and is 
moiv varied in the treatment of its subjects. It 
allows the parts which are not engaged upon the 
subject to sing beautiful phrases, as Accompani- 
ments, which should be delivered in a subdued 
manner. It also permits short interludes or dis- 
tinct Episodes, and various kinds of Closes, in 
which the Subject does not necessarily play any 
part. 

The ssent.iah of a Fugue are that there shall be 
a Subject and a Response, carried through the 
various parts of which the music consists, and that 
this Subject shall be the main point of interest in 
the whole movement. Some make a counter sub- 
ject essential to the Fugue. Others say that there 
is no Fugue without a Stretto(see p. 105), and others 
again require for their true Fugue an Organ-point or 
Pedal. But the strict definitions are practically in- 
convenient. It is difficult to exclude from the ca- 
tegory of Fugrues any piece or movement the whole 
frame work of which is evidently built on some 
one Subject and Ilespon.se. According however 
to our own definition, " Hallelujah, Amen," p. 26 is 
not a Fugue ; for though it has a Subject in the 
first two measures which is simply repeated in the 
next two, and has a proper Response starting from 
a fifth above in the Soprano, and although the same 
subject is again announced in the Bass of sc. 4, and 
has again a Response a fifth above in the Tenor, 
and once more re-appears at the bottom of p. 27, yet 
the Subject is not carried through the parts in turn, 
and it is not made the principal point of interest 
in the greater part of the Chorus. Such pieces 
may be called Fugal passages or movements, but 
not Fugues. Two smaller passages of the same kind 
are in " Bon Accord" p. 11, and "Hear me" p. 19. 

The Subject is a Phrase (seldom extending to a 
Section) of melody, which is imitated (more or 
less perfectly) in its rhythm or melodial waving or 
both in the after parts of the Fugue. It is of such 
2haracter as can be easily recognised by the ear 
when it re-appears in different parts and in different 
keys. In the more complete Fugues it is imitated 
by the several parts successively, and that several 
times over in different ways. Each time of its 
being " carried through " the parts is called a new 
" Unfolding " of the Subject. 

St. Co. 



The Response or Answer is an exact or nearly 
exact Imitation of the Subject. It generally com- 
mences, the first time it is made, on the fifth above or 
the fourth below, or in the octave. Afterwards it 
may commence on the same tone as the Subject or on 
the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, &c., either above or below. It 
may be by contrary or similar motion. It may be 
in equal length of tones, or expanded or contracted. 
It may also be with contrary accents (per arsin vt 
thesin], the Subject and Response beginning one on 
the weak and the other on the strong pulse. 

The Counter Subject is really an Accompaniment 
to the Subject or to the Response or to both. There 
is often however no distinct Counter-subject, but 
the Accompaniment varies. On the other hand 
there are sometimes several Counter-subjects in 
different parts. A good illustration of the Counter- 
subject is in the first movement of " Theme sub- 
lime," p. 66. The Subject (of three and a half 
measures) is announced in the Contralto, with a 
Counter-subject in the Soprano. The Response is 
immediately given an octave below by the Bass, 
with the same Counter-subject above it in the Tenor, 
Next the Subject appears in the Soprano, sc. 2, with 
the Counter-subject below it in the Contralto. The 
two are inverted. Then comes the Subject in the 
Bass again altered in its first interval, with the 
Counter-subject in the Tenor. And lastly the al- 
tered Subject comes in the Soprano again with the 
Counter-subject under it in the Contralto. This is 
not quite a perfect " carrying " of the Subject 
" through" all the parts, and several other elements 
of Fugue are wanting ; but as, with the exception 
of a little play of the Accompaniment and a ca- 
dence, there is nothing else in the movement but 
Subject, Counter-subject and Response, we prefer 
to call this a Fugue. 

The Stretto. The Response generally commences 
the first time it is made, after the Subject is completed, 
but it often commences with the last pulse of the 
Subject and sometimes earlier. In the latter parts 
of a Fugue it greatly adds to the excitement and 
beauty of the music when the Response appears in 
one part before the Subject has come to a close in 
the other. This drawing closer of the answer to 
the beginning of the Subject is called Stretto. 
Sometimes there is more than one Streuto, the Res- 
ponse coming each time closer to the beginning of 
the Subject. 



148 



SIXTH STEP. 



Organ Point or Pedal, Complete Fugues, after 
i 'luploying a vast variety of contrivances for shewing 
>tf in various lights their Subjects and Counter-sub- 
jects, often conclude with a long holding tone, com- 
monly in the Bass, called an Organ Point, which 
Hoods with its grand sound the last parting phrases 
of their various themes. There is such an Organ 
Point in the close of "How lovely " p. 61, but it 
is placed in the instrumental part. 

JVb Complete Fugue is to be found in Additional 
Mxercisee, but there arc interesting illustrations of 
t he less regular forms which should be carefully 
-tudied, each student being able to answer ques- 
iions upon them. In the second movement of 
' Theme Sublime " p. G7, the Subject is " carried 
through " all the parts twice, first in the order, 
I lass, Tenor, Soprano, Contralto ; then in the order, 
Soprano, Bass, Tenor, Contralto. It then occurs 
again, p. 68, sc. 1, m. 6, in the Bass and is answered 
in the Soprano. 

In the third movement p. GO, sc-. 1, m. 7, a Sub- 
ject (of six and a half me asures) is announced in 
the Contralto. The Response comes (with a Strctto 
of one pulse) in the Soprano sc. 3. It is taken up 
again (with a Stretto of one pulse) in the Tenor, 
sc. 4, but here the close is altered to accommodate 
1 he Bass which wishes to enter at the fifth instead 
of the seventh measure. After being thus " carried 
through " once, the subject re-appears slightly al- 
tered in the Soprano at the end of sc. 5, with the 
same Stretto which the Bass secured. Then fol- 
lows a digression or episode of sixteen measures, 
containing the first four tones of Subject and Res- 
ponse fugally treated in Tenor, Contralto and So- 
prano. At the bottom of p. 70, the contracted 
.Subject re-appears in the Contralto, and is again 
" carried through " the Bass, Soprano and Tenor, 
but with ever shortening proportions, the close of 
its melody being broken off to mako way for the 
cadence 

In " How lovely " p. 58, a Subject of eight mea- 
sures commences in the Contralto, and after a full 
measure' s interval the Bass takes up the Response an 
octave below. After a measure of interlude there 
enters p. 58, last score, an Episode of ten measures 
containing imitative passages, and passing into the 
lirst sharp key. Then p. 59, end of sc. 2, the Sub- 
ject re-appears in the Tenor, but only the first half 
of it. Before this is concluded the Soprano takes 
up the Subject for the same length, but omitting 



the middle part gives only the first and last portions. 
With a very close Stretto (after only one measure) 
the Tenor again introduces the Subject in the saino 
way as the Soprano. At the bottom of p. 59, is r. 
brief interlude. On p. 60 a new Subject is introdu- 
ced in the Soprano with a Counter-subject in the 
Tenor ; to which there is immediately a response 
in the Contralto with the same Counter-subject in 
the Bass. Then follows an Episode of fourteen 
measures containing phrases imitating those of the 
previous Episode. Once more softly and alone t>. 
61, sc. 2, about three quarters of the original Sub- 
ject is delivered by the Contralto, but before it is 
finished the Soprano takes up its closing 'phrases, 
and the Tenor re-echoes them. A short cadence 
concludes the piece. In singing music of this land 
it would be well for the Singer to mark in his own 
part, all those passages or phrases which contain the 
Subject, the Response, or the Counter-subject, and 
to sing them with clearness and vigour ; singing 
everything else except the Episodes in a very soft 
and subdued manner.* 

Recitntii-e is a sort of artificial declamation, in 
which the singer endeavours to imitate the inflec- 
tions, accents, and emphasis of natural speech. It 
differs from the recitation of a chant, chiefly in 
changing its key frequently, more frequently indeed 
than is common even in the wildest and most im- 
passioned speech that is unconnected with music. 
Instruments (one or more) are employed to an- 
nounce, and sometimes sustain the chords of each 
new key. The length of the notes in a Recitative 
are intended by the composer only as approxima- 
tions. The singer delivers them absolutely accord- 
ing to his own fancy. He makes them long or short, 
quiet or impassioned, just as he thinks best. He 
must avoid the regular rhythm of an air. Ho must 
simply express with energy and propriety, what- 
ever passion there is in the words. Recitatives 
serve to connect the different parts of an Opera, an 
Oratorio or a Cantata, by the narration of events 
or the suggestion of sentiments which carry on 
the story. 

An Opera is a play in which the actors sing in- 
stead of speaking their parts, and which is accom- 
panied throughout by a band. While developing 
some exciting story, it gives opportunity for the 
introduction of a great variety of musical forms. 
It might be supposed that this union of four arts, 
poetry, music, painting, and acting, to excite lively 



St. Co. (New). * See other examples of Fugue analysed in " Musical Theory," Book m, pp. 223 & 22ft 



Ex. 299. 



SIXTH STEP. 



149 



interest and illusion, would elevate all the arts thus 
employed. But it is not so, because the human 
mind cannot appreciate the highest excellence in a 
number of arts at the same time, and the arts of 
acting and singing sadly interfere with one another. 
Hence, neither the best poetry, the best painting, 
the best acting, nor (except in solo singing) the best 
music are to be found in the Opera. For the best 
music wo must look to 

The Oratorio. This is a sacred opera, without 
scenery or acting, in which music enjoys its full 
and undisputed sovereignty. It develops some 
sacred story by means of recitatives, songs, duets, 
trios, quartets, and single and double choruses. 
Choruses are more used, and solo voices, less than in 
the Opera. The attempt to bring an ordinary 
Opera into this pure sphere of music "by singing it 
without the action and the scenery, only tends to 
shew how much exciting Operas are dependent on 
sensuous effects for their popularity. 

The Cantata. This, if a sacred one, is a short 
Oratorio, if on a secular theme a short Opera, 
commonly without scenery or action. 

Music for equal voices. In England and in the 
United States most part singing is done by Mixed 
Voices that is, by Male and Female voices together. 
This is best, both socially aud musically; but it 
cannot always be attained. It is therefore desir- 
able that women in their work-shops and men in 
theirs should have music specially harmonized for 
them. Our Tonic Sol-fa composers are rapidly 
using their skill to supply this want. Mr. Callaway 
has done our young men great service ; and his 
investigations and historical enquiries on the sub- 
ject have contributed much to the value of this 
work. 

Choral Contrivances. As we have often had oc- 
casion to notice that some even of the great com- 
posers are quite cruel in their demands on the vocal 
compass, it is equally fair for a Chorus-leader to bor- 
row a few voices from one part to assist another for 
a phrase or two. Thus the Tenors may aid the 
Contraltos when their part lies too low, and the 
Contraltos may assist the Tenors when their part 
is too high, and so on. 

The Resonances. If one takes a wide organ pipe 
or a wide brass instrument, which is of the same 
length as a narrow one, the pitch of the two will be 
the same, but that quality which arises from the 
resonance of air in the tube will be different. The 
wide resonator will give a pure but somewhat dull 



St. Co. (New.) 



and sombre tone. The narrow resonator will give a 
more marked and clear sound. So does the shape 
of the human mouth, in singing, affect the cha- 
racter of the sound. A full distended mouth givr* 
the Sombre Eesonance, fit for wailing awe and la- 
mentation. A narrowed mouth gives the Clear 
Resonance, well suited to aid the expression of joy 
and exultation. A medium shape given to tho 
mouth adapts it for quiet peaceful songs. Sing tlio 
following phrase, 1st to the words, "Hark, the 
voice of Rachel weeping," 2nd to " See the con- 
quering hero coming," 3rd to " Sweet and peaceful 
is our meeting." 

|d :s |f :r j r :f | n :d || 

It is important to cultivate the medium resonanco 
as a habit, from which to vary as the sentiment 
requires. Some persons always use the sombre 
resonance, and utter every sentiment with the 
same dull face and tone. 

Ex. 299. Say, with which Resonance each of 
the following songs should be sung, and give your 
reasons for the decision, "Night around" p. 22, 
" Angel of hope" p. 48, and " Home" p. 74. 

Breathing Places. In addition to the sugges- 
tions already made for the choice of breathing 
places, pp. 16 and 30, it should be noticed that the 
little step of the scale f m, t d 1 , fe s, de r, ta 1, etc., 
is always most effectively delivered when the first 
tone glides into the second; we should therefore 
never take breath between two such tones. For a 
similar reason we should not take breath between a 
dissonating tone and its resolution. It is absolutely 
necessary to take breath before a crescendo or swell 
passage, or before any long holding-tone, or before a 
passage of quick tones "a division," as it is called. 
Care must be taken always to do this rapidly and 
easily, so as to interfere as little as possible with 
the preceding rules. 

" The mouth," says Dr. Mason, " should retain 
the position it had while performing the previous 
note, and by no means form itself into the shape 
necessary for the following note ; neither must the 
mouth be, at all, closed while taking breath." 
There should bo no sobbing or catching noise in 
the inhalation. " Emission of breath," says Sabilla 
Novello, in her " Voice and Vocal Art," "should 
be made as tardily as possible, and the student will 
do well to consider breath more as a propellant 
power which sends forth sound by remaining behind 

it, than as the sound itself The chest 

and the muscles below it should be TtfffAptmuMtntly 




150 



SIXTH STEP. 



expanded. Fresh supplies of air will thus be more 
rfttdily admitted, afld subsequently remain longer 
than if the walls of the chest are suffered to 
collapse." 

Portamento, or the carrying of the voice from 
one tone to another, is made by a rapid and con- 
nected glide, or more properly by a slur, see p. 96- 
The voice passes through all the tones of the inter- 
val, but with * relaxation, in the emission of 
breath. This, in solo singing, and after a long and 
careful practice, may be made a very beautiful 
ornament; but the lazy imitations of it common 
among chorus singers, are discordant and disagree- 
able to all except the self-satisfied singer. It will 
be useful, howeVer, to the chorus singer in cases in 
which the musical phrasing differs from the verbal. 
By a careful Portamento the musical connection 
may be retained while the verbal distinction is 
made. There can however be no breathing place 
in a Portamento. 

Voice Training. It is only to a small extent 
that voice training can be carried out in class, 
but the experience gained in a well trained class 
will encourage many pupils to seek additional 

Sntctise under the watchful ears of a master. The 
itnculty of voice exercises in a mixed class arises 
from this, that each of the Seven "Parts" (See 
p. 106) requires to cultivate a different compass, 
and that voices singing the same exercises, an 
octave apart, must usi> diffVr^nt registers at the 
same time. It would therefore be nec"8sarv, (if 
breaks and registers are to be watched) to divide 
the class into Seven or at least Four parts, and the 
rest of the parts would have to sing "a second" 
toftly while the teacher was attending to the one 
which performed the exercise. Only where the 
pupils themselves are intelligent and observant 
itudents of their own voices can voice-training in 
class be profitable. In ignorant and careless hands 
it may destroy voices by forcing them up into un- 
natural registers. No teacher should attempt to 
carry pupils far in these studies who has not 
patiently examined and reported on every voice in 
the manner described at the last step. It is well 
for the student to know at once that the secret of 
success will not be in the partie ilar form of his 
exercises, or in the multitude of them, or in their 
being written by this man or the other. but in 
their being frequently used and perfectly worked 
through. G ustave Nauenburg, in his " Daily Sing- 
Rtudies for all Voices,' says " The celebrated ginger, 



Farinelli, was already reaping the first fruits of his 
fame, when he visited the singing master Pistocchi, 
to ask his unfettered judgement on his past per- 
formances. Pistocchi said, 'Nature has lent you all 
the qualities of an artist in song; with properly 
conducted Voice-forming Studies you would become 
a truly great singer.' This was not the answer 
Farinelli had expected ; but inspired with a wish 
to attain the highest point in his art, he begged 
that he might pursue his studies with the worthy 
master. Pistocchi accepted the anxious scholar. 
The studies which Farinelli daily practised with 
persevering zeal, were all written on a si>i/ile sheet. 
In a year's time the master dismissed his pupil with 
the character of an accomplished singer. 'What 
can the exercises on that sheet have been?' has 
often been asked." This question Herr Nauen- 
burg answers by saying that doubtless they were 
such as would daily, 1st, Tune the voice to the 
different chords. 2nd, Strengthen it (securing equal 
strength for all its tones), and 3rd, Give it Flexibi- 
lity. To these objects of Voice Training M. Seiler 
has taught us how to add Quality. Herr Nauen- 
burg published on a simile sheet a few simple and 
easily remembered exercises with these ends in view, 
and the exercises of this work, seeking strength 
and flexibility, are chiefly copied from his. 

Manner of using voice exercises in class. The 
exercises used thus far have not had a range above 
Fj{ for males and ono-FjJl for females ; so that none 
of them except tli> Rejrinter themselves 

have passed over any difficult points of breakage 
in the registers. But the pupil has now learnt how 
to study his own voice more minutely, and wishes 
to cultivate it to the fullest extent. He will see 
(p. 106) that the range of tones to be cultivated 
and the registers and breaks to be studied differ 
with each kind of voice, and for each new key In 
will have to "Sol-fa his breaks" (p. 110) afresh. 
If the pupil stands in front of a large Voice Mod- 
ulator,* ho cannot miss teeinrj, while he sings, the 
Register he is in and his place of break ; but it 
may be useful to state distinctly what are the keys 
through which each of the following exercises 
should be worked by each different sort of voice, 
and what are the Sol-fa notes just below each 
break in each key. Although the use of a Voice 
Modulator render* all this unnecestary, it will serve 
to show what minute care is required even whon 
we make the imperfect division of voices into only 
four " parts." Notice that the lower voices in each 



St. Co. fNtu.J 



Voice Modulator," price Is. 



Ex. 300. 



SIXTH STEP 



151 



part will have to be excused the highest tones, and 
the higher voices must not be forced to the lowest 
tones. It may also be noticed that each of these 
exercises can be made into " flying exercises," 
passing upwards or downwards through all the 
parts. For an upward flight, it is started low in 
the Bass, caught up by the Tenors the instant the 
Basses have finished, takings for d, and sung in the 
new key, caught up again by the Contraltos in 
the new dominant, and once again, in the same 
way, flung to the top of the scale by the Sopranos. 
For a downward flight the exercise will be started 
by the Sopranos, and caught up by each lower part 
in the 6'wAdominant key. 

EXERCISES WITH RANGE OF A TENTH (Ex. 
301 to 303), have to be thus worked. 

Basses. Keys from F-two (F 2 ) to C-one (C ( ). In 
F2 f ' is the tone below the break ; in G 2 r' ; in A 2 
dl ; in B 2 1 ; in C, 1. 

Tenors. Keys from C-one (C|) to G-one (G t ). 
In C| 1 ; in D| s ; in E| f and r' are tones below 
breaks ; in F| f and d' ; in G ( r and t. 

Contraltos. Keys from E-one (E ( ) to B[?-one 
(B^i). In Ej s and r' ; in F| s and d 1 ; in G| f and 
t ; in A| r and 1 ; in B|?| r, s and r'. 

Sopranos. Keys from B ( to Fj. In B ( d, s and 
r' ; in C d, f and dl ; in D m, t and m 1 ; in E r, 1 and 
r' ; in F d, s and d 1 ; in FJ d, s and d'. 

EXERCISES WITH RANGE OF AN OCTAVE (Ex. 
304 to 307), may be worked each in two higher 
keys, as well as those given above. 

Basses. Keys from F 2 to E|. In D| s ; in E ( f. 

Tenors. Keys from C ( to B ( . In A ( d and 1 ; in 
B, s. 

Contraltos. Keys from E ( to D. In C d, f and d' ; 
in D m and t. 

Sopranos. Keys from B f to B|?. In G f and t ; 
in A m and 1 ; in B[? r and s. 

EXERCISES WITH DOWNWARD RANGE may be 
worked thus : 

Basses. Ex. 308. Range a tenth. Keys C down 
to Ab| ; Ex. 309 down to F, ; and Ex. 310 from C 
down to D|?|. No break. 



Tenors. Ex.308. Range & tenth. Keys G down 
to Efc> ; Ex. 309 down to B, ; no break ; and Ex. 
310 from G down to A^,. In D m'. 

Contraltos. Ex.308. Range a tenth. Keys BJ> 
down to G. In B|? s, and r, ; in A 1 ( and r, ; in G 
t, and f, ; Ex. 309, down to E|>. In F d and s, ; in 
Eb 1 ; Ex. 310, from Bj? down to C. In F s, ; in E 
fj ; in D m, s,. 

Soprano*. Ex. 308. Range a tet.k. Keys G 
down to E. In G t|, f ( ; in F d and S| ; in E s ( ; 
Ex. 309, down to C. In D 1 ; in C d ; and Ex. 310, 
from F 1 down to G. In F d', s ; in D m', m ; in C 
d', f ; in B s ; in A ml ; in G f,. 

Agility of Voice. Ease and flexibility of the 
voice are commonly regarded as natural gifts, but 
Madame Seiler has shown that they are really 
dependent on the formation of certain habits in 
the action of the vocal organs. In all groups of 
tones rapidly succeeding each other, the vocal 
membranes have to be set vibrating in short, quick 
impulses, and after each impulse there is a natural 
recoil like that of a gun after the discharge. The 
breath retreating expands the windpipe, and 
thereby draws down the larynx. These momentary 
motions can plainly be seen outside the throat, so 
that the voice-trainer can watch and see whether 
his pupil is forming the habit on which is built 
agility of voice. This will suggest the reason why 
it is important that all exercises in agility should 
at first be practised slowly and piano except in 
the case of the Italians generally, and of individuals 
in other nations, to whom the proper movements of 
the larynx have already grown into a habit, and 
seem to be natural and instinctive. Madame Seiler 
recommends the employment of simple exercises, 
using at first koo. See p. 14 and 33. Let each of 
the following exercises, therefore, be first sung to 
the syllable koo without slurs, softly and slowly, 
second more rapidly and more loudly, tlurd 
more so still, fourth to the open and more beauti- 
ful vowel aa, on the word skaa-laa, with slurs and 
expression as marked : 



Ex. 300. KEYS B(7, up to F. M. 60 to 132. 



:d,r,m 

Skaa 
:d 



\ ( { :m,f ,s |f ,s ,1 :s,l ,t 



l.t.d'it.d'.r'jd' 



t, :d 



laa. 
Id 



St. Co. (New.) 



m'.r'.d' 
Skaa 



r',d' 4 t : 



s ,f ,m :f ,n,r jd 

laa. 
m :t. id 






SIXTH STEP. 



Ex. 301. KE.YS B up to E. M. GO to 132. 
tres - een - do. 

:d,t t d 

Skaa laa. 

:d t, :d |r :m f :s |d 



, M , 

r 4 d t r :m t r ,m |f ,n,f :s,r ( a 
t, :d |r :m 



dimin - tteii - do. 
~= =:>:=>:>> 

t.d'.t :l,t,l |s,l,s:f,s,f 



Skaa 
1 



s :f 



i,r |d 

laa. 
|d 



Ex. 302. KEYS B up to E. M. 60 to 1GO. 
) cres cen - do. 



d .n :r .d |r .f :n .r 

Skaa 



PI.S :f .n |f .1 :s .f 



s.t:l.s |l.d':t. 



t.r'rd'.tld 1 : 

laa. 



f 

d'.n'rr'.d' |t .r 1 :d'.t 

Skaa 

I :- is :- 



di - min 



1 .d':t .1 is .t :l.s 



f .1 :s .f |n .s :f .n 



do. 



r .f :n .r |d : 

laa. 

t, :- Id :- 



Ex. 303. KEYS B up to E. M. 60 to 160. 



:d .n 

Skaa 

Id 



r".f frT.s |f .1 :T.t 
:d |r :n 



.d':t .r 1 



laa. 



f :s |d 



n'.d 1 

Skaa 



r'.t:d'.l It .s :l.f 



t : 



s .n :f .r |d 

laa. 

n :r |d 



Ex. 304. KEYS B up to F. M. 80 to 160. 



d :r,d,t, :d 

Skaa 



r rn.r.deir 



n if.n.rein 



f :s,f,n :f 



s : 1 .s .f e : s 



t :d',t 4 le:t 



la, 



d 1 :r' t d' t t : 

Skaa 



t td'.t.leit 



:t t l,se:l 



s :l,s,fe:s 



f :s,f 4 n:f 



n rf.nj-etn 



T :n,r t de:r 



SIXTH STEP. 



153 



Strength, of Voice. The following three exercises 
are extremely difficult to perform well. They are 
intended to strengthen the volume of pure vocal 
klang to increase the retaining power of the chest 
in holding a steady breath for about thirty seconds 
and to cultivate the faculty of passing from 
Forte to Piano and vice versa without losing pitch. 



The Teacher will test the pitch of ach exercise as 
it concludes. The pupil will bear in mind the 
remark on p. 33 that strength is obtained by some- 
what forceful exercise, and by the careful use of the 
crescendo passage and the explosive tone, but 
always be it remembered, with as little breath as 
possible. 



Ex. 305. KEYS Bb up to A. M. 60 to 132. 



:d 


-- - 
r :n |f .s 


1 . 


t 


d 1 


|t .1 


:s,f.n,r 


j ji j 
d :d ! |d 


Skaa 


... 


. 




. 


. 


. 


laa. 


:d 


t, :d If 







n : 


|r 


: 


d :- 1- 


( :d< 


t .1 :s,f.n,r|d 







r : 


n |f .s 


> > /rv 

:1 .t d 1 :d (d 1 


j Skaa 


. 


. 




. 


. 


. 


laa. 


(:d 


~~ '. ~~~ 







t, : 


d If 


: n : | 


Ex. 306. KEYS Bb up to A. 


M. 


40. 






~^ 


d :- 


i 
i 


n :- 




IS 


: 


f : |- 




t : |1 : \ 


Skaa 


. 


. 


. 




_ 


m 


_ 


. 


rl 


i , 


. 










g 




U . i . 

s :f ( ri.r |d : 


d :- 




1 




I 
f :- H 






. 


laa. 


Skaa 




. 


_ 


_ 


. 


_ 




- id :- 


f :- 




1 


i 


: 1 


: 


fa :- |- :-" ) 


(l f : 


I? : 


r 


. 


d.t,.l,l 


S| : 


s , ._ { _ ._ 


M 


. 


- 




- 


laa. 


Skaa . . . i 


: 


1- :- 


li 





1 





s, :- [- :- 


t, :- 


- |r : 


r ... 







: 


h : |r 





d :t|.l||s,d : K 


- 


- 


- 




. 


. 


. 


. 


laa. 




- 1 : 


~ . 












_ IB.A - 



St. Co. (New.) 




154 



SIXTH STEP. 



Ex. 307. KEY Bb to A. M. 72, 60 & 50. 



Id' :- 


t :1 


is :f 


n :r |d : : 


Id :- 


r :n |f 


Skaa 


. 




laa, 


Skaa 


. 


( Id :- - :- 




- :- Id :- - : 


Id :- 


: i 


< .^ 


P 


/ 


P 


/ 


1 :t jd : 


d 1 : 


: t : : 


t : 




1 


laa, 


Skaa 


LAA, 


Skaa 


. 


LAA, 


- :- |d :- 


n : 


~ ~ ~^ r ^ ^~~ . ~~~ 


r : 


: 


f 


P 




f P 




/ 


i : 


1 :- 


1 :- 




s :- |- .- 


s 


: | 




f 




Skaa 


. 




LAA, 


Skaa 


LAA, 


- :- 


f :- 


1 :- 




n : |- :- 


n 


: 1- 


: 


r 


P 




f P 




/ 




f :- 


1 :- 




n :- |- :- 


n 


1- 




r 




Ska,i 


. 




LAA, 


Skaa 


LAA, 


: 


T :- 


1 : " 




d :- |- :- 


d 


: | 


: 


t, 


P 




f P 




f 


r - 


r : 

Skaa 


!" : ." 




LAA, 


d :- |- 

Skaa 


- : r 

LAA. 


1- - 


ti :- 


1 :- 




d :- |- :- 


d 


: | 


: 


t, 


f> 




f P 




/ 


n- - 


r : 


1 '" 




n :- |- :- 


n 


i 


f 


1 


Skaa 


- 




LAA, 


Skaa 


LAA, 


( ~~ : ~ 


t, :- 


1 :- 




d :- |- :- 


d 


: 1- 


: 


1 


P 




f P 




/ 


i 1- :- 


f : 


1 




s : I : 


s 


: 1- 




1 




Skaa 


. 




LAA, 


Skaa 


LAA, 


jl- :~ 


r : 


1 : 




n : I : 


n 


: i- 


: 


f 


P 




f P 




f 


/I- :- 


1 : 


1 : 




t :- |- :- 


t 


: i- 


- : 


d 1 




Skaa 


. 




LAA, 


Skaa 


LAA. 


f 1 : 


t :- 


1 : 




r : | : 


T 


: 1 : 


n 



1 



' 



St. Co. (New.) 



SIXTH STEP. 



Downward Cultivation of Voice. Nearly all the 
exercises in voice training books are adapted for 
the extension of the voice upward but the lower 
tones equally require cultivation with regard to 
strength, if not to flexibility. Mr. Proudman 



found the following exercise very useful in training 
Contraltos and Basses for the Paris Prize Choir. 
To it are added two exercises from other teachers. 
These exercises have added to them, here, an ac- 
companying upper part to be sung piano. 



Ex. 308. ores 

d 1 :- i- :- 

Skaa 

d 1 :t .1 |s .f :n .r 



cen - do. 

If :- 
111 :- .t. 



dim. 

n :r 



J.P. 



d : 

laa. 

in : 



Ex. 309. 

d 1 : it :- 

d 1 :t .1 |s .f :n.r 



Ex. 310. 

n : | :f 

d :m |d :si 



|r : |d 

!:> := 

,fi : I HI 



The Shake or Trill is an ornament much culti- 
vated by the solo singer. When performed with 
great evenness and accuracy it produces a very 
delightful effect upon the hearer. It consists in 
rapidly alternating the principal tone with the tone 
above it in the scale. When a shake is introduced 
in a close, it is usual to commence it by accenting 
the principal tone. Thus if the cadence is r. r | d 
the singer would strike r m r m r m &c., accenting 
the r, and ending thus : m r de r. When a Shake 
is introduced in the course of a song, for mere or- 
nament, it is usual to commence it by accenting the 
higher tone thus : m r m r m r &c., accenting the 
m and closing thus : m r de m r. Mdme. Seiler 
says that the most beautiful trill is formed by 
practising triplets, thus : m r m r m r, accenting 
first the higher and next the lower tone. She re- 
commends that the trill should be practised at first 
always piano, to the syllable koo on each tone, and 
afterwards with other syllables slurred. The 
mouth, she says, must continue immovably open 
and the tongue must lie perfectly still. The 
trill must be sung very slowly at first ; afterwards 
quicker and quicker. But it is no trill directly the 
two tones lose their distinctness. 

The Swell, that is the practice of a lengthened 
Crescendo and Diminuendo on each tone of the scale, 
was at one time much practised by voice trainers, 
but it has been found injurious to many voices. 
Garcia speaks of it as a last acquirement. Mdme. 
Seiler condemns it in the early steps and even 

St. Co. (New). 



Cruvelli has abandoned it in the first part of his 
course. It is exceedingly difficult to perform this 
exercise with perfect evenness, that is without 
giving a jagged shake to the tone ; and it is espe- 
cially difficult to make the diminuendo as good as 
the crescendo. It was common, in a swell on the 
optional tones, to allow the singer to change 
register, so as to get the middle part of the swell 
on the lower and stronger of the two registers; 
this also required much art. Those however who 
wish to attain that magic power a perfect control 
of the voice on every tone, in all its gradations of 
force, are commended to careful daily practice and 
a voice trainer. 

The Appoggiatura (appod-jyatoo-ra) is a grace note 
placed before a principal note, and occupying the place 
immediately above or below it. The long Appoggia- 
tura occupies half the time properly belonging to the 
note before which it is placed, which time it takes 
from that note. Thus Haydn writes, : m | f : : s 
| m : || . But by means of appoggiaturas he 
directs us to sing thus, :m | f : :l.s | f :m ||. In 
the Tonic Sol-fa Notation there is no sign for the 
long Appoggiatura, it being thought much better 
to write the notes in the time in which they are to 
be sung. The short Appoggiatura can scarcely be 
said to take any time from the lote before which it 
is placed. It only gives a kind of " fillip" to the 
accent. It is expressed in the Sol-fa Notation by 
a note like a bridge note of transition, distinguished 
from that however, by being in italic type, thus r d. 



156 



SIXTH STEP. 



The Turn. The direct Turn which is most com- 
mon, consists of a triplet of notes beginning with 
that above the principal tone. Thus I f : f | m : 
with a direct Turn on the second f would be sung 

3 

thus, | f isfm.f |m : j|. As the writing 
of this Turn would spread out the music too much 
it is better to employ the sign of the common nota- 
tion, thus /-v. The inverted Turn consists of a 
triplet of notes beginning below the principal note. 
Thus | d : d with an inverted Turn of the second 

3 

note would be J d :t,dr.d ||. The sign 

for this is . When either the first or last note of 
the triplet has to be sharpened, this will be expressed 
by writing, in small size, the altered note under or 

fe 

/^ 
over the ^. Thus re would be sung | femre.m ||. 

m 

Both these Turns when used in a cadence may some- 
times be allowed to delay the time, but not when 
they occur in the course of a piece. They should 
be delivered with subdued voice, but with great 
clearness. The direct turn gives spirit to the ex- 
pression, the inverted turn gives tenderness. 

" The natural voice," says Nauenburg, " is 
merely the raw material, which has to be elaborated 
into an instrument of art. Even in the most 
favourable organization, if tho voice be unculti- 
vated, there will be found side by side with healthy 
*nd powerful tones, others that are sickly, feeble, 
xirill, in short, unavailable for the purposes of art, 
until they are trained and beautified. Indeed, the 
greatest irregularities come to light in voices in 
which the natural development of the organ has 
already been disturbed by unregulated singing and 
various physical influences. High tones, wrested 



from nature, will by-and-byc rob the lower tones of 
that clear ring of true voice which we call Klany, 
and of fulness. So long as the body, and with it 
the vocal organs, are yet growing, the voice will 
doubtless stand a good deal of mismanagement . 
but it is sure to collapse when the physical strength 
can no longer withstand unnatural treatment. 
The forced tones below as well as above, often lose 
their fulness and energy, nay, there occasionally 
happens quite a new break of tho voice. Such 
results plainly prove that those tones were forced, 
and not founded in the nature of the organ." 

Voice exercises should be repeated every year, and 
at the opening of every season of singing practice 
meetings. Every one should seek to have a culti- 
vated voice. The cultivated voice is known from 
another by its first sound. There is no mistaking 
the matter of his instrument. 

Finally, let us remember two things. First, 
that even music must bo enjoyed " soberly," and 
the more steadily and soberly it is pursued the more 
fresh will be our desire for its pleasures and the 
more keen the enjoyment they bring. And last, 
that all this vocal culture only puts into our hands 
a delicate but effective instrument. See, reader, 
that you use it nobly. Exercise yourself to win a 
humble, true, and joyous soul, and let your heart be 
heard singing in your voice. Use that voice for social 
recreation innocent and elevating. But use it 
most rejoicingly for " the service of song in the 
house of the Lord." If the singing at your place 
of worship does not satisfy you, try to improve it : 
but first of all show that you mean cheerfully to 
fulfil your own personal duty of vocal praise, who- 
ever leads the singing, whatever tunes are used, 
and howsoever the organ is played. 



The Tonic Sol-fa movement has been 
'listin^uinhed from all other efforts to 
promote music among the people by it* 
System of Certificates for practice and 
theory. These certificates nave grown 
into common use and general accep- 
tance, partly through the good will of 
teachers and pupils towards the method 
and their desire to testify a grateful 
love a proud fealty to if, but chiefly 
because of their proved advantages. 
For the true pupil they find out (what 
he wants to know) bis weak placet, 
thcw him in what direction self-teaching 
specially demanded, and give him the 
rtmftdenee of knowing that he has really 
and satisfactorily reached a certain 
tige. When some unloving, unsocial 



THE CERTIFICATES. 

pupil boasts that "he could take the 
certificate if he would," the surest way 
to destroy his boast is to try him. For 
the true teacher (who knows how easy 
it is to obtain merely one-sided or 
merely collective results and how 
deceptive) they offer the only practica- 
ble means of guaging his real work. 
The ambition to obtain them also 
promotes such an amount of home work 
that fully four-folds (as has been as- 
certained) the usefulness of the class. 

All faithful teachers of our method 
"put honour" on the certificates, by 
definitely preparing the class, lesson by 
lesson, for each of the requirements, 
by making them necessary for admis- 
sion to their higher classes, and above 



all by inflexibly refusing to allow uncer- 
tificated singers pupils ungrateful to 
the method and careless of their own 
progress and their teacher's honour 
to take part in any public Demonstra- 
tion or Concert. This is commonly the 
strongest power with which the teacher 
can enforce self -drill at home. Woe to 
the teacher who, by weakly yielding, 
throws this power away. 

Our Certificates have been already 
accepted by other societies than our 
own as grounds of admission to Crystal 
Palace choirs, to Choral Societies, und 
to Precentorships. The more faithful 
we are to ourselves, in this matter, the 
more will our higher certificates grow 
in public acceptance and ivcfulness. 



sixni STKP 

QUESTIONS FOR WRITTEN AND ORAL EXAMINATION. 
DOCTRINE. 



167 



1. What is meant by transition of 
two removes .' In going to the second 
sharp key. what tones of the old key 
are blotted out. and what tones of the 
new key are introduced ? How does 
this move the key tone .' In going to 
the second flat key, what tones of the 
old key are blotted out and what of the 
new introduced ! How does this move 
the key tone ? p. 117. 

2. What emotion does the second 
sharp remove express ? what the second 
flat ? For what purpose is a principal 
second remove chiefly used 1 How is a 
subordinate second remove commonly 
employed ? 

3. What are the three points to be 
observed in helping pupils to master 
Transitions? What are the points 
which make some transitions easier 
than others ? What points make them 
more difficult ? 

4. In transition of three flat removes 
what Modulation generally takes place 1 
What Modulation usually accompanies 
three sharp removes? What physical 
changes may, or may not be made in a 
transition of three removes ? What is 
the common mental effect of three flat 
removes ? of three sharp removes ? 

5. What are the general principles 
which should guide us in fixing the 
speed of movement and the degrees of 
Force in singing ? Which should be 
more studied the actual words or the 
mood of mind in which they are uttered ? 
Give an illustration. What is the ex- 
ercise, in connection with this subject, 
which is of chief value ? p. 130. 

6 What kinds of passages should 
be sung loudly and quickly ? Mention 
four kinds with illustrations to each. 

7. What kind of passages should be 
sung loudly and slowly ? 

8. What kinds of passages should 
be sung softly and slowly? Mention 
five kinds with illustrations to each. 

9. What kinds of passages should 
be sung softly and quickly .' Mention 
three kinds with illustrations to each. 

10. What kind of passages should 
be sung with a gradual change from 
loud to soft? Give illustrations from 
memory. 

11. What is the mental effect of a 
sudden change from loud to soft on 
single tones ? Give illustrations. 

12. What kind of passages should 
be sung with a gradual change from 
goft to loud ? Give illustrations. 

St. Co. (New.) 



13. What is the mental effect of a 
change from soft to loud on a single 
tone.' Give illustrations. 

14. What kind of Phrasing is more 
important than the proper division and 
marking out of the parts of a melody ? 
What habit should the singer form in 
order to perceive quickly the proper 
phrasing of words ? When musical and 
poetical phrasing do not agree, which 
of the two should yield ? In Chorus 
singing, what is important in reference 
to phrasing ? p. 135. 

15. How often should the use of the 
articulation exercises of this step be re- 
vived ? In what circumstances will a 
mastery of the consonants render sing- 
ing intelligible without much study of 
the vowels ? In what kind of singing 
is a study of the vowels absolutely 
necessary for clearness and beauty ? In 
what elements of speech do the local 
differences and vulgarisms chiefly shew 
themselves ? In what respects do the 
vowels commonly called short, in Eng- 
lish, differ from, the long vowels ? 
What is the new art of vowel utterance 
which the singer has to learn but which 
the speaker does not require ? p. 136. 

16. If the cavities of the throat and 
mouth are held open steadily in any one 
fixed form while voice is produced, what 
element of speech will result? How 
many vowels are possible ? Name the 
six principal vowels going upward in 
the order of natural pitch ? 

17. In what manner in speaking do 
we name the vowel sounds ? What 
vowel forms the centre of the vowel 
scale? In proceeding upwards what 
change takes place with the middle of the 
tongue ? In proceeding downwards how 
do the lips change their position ? For 
which vowels is the back of the tongue 
highest and for which vowels is the 
tongue altogether lowest ? Give the let- 
ter names (not the sounds) of the three 
principal descending vowels, of the 
two principal less sonorous ascending 
vowels, of the four ascending vowels 
that are commonly short in speech, 
of the three more obscure descending 
vowels. 

18. Mention three words in which an 
occurs, without being so spelt. How is 
this sound formed ? Give the position of 
the lips, teeth and tongue. How is the 
deeper, thicker, ah formed? What 
defects in pronouncing this vowel are 
common in your neighbourhood ? 



19. Mention three words in which an 
occurs without being so spelt. What is 
the position of the tongue and lips in 
forming this sound ? What difficulties 
are found in sustaining an 1 In wha 
pitch of what voice is there a tendenc> 
to change this vowel? What wrong 
pronunciation of this vowel are you 
familiar with ? p. 138. 

20. Mention three words in which the 
sound oa occurs, without being so spelt. 
What are the positions of the tongue, 
lips and teeth in forming this vowel '.' 
What are the tendencies of this vowel 
in the lower pitches and in the higher 
pitches ? What faults in sounding this 
vowel are you practically acquainted 
with? 

21. Mention three words in which on 
occurs, though not so spelt. What is 
the position of the tongue, lips and 
teeth in producing this vowel ? In 
which voice, and in what pitch of it 
has this vowel a tendency to change ? 
Name any defects in sounding oo with 
which you are familiar. 

22. Mention three words in which 
the sound ai occurs, but not so spelt. 
What is the position of the lips, teeth 
and tongue for this vowel? la -which 
voice and at what pitch has it a tend- 
ency to change ? How is this vowel 
commonly mispronounced ? 

23. Mention three words [in which 
the sound ee occurs, though not so spelt. 
What is the position of the tongue and 
teeth in producing ee ? In which voice 
and at what part of its pitch is this 
vowel likely to alter ? 

24. Mention three words in which 
the sound u occurs, though not so spelt. 
What is the position of tongue, lips 
and teeth in holding this vowel ? In 
what voice and at what part of its pitch 
is this vowel most likely to change? 
What defective pronunciation of it do 
you know ? p. 139. 

25. Mention two words in which the 
sound a occurs, though not so spelt. 
What is the position of the tongue, 
teeth and lips for this vowel ? What 
is the natural change of a at high 
pitches ? What defective pronuncia- 
tions of this vowel are you personally 
acquainted with ? 

26. Mention three words in which 
the sound e occurs, though not so spelt. 
What is the difference between the po- 
sitions of the organs in ai and in e? 
What is e likely to change into at high 



158 



SIXTH STEP. 



pitches ? What defects do you notice in 
the pronunciation of this vowel ? 

27. Mention three words in which 
the sound i occurs, in one of them at 
least the i being differently spelt. What 
is the difference of the position of the 
organs for ee and for i ? What faults 
do you know of in the pronunciation 
of this vowel ? 

28. Mention three words in which 
the sound uo occurs, though not so spelt. 
What is the difference in the position 
of the organs for oo and for uo ? What 
wrong pronunciation of this vowel are 
you acquainted with ? p. 141. 

29. Mention three words in which 
the sound o occurs. What is the differ- 
ence between the position of the organs 
for au and o t What three other cases 
are there in which vowel positions differ 
in the same way, though otherwise 
alike T Have you noticed any mispro- 
nunciation of o T 

90. How is the pronounced before a 
vowel ? how before a consonant ? How 
is my pronounced ? 

31. What are the four principal 
diphthongs in the English Language T 
What vowel is treated along with the 
diphthongs, and why t What is the 
difference between two vowels put close 
together and a diphthong ? Give an 
illustration. What is the difference 
between a diphthong and a digraph T 
Of the three elements of a diphthong, 
which is neither the longest nor the 
shortest T Of the two vowel elements, 
which generally has the accent ? p. 142. 

:12. Mention three words in which 
tin- diphthong et occurs, though not so 
spelt. On which vowel element does 
the stress fall, and what sound should 
be given to that element in singing? 
How should the glide be treated ? 

33. Mention three words in which 
the sound oi occurs, though not so 
spelt. What is the proper first vowel 
element and which of the two should 
In- prolonged ? What error in prononnc- 
iii'r this diphthong have you noticed t 

.".4. Mention three words in which 
the sound OH occurs, though not so 
spelt. What is the second vowel ele- 
ment, and which of the two should be 
prolonged in singing and with what 
sound f 

35. Mention three words in which 
the sound eu occurs, though not so 
spelt. What is the second element, 
what is the first 1 Which has to be 
prolonged in singing ? What error has 
to be avoided in pronouncing t and d 
before eu \ 

36. What other diphthongs can you 
describe? 

37. Mention three words in which 
the sound ao occurs, though not so 

St. Co. 



spelt. What is the difference in the 
position of the organs for oa and for 
ao ? How may the pronunciation of 
this vowel be easily attained ? 

38. What are the musical properties 
proper to a Response ? p. 144. 

3i. What are the essentials of a 
Chant ? Describe the form of an An- 
glican Chant. What are two of the 
common faults in the construction of 
an Anglican Chant ? 

40. How did the modern hymn tune 
originate ? What are some of the 
defects of structure which often unfit ;it 
for the voice of a Congregation ? 

41. How does the speed of a hymn 
tone affect its harmonic character ? 

42. How does the speed of a tune 
affect the rhythmical impression it pro- 
duces, and what sort of speed demands 
the closer attention to rhythmical pro- 
portion and balance ? p. 145. 

43. What sort of tunes are best 
adapted to the bold and spirited hymns, 
and how do tunes of this character 
change their mental effect when sung 
slowly ? What kind of tune is best 
adapted to hymns of cheerful emotion, 
and how do such tunes alter their mental 
effect when sung slowly ? 

44. What is the sort of tune which 
best suits hymns of didactic and varied 
character t 

46. How can a precentor best remind 
a Congregation of & change of senti- 
ment in the hymn, and secure the proper 
expression ? 

46. How do Anthems essentially 
differ from Hymn tunes in their aim 
and in their musical character '. When 
Anthems are meant for congregational 
use, what musical difficulties should 
be avoided? Explain the words Decani, 
Cantoris, Full, Verse. 

47. What are the musical character- 
istics of a Madrigal ? What kind of 
sentiment often characterises a Mad- 
rigal ? What is a Ballet ? 

48. For what peculiarities of vocal 
arrangement was the English Glee 
specially adapted ? What sort of Glees 
will bear a number of voices on each 
part? 

49. How does the Part-Song differ 
from the Glee, and how does it differ 
from the Madrigal? How does the 
Harmonized Air differ from the Part- 
Song? p. 146. 

50. Whence arises the importance of 
music for equal voices .' p. 149. 

51. For what vocal arrangement are 
Oratorio Choruses specially adapted ? 

62. What is the style of Operatic 
Choruses ? p. 146. 

68. What is a Canon* and what is 
meant by " a Canon four in two " ! 

54. How does a Fugue differ from a 



Canon T p. 147. 

55. What are the essentials of a 
Fugue, and what other musical contri- 
vances are necessary to a fully developed 
Fugue ? What sort of pieces may be 
called Fugal Passages or movements 
rather than Fugues .' 

56. What is a Subject in Fugue, and 
what is meant by its various exposi- 
tions? 

57. What is a Response in Fugue ? 
Where does it commence the first time 
it occurs, and what are some of the 
various ways in which it is treated ? 

58. What is the Counter-subject in 
Fugue I What other forms often take 
the place of one distinct Counter- 
subject ? 

59. What is Stretto, and what is its 
emotional effect ? 

60. What is an Organ-point, and 
what is its effect ? 

61. How does a Recitative differ from 
the good recitation of a Chant ? How 
should Recitative be sung and what is 
the chief use of it ? p. 148. 

62. What is an Opera, and why does 
a combination of arts fail to produce 
the highest developement in any one of 
them? 

63. What is an Oratorio, and how 
does it differ from the Opera ! 

64. What is a Cantata ? 

65. What choral contrivances are 
allowable when Composers write"parts" 
which are beyond the fair limits of a 
chorus voice ? p. 149. 

66. In what respect does a wide mu- 
sical pipe differ in its effect from a narrow 
one ? What kind of Resonance or Timbre 
is produced by a full distended month, 
what by a narrow mouth, what by a 
mouth of medium shape and size ? 

67. In what places of melody ought 
we not to take breath, and in what 
places are we obliged to do so ? 

68. How is the Portamento made ? 
In what cases should it be used in Solo 
singing and in Chorus singing ? 

69. Whence arises the difficulty of 
carrying out voice exercises in a mixed 
class? In what cases only can voice 
training in a class be profitable? In 
what cases is it likely to be injurious ? 
What is the secret of success in voice 
exercises ? What, according to Nauen- 
trarg, are the three objects of voice 
training ? What other object should 
be kept in view ? 

70. What is the use at the large 
Voice Modulator? p. 150. 

71. How is flexibility of voice 
secured ? 

72. By what kind of practice is 
strength of voice maintained ? 

73. "What is the special use of down- 
ward voice cultivation exercises ? 



SIXTH STEP. 



159 



74. In what does the Shake or Trill 
eonsist ? In what case does the singer 
usually accent the principal tone, and 
how does he close ? in what case the 
upper tone, and how does he then close? 
How does Madame Seiler recommend 
that the Trill should be practised ? 

75. What is a Swell ? Why has it 
been abandoned in the early steps ? 



76. What Is the long Appoggiatura, 
and how is it expressed in the Sol-fa 
notation t What is the short Appog- 
giatura, and how is it expressed in the 
Sol-fa notation ? p. 155. 

77 . What is the direct Turn and how 
is it written? What is the inverted 
Turn and how is it written ? 

78. What irregularities are com- 



monly found in the natural uncultivated 
voice ? What injury is produced by 
high tones wrested from nature ? 

79. What two things must we con- 
stantly bear in mind if we would gather 
the highest possible enjoyment from 
music? 



80. Sing your part in Exs. 243 to 248, 
whichever the Examiner chooses. 

81. Ditto Exs. 249 to 255. 

82. Work Exs. 256 to 259, whichever 
the Examiner selects. 

83. Work Exs. 260, 261, whichever 
the Examiner selects. 

84. Work Exs. 262 to 271, whichever 
the Examiner selects. 

85. Work Exs. 272, 273, whichever 
the Examiner selects. 

86. Sing any one of the Exs. 274 to 
280 which the Examiner may select. 

87. Sing any of the Exs. 281 to 291, 
which the Examiner may select. 

88. Sing Ex. 292. 

S9. Sing any of the Exs. 293 to 298 
\vliich the Examiner may select. 

90. Sing (if your voice is bass) to the 
correct vowel " passing by " Add. Ex. p. 
79, so. 3, m. 4, second bass, "go" Add. 
Ex. p. 33, sc. 2, last note, bass, 
"amain," Add. Ex. p. 64, sc. 1, "be" 
Add. Ex. p. 71, 1st pulse, " love" Add. 
Ex. p. 61, sc. 3, m. 3. 

91. Sing (if your voice is soprano) 
to the correct vowel, " la " Add. Ex. p. 8, 
sc. 5, m. 3, 1st note," storm " Add. 
Ex. p. 95, sc. 2, m. 3," roar " Add. 
Ex. p. 64, sc. 4, m. 1, 2, 3, and 4, 
" troops " Add. Ex. p. 20, m. 4, 
"shadows" Add. Ex. p. 43, sc. 3, m. 6, 
"Amen" the last syllable St. Co.. 
Ex. 172. 

92. Sing (whatever your voice) to the 



PRACTICE. 

correct vowel, " love loves " St. Co. , Ex. 
145, "rills" Add. Ex. p. 62, sc. 4, m. 
4," along " St Co., Ex. 175. 

93. Sing, first using the vowel aa 
and then a, "last" Add. Ex. p. 39, sc. 

3, m. 2, and " path " Add. Ex. p. 7, sc. 

4, m. 4. Sing also first using u and 
then aa to the first syllable " away " 
Add. Ex. p. 53, sc. 2. 

94. Find words in Add. Ex. p. 34 
and 53 in which ai is sometimes sounded 
instead of a. 

95. Find cases in St. Co. Ex. 144 in 
which ai is sometimes sounded for the 
article a. 

96. Find words in St. Co Exs. 78 and 
113 in which ei is sometimes sounded 
instead of i. See Ex. 299. 

97. Find a word in St. Co. Ex. 143 in 
which oa, is sometimes sounded instead 
of the sound u. 

98. Find a word in St. Co. Ex. 98 in 
which u is sometimes sounded instead 
of o. 

99. Find a word in St. Co. Ex. 115 in 
which t is sometimes sounded instead 
of e. 

100. Find a word in St. Co. Ex. 77 in 
which u is sometimes sounded instead 
of . 

101. Find a word in Add. Ex. p. 77 
in which e is sometimes sounded instead 
of u. 

102. Find words in Add. Ex. p. 3 in 
which f.-.-aa. is sometimes sounded before 



r instead of ee with the mere vanishing 
u. 

103. Find 'cases in St. Co. Ex. 144 
and 145 in which " the " before a con- 
sonant is sometimes sounded thee instead 
of thu. 

104. Find cases in St. Co. Ex. 144 
and 145 in which " the " before a vowel 
is sometimes sounded thu instead of 
thee. 

105. Find four cases in St. Co. Ex. 
175 of the diphthong which is sounded 
ei, and sing them as directed. 

106. Sing the diphthong oi in Ex. 113 
as directed. 

107. Sing the diphthong ou in Ex. 69 
as directed. 

108. Sing the diphthong sounded tu 
in St. Co. Ex. 145, v. 3, m. 2, dwelling 
on the second element. 

109. Without referring to St. Co. 
write an analysis of " Thou shalt shew 
me," Add. Ex. p. 7. 

110. Write an analysis of the fugal 
imitiations in " Hallelujah Amen," 
Add. Ex. p. 26. 

111. Write a fugal analysis of the 
first movement in "Theme sublime," 
Add. Ex. p. 66. 

112. Write a fugal analysis of the 
second and thi rd movements of "Theme 
sublime," Add. Ex. p. 67. 

113. Write a fugal analysis of "How 
lovely," Add. p. 58. 

114. Answer the question in Ex. 299. 



St. Co. 



160 



APPENDIX. CHROMATIC TONES. 

APPENDIX. CHROMATIC TONES. 



Accidental Sharps and Flats. The notes of the 
Chromatic Scale, which lie hetween the notes of the 
ordinary scale, are as follows : 

Flat. Scale. Sharps. 
t 



f :n :f 



n :re :n 



r :de :r 



Stepwise Motion. The Chromatic sounds inuM 
also be mastered in the form of stepwise progression 
in an upward or downward direction, thus : 



le 


d de r t ta 1 


1 


r re n 1 la s 


la se 


f fe s s fe f 


s 


s se 1 n na r 


fe 


1 le t r ra d 


f 


There is no model in the common scale for tlii.s. 


The notes may lirst be introduced as an ear exercise, 


n the teacher singing to laa d r, and then d de r, 


and getting the class to perceive the new tone. 


na re 


Leaps. When both the Flats and the Sharps art- 


r 


familiar as waving tones and in stepwise motion, 




they may be approached and quitted by leaps, as 


ra de 


frequently happens in modern music. All the exer- 


A 


cises on leaps should be formed upon one pattern, 


u 

The commonest and easiest use of Chromatic 
Dtes is as waving tones coming from and returning 
the note a little step above or below. 


namely, first giving the intervening note, and then 
omitting it. For example : 

Sharps. 


Example of First Presentation: Sharps. Teacher 


n r de r n de r 


a r re n a re n 


ngs to laa, and points on modulator d t, d several 






mes. He then does the same with s fe s. With- 


f n re n f re n 


f s se 1 f se 1 


it pointing he then sings, also to laa, m re m 






veral times, questioning the class, varying it with 


1 s fe s 1 fe s 


s 1 le t s le t 


i r m, and making them feel the resemblance to 






t, d and s fe s, and the contrast with m r in. 


d 1 t le t d 1 le t 


s 1 le t s le t 


!e elicits the fact gradually that the new note is 






gher than r ; then names it, and gets the class to 
ng it. He then explains the names for all the 


f r de r f de r 


r ren f r re f 


larps of the scale, de re fe se le, and gives 


Flats. 


>pious exercises on them, always waving from and 


d r na r d na r 


d 1 t ta 1 d 1 ta 1 


the tone next above. 






Flats. These must be taught by comparison witli 


t, d ra d t, ra d 


t 1 la s t la s 


i f m. Unlike the sharps they are most easily 






>proached from the tone below. Thus : 


f s la s f la s 


f n na r f na r 


1 ta 1 r na r 








s 1 ta 1 s ta 1 


n r ra d n ra d 


s la s d ra d 






Exercise ori Waving Chromatics. 


d 1 1 la s d 1 la s 


d r na r d na r 


d 1 :t :d' t :le :t 1 :se :1 Is :fe:s > 






\ < 


d 1 ta 1 s d 1 ta s 


s la s f s la f 



St. Co. (New). 



APPENDIX. CHROMATIC XOXKS. 



1G1 



If the Voluntaries be all constructed on this 
principle, power over these chromatic leaps will 
gradually be gained. 

Transitional Models. It will be noticed that 
some of the above progressions of notes have already 
been studied under Transition (imperfect method) or 
the Minor Mode, and many difficult intervals which 
occur, such as m ta, fe^d', 1 de r, ta de 1 , &c., 
are best referred to their prototypes in the key in 
which they really are. 

Hints for teaching difficult intervals in the Minor 
Mode, by R. Dunstan, Mus.Bac. 

Fak, Se. This interval may easily be mastered 
by singing the following exercises from the modula- 
tor : 

n :- II :- 



:n 



: 



se : 



se:-|se:l f :- 1 :- f : 



se :1 If :1 I se : 

se : f : 

> 

se : 

1 :se 

> 
se : 



J)ofc Se- 
l : Id' :- 11 :d' 



d 1 :1 Ise : Id 1 : 



If the pupil "thinks of taa" he will readily be 
able to attack se (a little step below it) from any 
other note. 

SI. Co. (New). 



Intervals. The Chromatic tones may also Le 
studied from the point of view of intervals. With- 
out going into the subject of Intervals generally, we 
may explain that for the purposes of Intervals the 
scale is divided into twelve little steps, each of 
which, roughly speaking, is of the distance between 
d t|. - The following table shows the number of 
semi-tones which each interval contains : 

Semi-tones. 

Minor Second 1 

Major Second 2 

Augmented Second 3 

Minor Third 3 

Major Third 4 

Diminished Third 2 

Perfect Fourth 5 

Augmented Fourth, or 

Pluperfect 

Diminished Fourth 4 

Perfect Fifth 7 

Diminished Fifth, or 

Imperfect 



6 



6 



tes. Exam 
A 


.pic. 

t. 

1 
re 

d> 
n 
re 
d> 

t 
di 

8 



se 
m 1 
d 1 
re' 
t 
f 
1 
H< 




& 


j 


d 


f 




f 


d 


t 


l| 

d 




f 


fl 




B i 
t 


l \ 
A 



Augmented Fifth .......... 8 -- 

Major Sixth .............. 9 

Minor Sixth .............. 8 

Augmented Sixth .......... 10 

Major Seventh ............ 11 

Minor Seventh ............ 10 

Diminished Seventh ........ 9 

Octave .................. 12 

It matters not whether the Intervals be comprised 
within the notes of the common scale or not. A 
Minor Third is the same Interval whether it occurs 
as 1, d or as d ma. The teacher may, therefore, 
point Voluntaries which exhaust any one interval, 
presenting it in all its forms in the scale, both as- 
cending and descending. For example, a succession 
of Minor Seconds : 

d t| r de n re f n s fe 1 se t le d 1 t d 1 

In reverse order : 

t d 1 le t se 1 fe s n f re n de r ti d 

These two exercises, it will be observed, also com- 
prise Minor and Diminished Thirds. Another 
exercise on Minor Thirds would be : 



li d t| 



i r d d 
nnsffla 

Which could be shortened afterwards to : 

li d t| r d na r f n s f la s ta 1 



na r r f 
sstal 



162 



APPKXDIX. CHROMATIC TONES. 



This process can be continued with the easier in- 
tervals, but with the wider and more difficult ones 
it would involve melodies which would be practi- 
cally unsingable. The best practical course is for 
the teacher to follow, in his Voluntaries, the actual 
habits of composers, and present Chromatics inter- 
spersed with Diatonic notes. 

Naming of Intervals. Notice that intervals 
formed by two adjoining notes are seconds, however 
either of the two may be inflected ; those formed by 
three adjoining notes, thirds, and so on. Thus 
d ra, d r, and d re are all seconds (Minor, Major, 
and Augmented), as also are f fe, f a, and f se. On 
the pianoforte d re is the same as d ma, and f se 
the same as f la. But in the language of intervals 
they are different. Thus d re is a second aug- 
mented) because the sounds from which it is derived 
(d r) are two adjoining notes, and d ma is a third 
(minor) because the interval from which it is derived 
(d and m) is formed by three adjoining notes. 

Flats or Sharps. The teacher who wishes to 
point chromatic voluntaries may fairly ask. should I 
point sharps or fiats, d ra or d de ; 1 le t or 
1 ta t ; 8 la 1 or s se 1. The notes being the 
same on the pianoforte, composers are often in- 
different as to which they write. Some theorists 
hold that flats should generally be preferred to 
sharps, r ma m instead of r re m, &c. In 
music, however, especially of a popular kind, sharps 
are much more common than flats, and flats (be- 
cause they are less often encountered) are more 
difficult to singers. The best way is for the teacher 
to point both by turns, and when he wishes his 
voluntary to be specially searching and difficult, to 
prefer flats. 

The Extended Modulator. It is to be wished 
that the Extended Modulator, which gives the com- 
plete range of keys, may become more common, and 
supersede, for advanced pupils, the small sectional 
modulators. It affords far better practice to the 
pupils, and gives much greater scope to a teacher 
whose fancy for the invention of melody is active. 
In using the Extended Modulator the teacher should 
always observe absolute pitch. Each column re- 
presents a key. and in the proper key the teacher 
should start. As a rule it is best to begin in C and 
return to it at the close of the voluntary. The loss 
of pitch, if any, can then be ascertained. The 
following will serve as a specimen of a somewhat 
advanced voluntary on the Extended Modulator : 

St. Co. (New). 



C E 

d 1 s n d n s d' d'l n d 1, d n 1 - 

C Dfc,. Eb. 

1 se t 1 id 1 t r 1 d 1 <*'t 1 d' t 1 s 



G. ' Ai?. 

tlifnsfnrftid d t, d 



r n 



. 
d *r n f n s, 1, ti d 1, ^s, 1, t, d 

Br>. C. D. 

1. 1,8, 1, t, d 1, i,s 1 t d 1 1 IB 1 t d 1 

C. 
1 s f ** 1 t d 1 1 s f n r s t| s d 

In this voluntary the changes of key are made in 
the easiest way, by passing horizontally to a note of 
the same pitch in the new key. The more difficult 
exercise is to leap obliquely to a note of different 
pilch in the new key. The following is an example : 

C- Ab- 

s n 1 d 1 t d 1 r 1 1 d 'n f r 1, t, d -- s, 

Eb. F - 

l t r ti d r T ti d r f n 1 s d f n 

Bb. Eb- c. 

*li d f n i,n se t 1 d 1 d 1 del n' n 1 r 1 1 

r 1 r 1 d 1 s 1 s t 1 d 1 -- t -- d 1 - 

The principles on which all Voluntaries on the 
Extended Modulator should be constructed are 
these : 

1 . Take a phrase of six or eight notes, and having 
pointed it in one key seek to get imitations of 
it in other keys, and in their relative Minors. 

2. Never change key without introducing promptly 

the distinguishing tones of the new key. A 
change of column without the new tones is 
merely a change of notation. 

3. Do not be afraid to repeat a note. All good 

melodies repeat notes. 

4. If possible, let your phrases fall into measures 

and become rhythmical. This makes the sing- 
ing more spirited. 



A VOCABULARY OF MUSICAL TERMS. 



NOTE. Mr. ALEXANDER J. ELLIS, who has kindly added the pronunciations to the following words, 
states that they are mere English imitations of Italian, but that a very near approach to the true Italian 
pronunciations will he made, if in those given ai is never allowed to vanish into ?e, or on into oo ; if aa be 
used always for a, and ee for t ; the broad ae (St. Co., p. 140) for e, and the broad ao (St. Co., p. 143) for 
o\ if also the consonants which are here doubled, be really doubled in speech, as in "book-keeping," 
"boot-tree," "mis-sent," "un-noticed "; and r' be always very strongly trilled. Italians do not generally 
pronounce their vowels so short as English short vowels, or so long as English long vowels. The full stop 
turned upwards ( ) in the middle of a word, throws the accent on what precedes. If thsre are two such 
in one word, the first one has less weight than the second. 



Abbandono, con (koan ab bandoa-noa}, with self -aban- 
donment. 
Accelerando (atchel-air'an-doa}, more and more 

quickly. 
. Accelerato (atehel-air'aa-toa}, increased in rapidity. 

Acciaccatura (afchiak-katoo-r'a}, a short appog- 
giatura. 

Adagio (adaa-jioa}, very slow and expressive. 

Adagio Assai or Molto (adaa-jioa assaa-i, moal-toa), 
extremely slow and expressive. 

Adagio Cantabile e Sostennto (adaa-jioa kantab-ilai ai 
aostenoo-toa) , slow, sustained, in a singing manner. 

Adagissimo (adaajis-simoa}, slower than adagio. 

Ad libitum (ad &?), Latin, at will or discretion. 

Affettnoso (a/et'too-oa-soa}, with tenderness and 
pathos. 

Amizione, con (koan afflee-tsioa-nai), in a manner ex- 
pressive of grief. 

Agilita, con (koan ajee-litaa-}, with lightness and 
agility. 

Agitato (aj-i taa- too), with agitation. 

Alia Breve (al-aa brevai), a quick species of com- 
mon time used in Church music. 

Alia Cappella (al-laa kapel-laa),in the Church style. 

Alia Stretta (al'laa str'ait'taa}, increasing the time. 

Allargando (al'laar'ffan-doa},wiih free, broad style. 

Allegretto (al-legr'ait-toa}, cheerfuL Not so quick 
as Allegro. 

Allegro (alleg-r'oa}, quick, lively. Sometimes modi- 
fied by the addition of other words, as follows : 

Allegro Assai (alleg-r'oa assaa-i),very quick. 

Allegro con moto (alleg-r'oa koan mo-toa), with a 
quick lively movement. 



Allegro con Spirito (alkg-r'oa koan spee-ritoa) 
quick. With spirit. 

Allegro di Molto (alleg-r'oa dee moal'toa), exceed- 
ingly quick. 

Allegro veloce (alleg-r'oa velo-chai], quick, to abso- 
lute rapidity. 

Allegro vivace (alleg'r'oaveevaa-chai), with vivacity. 

A.llegTissira.o(allegr'ees'simod), superlative of Allegro. 

Amabile (amaa-bilaf), amiably. 

Amoroso (am-oar'oa-soa), lovingly, tenderly. 

Andante (andan-tai}, "going" easily and rather slowly 

Andante Affettuoso (andan'tai affettoo-oa-*oa), slow, 
with much pathos. 

Andante Cantabile (andan'tai kantab-ilai), slow and 
in a singing style. 

Andante con Moto (andan-tai koan mo'toti), slow and 
with emotion. 

Andante grazisoso (andan-tai gr'aa-tsioa-soa], slow 
and gracefully. 

Andante Maestoso (andan-tai maa-estoa-soa), slow 
and with majesty. 

Andante non troppo (andan'tai non tr'op-poa), slow 
but not in excess. 

Andantino (an-dantee'noa], a little slower than 
Andante, moving gently. 

Animate (an-imaa-toa), with animation. 

Anima con (koan an-imaa], with soul, with fervour. 

A plomb (aa ploan"), French, n' indicating French 
nasality, in a decisive, firm, steady manner. 

Appassionato (appas-sioanaa-toa), with fervid, im- 
passioned emotion. 

A.ypoggi&tfiTa.(appod'jiaatoo-r'aa}, a forestroke. 






104 



MUSICAL TERMS. 



Ardito (aar'dee-loa), with ardour. 

A tempo \<ia tem-poa), after a change in speed, to 

return to the original rate of movement. 
y A tempo giusto (aa tem-poa joos-toa), in strict and 

equal time. 
A tempo ordinario (aa tem-poa or'dinaa-r'ioa), in an 

ordinary rate of time. 
V^Audace (oudaa-chai), better (aaoo-daa-chai), bold, 

fearless, impudent. 
Al, All', Alia, Alle, Allo, Ai (/, all, al-laa, al'lai, 

al-loa, aa-i), to the, or, in the style of. 
Basso Primo (bas'soa pree-moa), First Bass. 
Basso Secondo (bas-soa saikoan-doa), Second Bass. 
Bene Placito (ben-aiplaa-chitoa), at will. 
Ben Marcato (ben maar'kaa-toa], in a clear, distinct, 

strongly marked manner. 

Bis (bees), or (bis) as Latin ; twice. A passage in- 
dicated by a stroke to be performed twice. 
Bravura (bravoo-r'aa), with vigour, with boldness. 
Brioso (bree-oa-soa) with spirit. 
Brillante (>' illairtaf) , in a showy, sparkling style. 
Burlesco (boor'lai-koa), with comic humour. 
Cacophony (kakof-uni), English. A discordant 

combination of sounds. 
Cadence (kai-dens), English. A close in melody or 

harmony. Also an ornamental passage at the 

end of a piece of music. 
Cadenza (kaden-tsaa), Italian. An ornamental 

series of notes at the close of a piece of music. 
Calando (kalan-doa), becoming softer and slower 

by degrees. 
Cantabile (kantab-ilaf), in a smooth, melodious, 

graceful, singing style. 
Canticle (kan-tikl), English, cantico, pi. cantici 

(kawtikoa, katrtiehee), Italian. Devotional song. 
Canto (kan-toa), the highest part in a piece of vocal 

music. 
Cantor (kan-taur'}, Latin, cantore (kanloa-r'ai) 

Italian. A singer. 
Cantoris (kantaor-r'is), Latin. A term used in 

Cathedral music, to distinguish the singers on 

the left side, where the Cantor or Precentor sits. 
Canzonet (kanzoanet-}, English, canzonetto (kan-- 

tsoanait'toa), Italian. A short song. 
Capriccio (kapr'eet-chioa), in a fanciful style 



Celerita (cfieleritaa-), with celerity, quick. 

Cavatina (kavatee-naa),a,rL&irof one movement only, 
sometimes preceded by recitative, of a dramatic 
character, and generally employed in Opera. 

Chorus (kaor'r'us), Latin, coro (ko-r'oa], Italian. 
A band or company of singers, 

Chiaroscuro (kyaa-r'oskoo-roo), light and shade in 
piano and forte. 

Comodo (ko-modoa)j with composure, quietly. 

Con (koan), with. 

Con moto (koan mo- too), with motion, or a spirited 
movement. 

Con Spirito (koan spee'r' itoa) with quickness and 
spirit. 

Coi, Col, Coll', Colla, Collo, (kei r koal, koall, koal-lna, 
koal'loa), with the. 

Corale (kor'aa-lai), the plain chant. 

Crescendo (kr'aishen-doa'), becoming louder. Somcy 
times expressed thus <: 

Da Capo, or B.C. (daa kaa-poa). from the beginning. 

Da (daa}, from, dal (daal), from the. 

Decani (deekai-nei), Latin. A term used in Cathc- 
dral music, to distinguish those singers who arc 
placed on the right side of the building, (entering 
the choir from the nave), where the Dean sits. 

Decrescendo (dai-kr' aishen-doa), gradually decreas- 
ing in power of tone. 

Dell', Delia, Dello, (daill, dail'laa, dail'loa) of the. 

Detache* (daitaashai) French, make each syllable 
short and accent equally. French term for 
staccato. 

Deliberate (dailce-ber'aa-(oa') adj., deliberatamente 
(dailee'ber'aa-tamain'tai), adv., deliberately. 

Demi (dem-i), English, (du-mee), after a consonant, 
(d-mee) after a vowel, French. A half. 

Diluendo (dee'loo-en-doa], a washing away, a dis- 
solving. Passages so marked to diminish in 
force, until they vanish into silence. 

Diminuendo (deemec'noo-en-doa), diminishing the 
force. 

Di Molto (dee moal-(oa'), much or very. 

Dolce (doal-chai), in soft and sweet style. ^/ 
I Dolorosa (do-loar'oa-saa), 

] Dolente (dokn-tai), with an expression of pain, 
( dolorously. 



MTTSICAI, TERMS. 



165 



Duett(deu-et"), English, Duetto (doa-ait-toa), Italian. 

A composition for two performers. 
E, Ed, (ai, aid), and. 

Eco, Ecco, (ek-oa, ek-koa) Italian, echo (ek-oa, 
English. A repetition or imitation of a previous 
passage, with some modification of tone. 
Elegante (el-aigan-tai), with elegance. 
Energico (ener' -Jikoa), con energia (Jcoan en-er^jee-aa) 
energicamente (ener''jikaamain-tai), with energy. 
Enharmonic (en-haar'mon'ik), English, enarmonico 
(en'aar'mon'ikoa), Italian, proceeding by quarter 
tones. 
Espressivo (es-pr'essee~voa), or con espressione (koan 

espr'es-sioa-nai), with expression. 
^ Extempore (eks-tem-puri), Latin, unpremeditated. 
/ Facilmente (fach-ilmain-tat), easily, with facility. 
Fermato (fair'maa'toa), with firmness and decision. 
Fine (fee-nai), the end. 
Forte (for'-tai), loud. 
Fortissimo ( for' 'tees- simoa), very loud. 
S Forzando (for'tsan-doa), forzato (for'tsaa-toa), with 

peculiar emphasis or force. 
<" Forza (for'-tsaa), force, vehemence. 
Fugato (foogaa-toa) in the fugue style. 
Furioso (foo-r'ioa-soa), with rage, furiously. 
Gajamenta (gaa-yaamain-tai), Italian, Gaiement 
(gemon'), Erench, n' nasal, Gai, Gaio, Gajo, with 
gaity. 

Giocoso (jokoa-soa), humorously, with sportiveness. 
,V Giustamente (joo-staamain'taf) t justly, with pre- 
cision. 
~r Giusto (joo'stoa), in just and exact time. 

Glissando (gleessan-doa], in a gliding manner. 
(/ Grande (yran-dat), great. 

Grandioso (gran'dioa-soa), in grand and elevated 

style. 

Gr&v&'me'a.'te(gr'aa'vamain'tai), with gravity, digni- 
fied, and solemn. 

Grave (gr'aa-vai), a very slow and solemn move- 
ment. 

/ Grazia, con (koan yr'aa-tsiaa), graziosamente, 
(gr'aa't.rioa-saamain-tai), grazioso (gr'aa'tsioa'soa), 
in a flowing, graceful style. 

Gusto (ffoo'stod), gustoso (goostoa'soci), con gusto, 
(koan goo'stoa), with taste, elegantly. 



II, (eel), the, as il violino the violin. 

Impeto (im-petoa), con impetuosita, (koan impet-- 

oo-oa - sitaa'), impetuoso (impet^oo-ocfsoa), adj., 

impetuosamente (impet'oo-oa'samain'tat), adv., 

with impetuosity. 

Tmponente (im-ponen-tai), with haughtiness, 
Impromptu (impr'om-teu), Latin, an extempo- 
raneous production. 

Iinprovvisamente (im'pr'ovvee'samain'tai), extempo- 
raneously. 
Innocentemente (in'noachen'taimain'tai), innocentd 

(in'noachewtai), con innocenza, (koan in'noachen: 

tsaa), in artless simple style. 
La flaa), the, as la voce (laa vo f chaij, the voice. 
Lagrimoso flag'r'imocfsoaj, in a mournful dolorous 

style. 
Lamentabile (laa-mentab'ilaij, lamentoso (laa - men- 

toa-soaj, plaintively, mournfully. 
Languente (lan-gwen'laij, langnido flan'gicidonj, 

with languor. 

Largamenta (laar'gamain'taij, very slowly. 
Larghetto (laar'gaittoaj, a slow andmeasured time ; 

but less slow than Largo. 
Larghissimo (laar'gees-simonj, extremely slow. 
Largo (laar'-goaj, a very slow and solemn degree of 

movement. 

Le f/ff/V,the, as levoci (laivo'cheej, fem.pl. the voices. 
Legatissimo (lai-gatees- simoa), very smoothly con- 
nected, [gliding manner. 
Legato (laiffaa-toa), bound or tied, in a smooth 
Leggiero (led-jier'-oa), with lightness. 
Leggierissimo (led'jier'ees' simoa}, with the utmost 

lightness and facility. 

Lentando (lentaan-doa), with increased slowness. 
Lento (len-toa), in slow time. 
Ma (maa) but ; as allegro ma non troppo (ttlleg^r'oa 

maa non tr 1 op-poo), quick, but not too much so. 
Maesta, con, (koan maa-aistaa-), maestoso (maa'ais- 

toa-soa), with majesty and grandeur. 
Marcato (maar'kaa f toa), in a marked and emphatic 

style. 

Meno (mai'noa), less, as meno forte, less loud. 
Mesto (mes-toa), mestoso (meslocfsoa), mournfully, 

sadly, pathetically. 



16(5 



MUSICAL TERMS. 



Mezza voce (med-azaa voa-ch at), observe not (met'ttaa), 

in a gentle, flute-like voice. 

Mezzo (med-dzoa observe not met-tsoa), half, as 
mezzo-piano, rather soft ; mezzo-forte, rather loud. 
Moderate (mod-air'aa-toa), adj., moderatamente 
(mod-air' aa-taamain'tai), con moderazione, (koan 
mod-air' aa'tsioo'nai), with a moderate degree of 
quickness. 

Moderatissimo (mod-air'atees-sitnoa), in very mode- 
rate time. 
Molto '.tnoal-toa), very, extremely ; as molto allegro, 

very quick. 
Molta voce, con (koan nwaltaa voa'chai) with full 

voice. 
Morendo (mor'en-doa), gradually subsiding, dying 

away. 
Moto, or con moto (mo-toa, koan mo-toa, almost 

mau-toa), with agitation. 
Nobile (nob-ilui : , nobilmente (nob-ilmain-lai), with 

nobleness, grandeur. 

Non (non an adverb of negation, generally associ- 
ated with troppo as, 

Non troppo allegro (non tr'op-poa alleg-r'oa), non 
troppo presto (non tr'op-poa pr'es-toa), not too 
quick. 
Non molto (non moal-toa), not very much ; as non 

molto allegro, not very quick. 
Non tanto (non tan-ton], not too much ; as allegro 

non tanto, not too quick. 
Nuovo, di (dee nwo-voa), newly, again. 
(o, nearly au), or ; as flauto o violino (Jlaa-ooto* 
o vee-olee-noa, nearly Jlout-toa au .), flute or 
violin. 

Obbligato (ob-bligaa-toa), a part to be performed by 
some particular instrument in conjunction with 
the principal part, and indispensable to the har- 
mony and proper effect. 

Obbligati (ob-bligaa-tee), pi., two or more indispens- 
able parts to be performed by different instru- 
ments in conjunction with the principal part. 
Oppure (oppoo-r'ai), or else. 
Ordinario (or'dinaa-r'ioa), usual ; as a tempo ordi- 

nario, in the usual time. 
Farlando (p<'jr' k,n-doa\ in a speaking manner. 



, passionate 
(pas-sionaa-toa), in an impassioned manner. 
Pianissimo (pyaanees-simoa), extremely soft. 
Piano (pyaa-noa), soft. The opposite of forte. 
Piano piano or piu piano (pyaa'noa pyaa-noa, pyeu 

pyaa-noa}, more soft or very soft. 
Piu ( pyeu], almost like the English pew) an adverb 
of augmentation, as piu forte louder, piu lento 
slower. 
Piacere al (al pyaaehai-r' ai), at pleasure in regard to 

time. 

Piu mosso (pyeu mos-soa), with more motion. 
Piu tosto (pyeu tos-toa), or pinttosto (pyeuttos-toa), 
rather ; meaning " in preference," as allegretto 
o piuttosto allegro (al'legr' ait-toa o pyeuttos-toa 
alleg-roa), rather quickly, or in preference, 
quickly. 

Placido (plaa-ehidoa), calm, quiet. 
Poco ( po'koa, almost pawkoa), a little. 
Poco meno (po-koa mai-noa), somewhat less. 
Poco piu mosso (po-koa pyeu mos-soa), a little faster. 
Poco a Poco (po-koa aa po-koa,) nearly (pauk aa 

pawkoa) by degrees, gradually. 
Poggiato (pod-jyaa-toa), dwelt on, struck impres- 
sively. 
Poi (po-ee almost poi), then ; adagio, poi alleyro, 

slow, then quick. 
Pomposo (poampoa-soa), in a grand and pompous 

manner. 
Portamento (por'tamen'toa), sustaining the voice, 

gliding from note to note. 

Precipitainente (pr'echee-pitamain-tai), precipitate 
(pr'echee-pitaa-toa), con precipitazione, (koan 
pr'echee-pitaa-tsioa-nai), precipitoso (pr'echee'- 
pitoa-soa), in a hurried manner. 
Prestamente (pr'es-tamai>t-lrn), hastily, rapidly. 
Prestezza (pr'estait-tsaa), with haste and vivacity. 
Prestissimo (pr'estees-simoa), exceedingly quick, 

quicker than presto. 
Presto (pr'es-toa), very quickly. 
Primo (pr'ee-moa), first; as primo tempo, return to 

the original time. 

Quasi (kooaa-zee, nearly kicaa'eee), in the manner 
or style of ; as if ; almost ; as quasi allegretto, 
like an allegretto. 



MUSICAL TEKMS. 



167 






Quieto (kooee-et-oa), nearly (kwee-et-na), usual form 
cheto (ket-oa), with, calmness and repose. 

Rabbia (r'nb-byaa), with rage, furiously. 

Eaddolcendo (r'ad-dolchen-doa), raddolcente (r'ad-- 
dolchen-tai), with augmented softness. 

Eallentando (r'al'lentan'doa), more and more 
slowly 

Bapidamente (r'apee'damain-tai), con rapidita 
(koan r'apee-ditaa-'), rapido (r'aa'pidoa), rapidly 
with rapidity. 

Eattenendo (r'att-enen-doa), restraining or holding 
back the time. 

Bawivando (r'awvivatfdoa), reviving, re-ani- 
mating, accelerating, as ravvivando il tempo, 
animating or quickening the time. 

Becitando (r'ecA-t'taw^oa), declamatory, in the style, 
of recitation. 

Recitative (r'ech'itatee'voa), a species of musical 
recitation. 

Religiosaineiite (r'ailee-jioa-samain-tai), religioso 
(r'ailee'jioa-soa). in a solemn style. 

Rinforzando (r'in'forttati'doa), riuforzato (r'iw- 
for'tsaa-tna rinforzo (r't/br''too), with addi- 
tional tone and emphasis. 

Bisolutamente (r'ee-soaloo-tamain-tai^risol'u.to (r'ee-- 
soaloo'toa ,risolu.zioa.e con (koan r'ee'soaloo'tsioa'ttai) 
in a bold decided style. 

Risolutissimo (r'eesoa-lootees-simoa], with extreme 
resolution. 

Bitardando (r'ee'taardan-dod], ritardato (r'ee'taar- 
daa-toa), a gradual delaying of the pace, with 
corresponding diminution in point of tone. 

Bitenendo (r'ee-tenen'doa], holding back in the 
time, slackening. 

Bitenente (r'ee-tenen-tai), ritenuto (r'ee-tfnoo-toa), 
slackening the time. The effect differs from 
Kitardando, by being done at once, while the 
other is effected by degrees. 

Scherzando, scherzante, scherzo, scherzevolmente, 
scherzosamente, scherzoso, (sker' tsan-doa, sker'- 
tsan-tai, sker' -tsoa, xker'tsai'voalmain'tai, sker' tsoa- - 
samain-tai, sker' tsoa- soa], in a light, playful, and 
sportive manner. 

Segno (sai-nyoa), a sign ; as dal segno, repeat from 
the sign. 



Segue, seguito (seg-wai, seg-witoa), now follows 
or as follows. As segue il coro (seywaieel ko-roa], 
the chorus following. Sometimes means, in similar 
or like manner, to show that a passage is fo be 
performed like that which precedes it. 

Semplice, semplicemente, semplicita, con, (saim-- 
pleeciuii, saimplee'chuimain-tai, koan aaimplee'- 
chitaa-), with simplicity, artlessly. 

Sempre (sewpr'ai), always; as sempre staccato 
(sem-pr'ai stakkawtoa], always staccato, or de- 
tached. 

Serioso (ser'-ioa-soa], in a grave and serious style. 

Senza (sain-tsaa), without. 

Siciliana (seechee - liaa-naa}, a movement of slow, 
soothing, pastoral character, in six-pulse time, 
resembling a dance peculiar to the people of 
Sicily. 

Sforzando (sfor'tsan-doa), sforzato (sfor'tsaa-toa), 
imply that a particular note is to be performed 
with emphasis and force. 

Sincopato (sin-kopaa'toa), to connect an unaccented 
note with the accented one which follows. 

Slegato (slaiyaa-toa), separately or disconnectedly. 

Slentando (slentan'doa), a gradual diminution in 
the time or speed of the movement. 

Sminuendo (smee-noo-en-doa), gradually diminishing 
the sound. 

Smorzando (smor'tsan'doa), smorzato (smor'tsaa-toa), 
diminishing the sound, dying away by degrees. 

Soave (soa-aa-vai), nearly (swa&vai,) in soft, sweet, 
delicate style. 

Soavemente (soa-awaimain'tai), with great sweet- 
ness. 

Solennemente (soalen-naimain-tai), solemnly. 

Solennita con (koan soalen - nttaa'), with solemnity. 

Soli (soa-lee), pi., implies that two or more different 
principal parts play or sing together i.e., one 
voice or one instrument of each part only. 

Solo (soa-loa), sing., a passage for a single voice or 
instrument, with or without accompaniments. 

Sonorammente (sonor'- amain- tat), sonorita con (koan 
sonor'-itaa-), sonorously; with a full vibrating 
kind of tone. 

Sostenuto(*os-<eoo-ort),sostenendo (soas-tenen'doa), 
with tones sustained to their full lengtli. 



168 



MUSICAL TERMS. 



Sotto (soat-loa), under ; as sotto voce (soat-toa 

vo-ehai), in a soft subdued manner, in an under 

tone. 
Spirito con (koan sperr'itoa), spiritosamente 

(spee'r'itoa-samain-tai), spiritoso (spee-r'itoa-soa), 

with spirit, animation. 

Staccatissimo (stak-katecs-imoa), very detached. 
Staccato (stakkaa-toa), distinct, short, detached. 

The tones separated from each other by short 

rests. 

Stentando (s(ain-tan-(foa}, with diflSculty or distress, 
Strepito con, Strepitoao (koan gtr'ep-itoa, str'ep-- 

itoa-soa), in an impetuous boisterous stylo ; noisy 

manner. 
Suave, suavemente, suavita con (son-mi- rai, 

300-aa-vaimain'tai, koan *no-aa'vitaa-), the usual 

form is soat-e, with sweetness and delicacy of 

expression. 
Subitamente, subito (soobee-tamain-tai, soo-bitoa], 

quickly, as volti subito, turn over quickly. 
Tace (taa-chai), Tacet (tai-sef), Latin. Silent. 
Tacia si (see taa-chiaa], let it be silent. 
Tanto (tan-toa), so much, as non tanto (non tan-too) 

not so much. 

Tardo (tar-doa), slowly, in a dragging manner. 
Tasto solo (taftoa xoa-loa), indicates that certain 

bass notes are not to be accompanied by chords. 
Tempo A, or In (aa, in tem-poa}, in time, an 

expression used after some change in the time, 

to indicate a return to the original degree of 

movement. 
Tempo a piacere (tenrpoa aa pyaachai-r'ai), the 

time at pleasure. 
Tempo Commodo (tem-poa kowodoa), at a convenient 

and moderate speed. 

Tempo frettoloso (tempoa fr'ait-toaloa-toa), acceler- 
ated time. 
Tempo guisto (tem-poa joos-toa), in exact or strict 

time. 
Tempo ordinario (tem-poa or'-dinaa-r'ioa'), at an 

ordinary and moderate rate. 
Tempo perduto (tem-poa ptr'doo-toa'), a gradual 

decrease of tini' . 

Tempo primo ((cm-paa pree-moa], return to the 
original time. 



Tenuto (teiioo-toa), held on, the tones sustained for 
their full time. 

Timoroso (tee-moar'on-soa), with timidity, awe. 

Tosto (tortod), swift, soon. 

Tranquillo (tr'ankoocel-loa), nearly (tr'ankicil-loa), 
tranquillamente (tr'ankoceel-lamain-tai), tran- 
quillita con (koan tr'ankooeellitaa-}, with tran- 
quillity. 

Trem&n&o(tr'e>nan-doa),treTHOlsin<lo(ti-'e>n-oalan-doa), 
tremolato (tr'em-oalaa-toa), tremolo (tr'em-oaloa], 
a tremolous effect produced by rapid reiteration 
of a sound. 

Troppo (tr'op-poa], too much; generally preceded 
by the negative non ; as, adagio non troppo 
(adaa-jioa non tr'op-poa), not too slow. 

Tutta, tutte, tutti, tutto (toot-taa,-ai,-ee } -oa], all : 
as, con tutta forza (koan toot-taa for'-tsaa), with 
all possible force. Tutti (toot- tee), the entrance 
of all the instruments after a solo. 

Tutta forza con (koan toot-taa for'-tsaa), with the 
utmost vehemence ; as loud as possible. 

Un, uno, una (on>t, oo-noa, oo-naa), a, as un poco 
(oon po-koa), a little. 

Un poco ritenuto (oon po-koa ree-tenoo-toa], gradually 
slower. 

Va (vaa), goes on; as, va crescendo (vaa kr'ar- 
then-doa), continues to increase in loudness. 

Veloce, or con velocita (velo-chai, koan velo-chitaa'), 
in a rapid time. Sometimes signifying as rapid 
as possible. 

Velocissimo (vai-loacJues-simoa), with extreme rapid- 
ity. 

Vigoroso (vee'yoar'oa-soa), vigorosamente (<- 
ffoar'oa-samain'tai), boldly, vigourously. 

Vivace, vivacemente (veevaa-chai, veevaa-chai- 
main-tai), quick and lively. 

Vivamente, vivacita con (vce-vaamain-tai, kotn 
veevaa-chitaa') with briskness and animation. 

Vivacissimo (vee-vaachees-simoa), with extreme 

vivacity. 
rVoce (voa-chai), the voice. 

Volti subito (vol-tee noo-biloa), turn over quickly. 

Volante (rolan-tai), in a light and rapid manner. 



GRADED TIME EXERCISES 



For Pupils preparing for the Elementary Certificate, 



2. 



:d 



d :d 



d :d,d 



d : :d 



d :d 



d : 



d :d 



d :d 



d :d 



d ,d :d 



d :d Id : 



d :d 



d :- 



3. 

d : |d :d 



d :d ,d |d :d d : |d : - 



d : |d :d d :d |d ,d :d 



4. 



d : |d :-,d d : |d :d d :d ,d |d :d d : j :d , 



d : |d :d 



5. 



d :-,d|d :d d ,d :d |d :d Id :- | : 



d :d :d 



d :- ,d :d 



6. 



\ 



:d :d d : :d d :d :d ,d d : : 



d :d |d :- ,d 



, :d Id :- .d |d :d Id 

St. Co. (Xew). 






d :d ,d |d :d Id : 

:d ,d |d :d d ,d :d id :- ,d id 

(169) 



170 



Graded Time Exercises. 



7. 
:d d : Id : Id :d,d d : I :d d :d,d 



d : 



:d 



d : I sd d : :d d :d ,d Id :d d : Id 



:d 



8. 



d : :d Id :d :d .d Id :- ,d :d 



d : 



:d d :- ,d :d d : :d d :d :d ,d d : 



e. 

Ud :d 



Id 4 -d 4 :d 



:d 



d ,d -d ,d :d 



SI 1 



:d .d 



d ,d .d 4 :d ,d Id :d ,d d 



10. 

Id : :d,d.d,d 



d :- :d Id :d ,d :d 



il 



d :- ,d :d Id :- :d ,d 



d :d,d.d,d:d ,d 



11. 



Ud :- :- |d :d :< 



d :- :- |d :- :- d :- :d |d :d :d d :- :- |- :- : 



U d :- :d |d :- :d d :- :d |d :- :- Id :d :d |d :- :d 



St. Co. (New). 



Graded Time Exercises. 



171 



:d 



12. 



d :d |d,d,d,d:d ,d d :d ,d,d|d : |d ,d,d:d ,d |d,d,d,d/ 



:d d ,d,d:d .d |d 



13. 
d :d ,d |d :d d :d ,d,d|d : d ,4 :d ,d |d ,,d :d ,d 



d :d,d.d,d|d : d :d ,d |d ,,d :d d :d ,d |d,d,d,d:d 



II 



d ,,d :d ,d |d ,,d :d ,d 



d ,d,d:d ,d |d : 



14. 



d :- :d |d :- :d d :d :d |d :- :- d :- :d |d :d :d d :- :- |d :- :- 



d :d :d |d :- :d d :d :d |d :- :- d :d :d |d :- :d d :- :- |- :- :- 



15. 

|d :- Id :- ,cl |d :d ,d 



d : |d :d ,d 



d ..d :d .d 



|d ,d,d:d ,d d : |d :d d,d.d,d:d ,d |d :d ,,d d 



Id : 

St. Co. (New). 



d :d ,,d |d :d ,,d Id :- 



172 



16- 



Graded Time Exercises. 



d :d :d .,d Id :d :d ,d 



:d Id :- .d :d ,d 



Ud :- ,d :d,d,d,d 



17. 

d :d :d |d :- :d Id :- :d |d :d :d Id :- :d |d :d :d 



d : : 
d :- : 



Ud :d :d |d :- :d I 



il 1 

II 



d :- :d |d :d :d Id :d :d |d :- :d Id :d :d |d :- :d 



d ' :- .d :d .d 



d :- ,d :d ,, 



I :d 



19 ' 



d ;- :d .,d Id :d :d ,d,d 



d,d.d,d:d ,d :d ,, 



:- ,d Id 



d ,,d :d A d ,d Id 

I 



:d ,d 



20. 



d ,d ,d :d d d ,d ,d :d ,d 



d :- :d |d :- :- II 

d : :d 
d :- : 

:d ,,d 
:d ,d ,d ,d 



, :d Id :- I :d ,d Id :- ,d |d : Id .d :d,d,d |d ,d 

:d,d,d Id :d |d : I :d | :d | :d .d |d 



:d,d.d,d Id :d ,d |d :d 

St. Co. (Xew). 



Id 



Graded Time Exercises. 



173 






For Pupils preparing for the Intermediate Certificate. 

These exercises are to be sung on me tone as well as in tune. 
No. 1. KEY G. M. 72, twice. 

|d :- :d |d :r :n r :- :- |s, :- :- PI :r :d |n :-,r:d s :- :- |- 



|d :- :d |d :r :n f :- :n |r :- : 



No. 2. KEY E[>. M. 72, twice. 



Un :n :PI |n :r : 



Un :r :n |f :- :s [1 :- : 



d :- :- |- :t, :d 



PI :-ir:d |n :- :r d :- j- |- :- : 



No. 3. KEYBb- M. 96, twice. 



:s, Id :- :d |d :t, :] 



s, :- : 



:s, n :- :- |- :r :d f :- :- |- :n :r d : 



:_ :Sl d :- :- |- : 



No. 4. KEY I>. M. 66, twice. 

5 :- :f |n :r :d 1 :- :- is :- 



:- f :- :n,r|s :- :f,n r :- :- 



n :- :- |f :- :n l :s :fe |s :- :s 1 :t :d' |n :- :r d :- :- |- :- 



No. 5. KEY A. M. 80, twice. 

d :- :d |n :r :d f : 



:- :r 



d :- :t|,d|r :- :d,r 



St. Co. 



d :- :- |- :ti :d r :- :si |n :- :r d :- :- |- :- 



174 Graded Time Exercises. 

No. 6. KEY I). M. 72, twice. 

: :s |n :f :s 1 :- :- |- : :1 1 : :1 |r :n :f s : 



:d |d 



:d' It :- :- I- :1 :s f :- :- |- :n :r n :-.f:s |s : :t| d :- :- |- :- 



No. 7. KEY G. M. 112. 



lid :s, |d,r:n,f s :- ,f |n 
(11 : :s : ,s f : |n 



,n 



r :d |f :n 



r :d 



n : |r :s 



No. 8. KEY E!j. M. SO. 

:n .rid :d .4 Id :n 



: ,d|f :-.n |r :d t, :- |- 



t : |d' 



s : ,s |n :d 



fe : 



r :- |d 



No. 9. KEY C. M. 72. 



d ,r :n ,f 



1 .1,1:1 .1 |s 



(Id 1 :s ,,s |n :s 
d 1 .d'.d'id 1 .d 1 |t :- .d 1 n 1 .r^d'st .1 |s .f :n .f n :r ..d |d 



:- .s 



No. 10. KEY At?. M. 80. 

s, :1, .t, |d : .1 



n ,r,d:r .d,t||d 



:t, .d |r 



> If ,n,r:n .fe |s : .81 
1 1 



: If .n :r .d 



:- ,n 



H 



n :- .r |d ,ti,d:li 

v. Co. (Xew). 



|d : 



No. 11. KEY F. M. 72. 

Id :d |d ,s, : 



d,t|,d,r:n ,d |r : 
Ur,d,r,n:f .1 |s ,f,n:r ,d 
No. 12. KEvEb- M. 84. 

( |n :- ,f s ,,s :s ,s |n :- ,d 



Graded Time Exercises. 175 

n :- ,r |d : s ,f,n:r ,f |n ,r,d:ti ,r \ 

n :n ,,n |n ,d : s .,1 :s .f |n : ,d / 
n :r ,,d |d : 



d 1 



|r :n 



,r:n,f 



f :f .f |n :- ,,n 



s :d |r :- ,n 



d : 



No. 13. KEY J. M. 88. 

:n,,r d . :d . |d :t|.d r 



| :d ,,r n : |-.,r:d,t|jd 



,S|'.feiiS| } 



,d:t|.d 



n ,,r:d | ,s:f,n 



r, :d . 



No. 14. KEY A. M. 66. 

ii :si ,S| In : :- ,,r d : .d :t| ,d n .,r:r 



,d t 



:- it ( ,d:r , 



No. 15. KEYBb- M. 72. 

S| iS| ,S| ;ri| ,S| 

d .d ,d :t|,l, .s, 

No. 16. KEY C. M. 90. 



:d ,t| ill ,S| 1 



n ,r :f .n,r:d ,t| |d 

pi) 
d 



: .s, j 



:d,,r 



:d ,, 



n :d |s :- ,n 



n :d |s 



:d ,, 



n :s 






St. Co. (\'-'w). 



r : |d 



17G 



No. 17. KEY K. M. 104. (A beat for every pulse.) 

,,f|s :n :d' |t :-.l: 



:d s :n 



Graded Time Exercises. 

f.l :s.f :n ,r |n :- :n,,f 
s :-.! :s |s : 



f n :-,r:d,,r|n 



:d',t:l,s|8 :n :d.,n r :- :- |d :- 



No. 18. KEY F. M. 88. 

n .r Id :- .d :r .n 



n :d :s,f f\ 



f :n :s,fe,s 1 :s :d,t u d 



:- :l u t,,d 



:r 



}'' 



No. 19. KEY I). M. 80. [Tripletted tlirec-pulse measurc=nine -pulse measure.] 



:n 



s :f | 



f ,,f :f 



d : 



No. 20. KEY-Eb- M. 108. 
n *n |n .r :d .n 



td' It :1 |s :fe 



ltd' It :1 



_ :n 



:d 



:f |n :r,d 



:n.f 



n : |r 



No. 21. KEY . M. 90. 



d : 



n :d 



s :f .n 



r :- ,r 



s .d :- ,n If :f .,f in : 



n n * .n 



r ,r :- 



f .f :-,n |r :n ,fe 



d ,S|5- 



St. Co. (AVirJ. 



ADVANCED RHYTHMS, 

For pupils preparing for the Matriculation and Advanced Certificates. 

For the Time Exercise of the MATRICULATION CERTIFICATE (requirement 2) Nos. 1 to 17 should be 
practised to laa on one tone, also in correct time and tune. They must be sung at the rate marked. The 
key may be changed when necessary. The test used in the examination is sent from the College and not 
seen before, but it contains no greater difficulties than these. 

For the Time Exercise of the ADVANCED CERTIFICATE (requirement 1) any one of Nos. 18 to 42 is 
chosen by lot in the examination, and sung on one tone at the rate marked. The candidate also sings to laa 
a test sent by the College to the examiner, and also writes from ear two or three measures of " Elementary 
Rhythms" sung to him. 



1. 



KEY A. 

S| 



M . 88. 



Na - tive 



land, 



.,d : r ,,t| I t|,d.- 
I'll love theel ever, 



:d ,, 
Let me 



Bishop. 

n : - .n : f .,r / 

raise the wel-come; 



't, 



strain, 



Mine were 



ban 



.ti :n . 

ish'd feet that 



r,d.- 



:d,n 

Hop'dto 



i:ti :li \ 



press thy turf a 






( 
gain! 



Now these eyes 



.PUT : t| .si iji 

il - him' J with) glad 



:d 



:n .,r j 

As they' 



d :- .li :t|,n.- lit 

scan thy beauties I o'er, 



: Si .,f, In, 
Ne'er a- ' gain 



.f. :. .1, J 

shall melt in ' 



lit] 

f I sad 



:d 

noss, 



:d .,t, |t,, 

Part - ing' to 



re - turn 



:d ..d / 

O Bri-i 



II 



d :- .8 ( :li,d.- |s ( 

tan - nia ! native ' land, 



P1| .,f || S| 
na- tive| land, 



- .d : t| .,r 

I'll lovethee 



r,d.- :- 



J. CUBWEN & SONS, 8 & 9 Warwick Lane, JS.C. Price One Penny. Where also may be had 
Elementary Rhythms (Jd.) and Intermediate Rhythms 

177 



178 



2. 

J1,-f 



isle 



M. 80. 

: f .,r |K ^ 

clasp 'd by I waves 



s ,d : 

o - ceac 
8 

far, 



SAAte-ene. TAAsefe. 



.d,-r 

in an 



PI .d' 



.f 



era 



erald 



:r . ,r 



zone. 



that 



peers 



Bishop. 

..f :f .1 J 

forth from) 



.1 il .8 :- 

so I pear) -like 

- .8,-8Jft .P)l 
From ncy" own 



and 



fair. 



.d 1 



: - . In : n .,n|s .f : - .f In .d 1 : 1 .,s j 

The! breeze oft inl mur-murs a Iplaintbringsfroma-) 



na - tive 



t .1 



isle 



: 8 .,f | n 

and my i lov 



: r 



ere gui 



-tar. 



II", 



3. KEY G. M. 60. 

>,n : n .,r 
Here we meet, too 



ta-ana-te-ene. taralaterele. tafaterele. 

3 8 



n,-r.n,-f : 8 



soon to 



: n 



Here I'll preM thee 



part, 



n .,n : n ji |n,-r.n,-f:8 

Here we meet, too ' soon to part, 



n,-r.n,-f : s , 



fsf.nfn:r .s,f 



Here to 



leave will 



.r 



Rossini. 

:d . 

smart. 



to my heart, Where 



8 

fsf 


3 
.nf Pi 


: r 


8,f 


8 

nf n 


8 

rnr : 


d 


Here 


to~~ 


leave 


wiU 


raise 


a 


smart. 


8 
fsf 


8 

.nf n 


: r 


.,8 


n ,d 


% _ ; 




none 


ha7~ 


place 


a - 


bove thee. 



4. KEY D. M. 72. 
1 .8 ,-t |r' .,d' : 


5 

t .d' 

fate, deai 

d 


!"AAte-ene. 

8 .1, 


ta-anatefe. 
-8:8 .,se se 


Bishop. 

.1 :t .1 

- er, nev - or ) 

r',d'.t ,1:1 4 j 


| Thy 1 love, thy 

n. .f :n .r 
f 1 be my hap - py 

tit .t :d' .,d' 

i 1 get me not, for- 
5. KEY A. M. 96. 

n s, :d :n 


youth to 

: t, .n-f 


share, Must nev 

s .8 :B .d 1 
thou may' at grant this 

d 1 Itrd'-n'.! 1 


lot. 
r' .r' 

get me 


But 

:n' .f',r' 


hum - ble pr y 'r, For- J 

d 1 : 


not, For get 

afatefe. 


me not. 
From Handel' i " Samson," p. 6. 

f ,1 .8 : f ,8 .n : r,n .d j 






' 



:- .r,d:r,d.t| s.t.l :,!. :n,f.r 



:- .ri,r:n,r.d 



\\ 



f,s.n 



d 1 



[Advanced Rhythms.] 



179 



II 



6. ;BY F. M. 58. 

d :d .r In 



s : -,f .n,f | s 



.r 



From Handel's " Samson," p. 95. 

PI .r :n .f |s : -.d'.t.ll s :-,f.n,f|s : -,d'.t,ll 



f .n : r .n | f .n : r .n 



f .PI : r .n |f :-,s.f,r 



j |n,f.n,d: s,l.s,n|d' .1,1: g .f 



n : r .,d | d : 



7. KBY F. M. 66. 



TAA-efene. 



From Handel's " Samson," p. 21. 



: .8 Id 1 :- .ta,l:ta.l,s|l :- .s,f:s .f,n 



f ..r' : d 1 ,r' ,t : 1 ,t 4 s 



d 1 .,t : l,t,s:f ,s,n 



H-Ui 



d 1 .f :n : r ., 



8. KEY D. M. 84. 

s : n .,r : PI ,r 4 d 



1 : t : d' 



f : r .,d : r ,d ,t 



From Handel's " Samson," p. 35. 



n : f .,nf : s 



: r .,dr : n 



1 1 : - ,d 4 t| : d ,r ,n I f ,s ,1 : f 



jit :t :1 ..t 

tlr ; - .f .n : r t n ,f 



n.d t r : n,f ,s : 1 ,t ,d'> 
P! ( f ,s :n r_r .d I d ; - ,n t r ; d ,r t n | 



9. KEY F. M. 88. 
.d :d .d |f : .f |n .n :n .n |r .n,f : s 



II 
i|L_-M 



From Handel's " Messiah," p. 65. 



10. KEY F. M. 88. 



f .n : f |n 



: .8 |s .l,t :d' .d 1 



t ,8 : 



From Handel's "Messiah," pp. 64, 65. 



.r : s 



:n |r : Id .s :s .s |d' : .d 1 



t .t :t .t |1 .t,d':r' r 



s . l,t : d' I - : t 



- .1,8 : 1 .s |fe : s 



[Advanced Rhythms.] 



180 



11. MY F. M. 96. 



TAI-AA. 



Prom Handel ' " Jcpbtha," p. 1. 



4| ,s : f .n : r .dlti.fe: -. :- .n|s,.n : -.f : -.r Isi.r : -.n: -.d s : .d:t ( .l 



3| 



12. KEY C. M. 104. 

(I .1 ;- .sjfe.s :-.f |r> : 
\ I I I 



.s:-. fin 



From Mozart's "Twelfth Mass," p. 66. 

' n :d.d 



13. KBY B7. M. 72. From Handel's " Acis and Galatea," p. 11. 

< 



14. KBY D. M. 116. 



From Sandtfi " Samson," p. 9. 

f :t :t |t.d'; r'.d'; t 



U-.d'ir'.d'st |-.d';r'.d'; 



r 1 :n' : f ' |n' :r'.d': t.l r' :t :- 



f :s.f:n.f|r :- :s If.arf :n |r :- :- 



I 



15. KEY A. M. 60. From HandeFt "SaiUSWl," pp. 33, 34. 

16. KEY O. M. 126. From Graun'i "Te Deum," p. 9. 

: .sis ;f .n|a : f .n 1 .1,1:1 .1 11 . : - .d'l- .t : - .1 1- .8 : - .1 Is :f |n || 

17. KBY D. M. 80. From 0raw' " Te Deum," p. 21. 

Un' :r' |- .de 1 : r> .n 1 If'.n'.r" :- .d' |- .t : d 1 .r' |n',r'.d' :- .t II 

18 KEY E M. 60. From Graun't M Te Deum." p. 27. 

4|n' t-.r'j'.d'jr'.d'.d'.tld' : : I- .de 1 : - .r' : n 1 .' t :-.t :d' 
|| "~l I 

10. KEY A. M. 80. From Graun't u Te Deum," p. 29 

T! t 

: .n ln.de : r 1- .t| :d.n 



J 1 * 

' 



Un .8,l:s I- .f :- .n,r n .f,s : f 

. I 



[Advanced RhTthma.] 



181 



20. KEY G. M. 80. 



( : . 1 1 d 1 : - . t : d 1 . r 



:- ,,t : d 1 .,r' s : - .f :m .,r|n,f.s :n : r 



From Handel's " Acis and Galatea," p. 39. 



: - .PI : r .,d ) 



llr .8 : - .r :- .n,f In .s : - .d :- .r.nlr .s : - .r :- .n,f n .r : d 



21. KEY E. M. 66. 



|t 



From Handel's " Messiah," p. 3. 

-,dV.t_,l:s .f |n,r.d ; d' 



f,n.r : 



B.t. 

|8,f.n :i'f 



-,n.r ; 8 .f |n .,r : d 



22. KEY G. M. 72. 



From Mozart's " Twelfth Mass," p. 2. 



. A.r*x \x JJJL* fjta mmvam ju.v&u>t a j. wciiLii. Ofxaao^ 

: .n:f In .f : - .n : 1 .s I s.fe: fe : |f.,f:n : r.f.l: d : t, 



23. KEY D. M. 84. 

s : : 



-.,f : n.,r :n,r.d 



A. t. From Handel's "Samson," p. 34. 






I f ; - .r : r .,dr[ n ; - .d : d.,t|d| r ; - .ti ;t|.,l| tJ d t r t n : md ; t|,d ( l|| ^j : 



24. KEY G. M. 80. 



Fae. 



|s 



From <?raM'*"TeDeum,"p. 35. 

s,f.-,n:f |n.,fs:.n |n .r : 



25. KEY F. M. 120. 



:f 



- .d' : - .t :1 .8 |f : -,s.n,f : r,ad,r 



From Haydn's " Creation," p. 12. 

:r |d.n ; -.s ; - .t * 



,r,n : s,f .n,r| d .n : - .s : - .t t 



j I - -d 1 : - j^r': d' t t.l.g I f : .1.8 ; f,n.r,d _t| ; .r,n ; f.s.^s |f 



: n 



il 



26. KEY G. M. 50. 

n,-f:fe .8 



te-ene. 



From Weber's " Mass in G," p. 32. 

.d,-n: s 



[Advanced Rhythms.] 



182 



27. KEY Bl?. M. 60. 
.8| |d .,r : n .r,d 



ta-ene. From Handel's " Messiah," p. 37. 

: -,1 .8,1 | f,-n.f ,-s: f ,s .f ,s |n,r .d : .f j 



i.ti.d : .s If .n,r ; r .,d|d 



II 



28. KEY B?. M. 80. 

f : n .,r : n 



-aataitee. From .Z7a<W*"Jephtha,"pp. 17, 18. 

- t d ,r : n ,d 4 r : n - ,f ,d : r ,n ,d : r I - ,t|,d : r ,ti,d : r 



F. t. 



- .t" : - .r 1 : - .f I n,f ,8 : g : 8 I -f\ ,f : s,f ,n : f ,n ,r I d 



taralaterele. ene-fe. a-ana-terele. 
29. KBY A. M. 60. From Handel' t "Samson," p. 33. 

[ : d | d :_- I - :_ - [- :- .t.l,,8,> 



883 



jln : -,-r.dt|l||8|l|t|.drn ; f .r It) :- .d Id 



30. KEY Q. M. 80. 

.lf,-:siv.fr,-|d 



tana-a. tene-O- From Gtraun't " Te DeUm," p. 35. 

:r .^nf|n .If,- : sn,-.fr,- Id :r |d 



31. KEY A. M. 72. 

,: .. 



Tanafa-AI. 



.s 



From Handefs " Samson," p. 66. 

:d d :d |d :rr,d.- 



il' 



:nr,d.- |cP :- .t II .8 : f .n 



|rd,t|- :d ,f n :r .,d Id 



[Advanced Rhythms.] 



183 



TAAtefene. TAAte-ene. SAAte-ene. 

32. KEY E7- M. 30. From Handel's " Samson," p. 42. 

.8| 



: .f ,-n| n 



:- .f,n|r :d ., 
(| .1 :s .f,-n|n .,8 :l,s.f,n|r 
tin .d,-t|; d .,1s |s : 

il' 

(In .fs.lt :d' 



: .f |r 



.s 



.r 



d .t| :d .r,nf|r 



33. KEY G. M. 80. 

: s Is 



From Graun's " Te Deum," p. 35. 

fe .sl,td':r' |-,d' .t,l:s,f .n,r 



II 



34. KEY D. M. 66. 



f. G. 



35. KEY E. M. 100. 

il' 

U ,f.n,f: s,f.n,f|n .s : 

36. KEY D. M. 80. 

|- .t,-d':t .r' 

37. KEY G. M. 80. 
|r .sr,- : t&,-.r't,- 



SAAtene-fe. 



From Handel's " Jephtha," p. 70. 



.d 1 : n .,s : fe 



'/ 
:fe 



.,n If : .nf,s:f .n |r 



- .n 



Safatefe. 

f : - .s |n .d : n 



From Handel's "Jephtha," p. 105. 

,ri.r,n: f,n.r,n|r .f : 



,s.f,s: l,s.f,s|f .1 : - .r 1 



r'.d' :d' .t |d 



TAI-AAte-ene. 



- .t,-d':t . 



From Graun's " Te Deum," p. 35. 



.n 



.,rW: r' 



SAAte-ene. TAAtene-e. 



.t 



From Graun's " Te Deum," p. 36. 

.8 .f,-s:f .n 



d' .,tl : s 



[Advanced Rhythms.] 



184 



38. KEY D. M. 80. 

.f'r 1 ,- : n'd 1 ,- .r't,- Id 1 



From Cfraun't " Te Deum," p. 35. 

.f'r 1 ,-: n'd',- .f'r',- 



89. KEY D. M. 84. 

n .,rn: n .,rn| f .,nf : f .,nf 



AA-efene. 



From Handel' t " Samson," p. 97. 



s .,fs: s .,fs|l .f : s .1 it, : - .t, |d 



To be sung in two parts, the Examiner or some other person taking one part. 
40. KBY Q. M. 120. From Handel's " Dcttingen Te Deum," p. Id. 



si 


: 8 |- 


.f,n 


:f 




f 


.n,r 


: n 




i _ 


.r,d 


:f 


:- .li.tiUi 




: - 


.ti4 


ti 




: - 


.li 


.sild 




:- -U, 



f .8 : n .r I n : r .,d 



t, .s, :d 



41. KEY G. M. 120. 

n : - .fe,s | fe 



In two parts, as above. 

From Handel' i " Dettingen To Deum," p. 17. 

:- .86,1 se : - .l,t |n : 1 .8 



: n 



|- .r,d:r 



.d,ti:n .r |d .t, : 



f 


.n : r 






1- 


.n 


:d 


ti 


d 


: ti .,1| 


Hi 
11 


1 


: - 


.t 


,1 


| 86 


.n 


:1 







: se 



42. KBY B*?. M. 120. 

8| : d, 



:n : si 



In two parts, as above. 

From Handel't "Dettingen Te Deum," p. 28. 



1, 


:- .8, 


: 1, .f. 


r, :, :- .f, 


MI 


: 1. 


:- .tai 


1, .d 


: r 


:- .1, 


t, .r : n 


:- .t t 


d .n 


:f 


: - .r 



F. t. 



8, .n ( : 1| : - .r ( 


8, 


:-.d, 


:d 


df.r 


: n .d 


:r.t, 


d 


:-.n 
: 


:r.d 


n 


:-.d 


:f 


-.r 


: n 


:-.d 


'8 : : 


- .n 



ti : 



r :r 



[Advanced Rhythms.] 




Thesd Exercises are intended for students or classes preparing for the Intermediate Certificate. 

Requirement 4. 



1. KEY F. 



Cadence Transitions to First Sharp Key. 



:s ,f :r in : 



s :fe |s :s 



f :r in :d d :t ( id 



r :s |f :r in :fe is :n r :s |f :r In :r |d 



i :i r 

2. 

r 

3. 

( :s In :f !r :s II :fe |s :r If :s |n :d Ir :t< |d 
C I I I i 

4. 
:d Ir :f |n :s Ife :1 |s :n f :1 is :d' In :r |d 



< :d I 

ti 



5. 



\ :d iti :s, |d :s jfe :r ;s : 



:f is :n 



6. 



i 



:s If :n |r :d r :fe |s :r In :f Is :n 



7- 



:s 



f :s 



:n 



d :f |n : 



r :r |d 



f :r |d 



f :fe |s :s r :n |f :r d :t, |d 



d 1 :fe |s :s In :1 |s :d n :r |d 



9. 

:d |n :s 



t :fe |s :n 



if :r 



Id 



Fassingr Transitions to First Flat Key. 

10. KET D. 

in :r |n :d n :f is : Id 1 :ta ll :s Id 1 :t 



' 



Udi : 



:t Id 1 :s In :1 is : 



1 :ta 



:t Id 1 :r' |dl : 




Price OXB HALFTBNNT. LONDON : J. CURWBN & SONS, 8 & 9, WARWICK LANE, E.G. 

185 N 



186 



12. 

s :n if :1 It :d' It : Is :ta |1 : If :f IN : 



II' ' 

13. 



n 



If :n Ir :fe Is : |s :f |ta :1 Is :t 



I 



j d 1 :t |1 :s If :n |r : In :ta 11 :s If :r |d : II 

15. [With imitation.] 

l :d r :f |n :f Is :ta |1 :t 

16. [Oscillation.] 

j s :f In :1 |s :fe Is :- |d' :ta |1 :r' |d' :t Id 1 :- 



:f |n :r In :r |d 



Extended Transitions Better Method. 
17. XT D. A.t f.D. 

d 1 it in :d In :f is : d :n |s :d t ( :r |d 8 : 



,1* 

18. 

{ |. =f ... . 

19. 

il" !f " ' 

20. 



f.D. 

:d Id :t, |d g : 



A.t 

it :- d'f :r 



A.t. f.D. 

is : I *r :n |f :n.rd : 



A.t. 



n : If :r In :1 is : 



(In : 



:d if :r |d :t ( 



21. 
d :r |n :f Ir :d is : 



A.t 



:d in :r .d 



t, :r 



f.D. 



f.D. 



22. A.L f.D. 

Ud 1 :t ll : If :f in :- "1| :ti id :n r :r |d s ; 



23. 



jln :d |r : 



If :n |r : 



A.t 



:r Id : 



f.D. 



The return transition ia made on the lut note BO that the Exercise can be repeated or the next one taker 

without pauae. 

[Elementary Transitions.] 



187 



First Sharp Transitions, shewing Cadential forms of Bass. 

24. KEY E. S.B. 



( :d 


n 


g 


Id' 


:1 


8 


:fe |s :f 


n :d 


Is 


:n 


r 


r |d 


?:d 


s 


f 


In 


:d 


r 


:r is, :ti 


d :1, 


It, 


:d 


f, 


si Id 


25. 
















( :n n 


r 


Id 


:n 


n 


:fe |s :n 


f :s 


11 


:d' 


n 


r Id 


(:d 


d 


r 


In 


:d 


1. 


:r Is, :d 


1. :si 


If, 


:1. s, 


s, Id 


26. 
















r 


r 


f 


In 


:s 1 


:fe |s :n 


f :1 


Is 


:n 


f 


r |d 


1:1 


t, 


S| 


Id 


:t. 


1, 


:li |s, :d 


1| 'f 


In 


:d r 


s |d 


27. 
















( :n 


f 


n 


Ir 


:n.fe 


s 


:fe |s :f 


n :d' 


It 


:l.s|f 


f |n 


i> 


ti 


d 


Ir 


:d 


t, 


:li Is. :. 


1, :fe, 


Is, 


:1. It, 


si Id 








First Flat 


Key, Imitation, and Oscillation. 


28. K 


BY E. 














S :n 


d 


:r 


In 


:fe 


8 


- I- :n 


f :s 


11 


:t 


d' 


. i 
~~ i~" 


























( :d 


n 


:r 


Id 


:li 


S| 


- I- :d 1 :s 


If 


:r 


d 


:- 1- 


t:t 


d> 


:ta 


11 


:1 


r 1 


d 1 |t :s 


f :n 


In 


:r 


d 


:- 1- 


i:n 


n 


:d 


If 


:f 


fe 


r |s :n 


r :d 


Is 


:s, 


d 


. i 
i 


29. KEY F. 


Extended Transitions, without Distinguishing 
C.t. 


Tone. 
f.F. 




( *d 


n 


:s 


Id 


:r 


n 


| :d' 


f :n' 


In' 


:r' 


di s 


:- 1- 1 


( *d 


d 


5*1 


In 


:r 


d 


- |- :t,n 


r :d 


Is 


:si 


ds. 


. !- 1 


30. 








C.t. 




IF. 




i :n 


d 


:r 


In 


:d 


t, 


d |r :t,n 


s :d' 


In' 


:r> 


dig 


:- 1- I 


f:d 


n 


:r 


Id 


:n 


r 


d |ti : s id 


n .d 


Is 


:s, 


d s, 


:- 1- 1 


31. KEY F. 


With Distinguishing Tone, 
c.t. 


f.F. 




'n 


8 


:f 


In 


:r 


d 


: | :"1 


s :d> 


Id' 


:t 


dig 


:- |- 1 


la 


t, 


:B) 


Hi 


:ti 


d 


: |- :df 


n :1 


Is 


if 


d S| 


:- 1- 1 


32. 








C.t 




f.F. 






r 


:d 


Iti 


:d 


r 


:f |n :r s 


1 :r' 


Id' 


:t 


11, 




lid 


f 


:n 


Ir 


:d 


ti 


:si |d '.t\n 


f :r 


11 


: 


S| 





[Elementary Transitiona.] 



188 



83. 



'" 



C.t 



f.F. 





n 


f IB 


n 


f 


|1 :tn' 


f .n 1 |r' 


t 


dig 




d 


r |n 


d 


ll 


s, |f :,d 


t, :d If 


8 


d8, 


34 










C.t. 




f 


.F. 




n 


r Id 


n 


8 


f In :r s 


1 .t :d: |d" 


t 


dig 




d 


r |n 


d 


t, 


s, |d :t,n 


f :n |r 


S 


ds, 


35 










C.t. 




i 


.F. 




s 


f In 


d 


n 


r |d :rg 


n 1 :r' |d' 


t 


dig 




n 


r Id 


n 


8 


81 |1, :*in 


d :r |n.f 


8 


d 8 | 



I 



I 



Sudden Extended Transition and Chromatic fe in Bass. 
36. KEY D. A.t. 



:s 



Ud' :t 

(Id :n |f :n 



f :r |n :d 
r :t| |d :n 



d'f :r 



:r 



't, :r Is, :f, 



s :f |n :- 

ni .'S| |d ; 



f.D. 

'd 1 :s |n :ta 

l|H :n |d :n 



1 :s |f :r 
f :n If : 



8 :f |n :r 
n :1 | s :fe 



n :r |d :- 
s :t, |d :- 



37. KBY D. 

:d' 



td 



|t :ta 
n :d |r :n 



Sudden Passing Transition. 

A.t 
:d> Is :' 



f.D. 



f :f 



:tn 



t, :d 
r :d 



II 



Chromatic fe and ta (in Air), and Cadence Transition to First Flat Key in 

Better Method. 
38. KET D. A.t. 



8 :fe If :n 
d :r Is, :1, 



:d 



f.D. 



f.GK 



II 



i,n :f Is :in 
f,d :r |n :'d 



:f 



:ta |t :d 
1, lit Id :- |df :n |r :d 

[Elementary Transitions.] 



:f, |ii : 's, :i 
D.t. 



n :r Id : 



n :r Id : 
8 :s, 'd ?- 



inierraeliiat? fen0iiinns frntn tjje Ctoira. 

Selected from the works of Bach, Handel, Graun, Haydn, Mozart, &c. 

These selections are intended to give exercise to classes which are preparing for the study of difficult 
music, and especially to aid pupils in obtaining the Matriculation or the Advanced Certificates. The keys 
may he changed to suit the voice. 

J. C. 



1. 

s 

His 


KEY A!?. 

:r :f 

name is 


n .r : d .t| : d 


ex - eel - lent, 


2. 


KEY C. 

.n 1 n 1 .n 1 : r 1 .d 1 


d.f. B>. 

|f : *s, 




Je- ho-vah's glo-ry 


known ; The 



3. KEY F. 

s I s : - : f I n :-:r |d:-:t| 

No more to I Am - mon's God and 



4. KEY D. 

r" |r':- : d' 

No more to 



Two Removes. 

B 7. t.m. Bach's " Blessing and Glory," p. 11, 12. 

s : r : f In .r : d .t, : d 

His name is ex - eel - lent. 



" Samson," p. 95. 
: .r it, .s, : s .r |n 
shall I from his presence fly. 

" Jephtha," p. 4. 

PI : - : r |d : - : ti 1| : - 

shall our cym - bals ring. 
" Jephtha," p. 4, 5. 



i -r If 

Their i - dol gods 
G. t.m. 

King, fierce Mo - loch, 
E. t.m. 



t :-:! |s:-:fin :- rn'h'r 1 :- :d'|t:-:l|s:-:fln:- 

Am - mon's God and! King, fierce Mo - loch,l shall our cym - bals ' ring. 



II 

(I 
II 



5. KEY C. 

t ;r'.t ; 1 .s 

And their 

6. KEY D. 



d 1 .t 


] 
bute, 


3. t.m. 
de't :r'.t : 1 .8 


"Jephtha," p. 

d 1 .t : d 1 : 


92. 


tri - 


And their 


tri - bute. 


d 1 .t 


rd'.l :t .d" 


r 1 .d 1 : r' .n' : r' .d' 


" Samson," p. 83, 
E. t.m. 

t .1 :ti .t :d' 


84. 


world 






t 


:t :r' 


8 : : s 


d' : - : - 




world, 


rules the 


world in 


state. 






r 1 : n 1 

Eules the 



rules the 

Price ONE PENNY. LONDON : J. CUBWEN & SONS, 8 & 9, WARWICK LANE, E.G. 

189 



190 



7. KXT G. 

f|n .n : .n d t | .d : d .r t, .t, : |t,.c 
Brethren.fare- well your kind at- tendance now I 

iif : .f |f .f :f .n d : .d |n : .n 1 


"Samson," p. 94. 
d.f. F. 

:r .d 1| : |dr : r .n | 

pray for- bear, Lest it of-' 
G. t.m. 

: .is|f .f :f .n d : || 

you'll nothing hear im- pure. 

" Acis and Galatea."p. 52. 
: - .r n : f n .r : s .n \ 


1 1 fend to see me girt with friends, Ex-peot of me 

8. KEY E!?. f. A>. 
fir : - .r n :f n.r:s.n|d : 8 r 


1 1 Mur - m'ring still his gen - tie love, Mur - m'ring still his gen - tie) 
B9. t.m. 

!ld : T : - .r n :f |n .r :s .n |d : | : || 


love, Mur - m'ring still his gen 
9. ur B?. 

(i : | :n, 1| : lt| : 

And his hands 

,.n : In :- .n is : IB : s, 

\ 1 par . - ed the 1 dry land. Foi 

,|n : :n if :- .f |n :r 

( \ sea, and | he hath fash - ion 

1O. XBT F. 

,| :n .r :n - .r :n :n .r f .n : r . 


tie love. 

" Come let us sing," p. 20. 
d.f. A?. 

d :1, |f s :f . 

form - ed and pro - ) 
B>. t.m. 

"r :- |d :t, . 
His is the i 

f. E!7. 

taf :>|-:- - 
d it. 

"Israel," p. 26. 

d :t, .1| pi : : 

up - on the! ground, 

si : f, .d r : n ,t| : d 
up - on the ground, mingled with 

1 B 


1 1 Mingled with the hail, ran a- long 
G. t. m. 

,i :n .d :r - .r : r :*d .d Id .t| : 1 ( . 

\ \ mingled with the hafl, ran *- long 

(|- ,ti :d : n .r d : - .d : t| .d ti : 

' the hail, ran a - long up - on the ground. 



[Intermediate Transitions.] 



191 



I! 



11. KEY E. 

s : f ; - I n 

Take the heart 



: s II : r : - |s.f ; n.r : d 

you' fond - ly gave ; 



| 1 mine; 



d. f. D. 

;- fs :f :- |n 



Take the 



12. KEY B>. 

: s, In, : d| |t a : s. 

But I woe ! when burst - ing 



heart 



d. f. A?. 



" Jephtha," p. 15. 



: r' : n 1 



lodged in your breast with 



you 



fond-ly 



gave. 



un - con - troll' d, The 



f, :r, |r :d 

glow - ing me - tals 



Song of the Bell," p. 36. 



t, : m, | 1, 
fierce ex - pand. 



13. KEY B7. 



;d 

His 
E?.t. 



t| .d : r .t| ; 1| .d i r .1 ( ; t\ .d : r .t t 



d. f. A 1 ?. 



drous 1 frame 



to 



dr : 

raise, 



"Blessing and Glory," p. 10, 11. 



: S 
Whose 



lone 



glo 



: : d" 



de - 



d'.s :l.t : 



f 

~~ > i 



end 



: r 

rious 

n : 

praise. 



14. KEY E'?. 



Three Removes. 



Haydn's " First Mass," p. 52. 
a. d. f. G7. 



: s.s s : s | : 1 

He is bless -ed tha 


s : s | : s 

i com - eth, O 


s :- |- :- 

Lord. 


- - :- |r :d j 

in thy ' 


|t| : | r : d j t| 


:-.d|r :d 1 


, :- 1 : 

iame. 


, , l , j 


Ho |. 


ly i 


E7.t. m. 1. 

"s : d 1 |t : r 1 c 


I 1 :- |s :1 

)less - ed, is 


r : | r .,n 


: f .,s 1 f : | n y 


He is 1 


bless ed 


that com - eth. | 


16. XBY 0. 

.n : t .t |t : 

Un-will-ing-ly 


.t it .t : t .d 1 i 

theirl super - sti - tion 


A.t. 

' . : .d 1 id 

yields this rest 


m. 1. "Samson," p. 1. 

: I .d :d .r . 

; To breathe heav'n' j 



.n |f .r :r .d 

fresh bio wing,pure and 



sweet. 
[Intermediate Transitions.] 



102 



16. KET D. 



d. f. C. 



i : 


s |s : - : s 1 :- 


:- I s :it r' :- 


1 


In dia mal dance 


a - round 






f. r. 


H 


n" :- :- | : : j 

blue, 


: : r | f : - : r n : - 

In dis mal dance 


!l 


f :- :- |n :- :- n 


:- : - Id :- :r n:-. 


round the fu 


r - - nace blue. ' 




17. MY A>. 


"i 


II 


: Is :d 

De signed for 


t ( : t| f : f in 

joy and peace, u I made 




B7. t. m. 1. 




S 


*'f :n |r :r 

to ro - Tolt and 


d . '- | 

cnme. 




18. KEY C. 


Maefan 


M 


n 1 :- |8' :- f :- 


- |n' : t : |d' : 



" Jsphtha," p. 4. 



the fur 



nace 
i. d. f. A?. 

J 



" Song of the Bell," 
f. D7. 

:- ."it|r" 

The toe 



p. 36. 



: r 



Sport 



up 



Xacfarren't "May-day," p. 30.31. 
A. t.m.l. 

: I :".| 

I chant ed I ground ; A. 



in : 

I joy 



:d .tin 
oua, I joy 



: d .ri n : d | s : n 

oua t throng now comos a 



long. 



II 



10. KEY B>. 

: |d : d .r |n .n : 



,: ti.d 



Gome,then,myl daughters, choicest art be 

G. t. m.l. E. t. m. 1. 

| .i,d: d .r n 



-stow, 



) j brow, And in your songs for ever be con- fess'd The valour thatpre -serv'd. 



" Judaa Maccabseus," pp. 98, 99. 



| .r:n.f 
To weave a 



.t|r'.t :l.s 



r .r : 



|r .r : r . 



chaplet for the victor ' s) 



20. KEY F. Two Removes. More difficult rhythms. " Jephtha," p. 40. 

G. t. m. 

|d : .r |t, .t, :1 



He 



f .f :s .r |n .n : .t| 

mad* a bloody slaughter, and pur 



n .r :n 



-sued the fly - ing foe 



t| ,t| : 1| .8) 
till Imght bade sheathe thel 



[Intermediate Transitions.] 



193 



i 1 



sword, 



21. KEY A 



i 



.d :n .d |f t .d 

And taste the joyi of 



f .,f:f .n |d 

vio - to-ry and peace. 



" Jephtha," p. 33. 

d. f. G. 

H.s : s .s : s .s il :n t I f .,s : f .,n ; f ..r i s ..1 ; s .,f : s .,*n j 

In vain they roll their) foam - ing I tide, 

1 : s ,,f : s 



X - .n : n ,n in 

their foam-ing | tide. 



il 



22. KEY E?. 

: .d |n 

Be - gone, 
F. t.m. 

IT 

Fly 



.s, 



be - 



gone, 



ft it) : 

my I child ! 

.s, |f .r : 

And leave me 



,t| |r .r :r .d 

Thou hast un - done thyl fa - ther. 



"Jephtha," p. 61. 

li .1, : 



.!!, 

to the 



23. KEY B?. 

n .d : .S| |d : n 

Saying, The sword of 

t .t :r" .t |s : 

for his Is - rael fought, 



'God 



.n |d .d : 

and Gideon." 



r .r :r .d 1 1, 

rack of wild des-pair. 



" Judas MaccabaBus," p. 56. C. t. m. 

.d :d .r |n : .T'{ 



It was the Lord 



that' 



.d" :n' .d 1 1 1,1.1 : .d'.t.d'ls : 1 

| And this their wonderful salvation! wrought. 



24. KEY C. 



r 1 

Ha! 



.8,8 



" Samson, ' p. 68. 

.s :s .1 |t .t rt.d'.r'.d'j 

I thought that labour and thy chains had) 



il 

SI 

il 



dostthou, then, al -rea-dy sin - gle meP 

D. t. m. 

: ,n .n,n | l.s .s : s,s .s ,1 it .,1 : 1 .t | s .s : s ,f .s ,r / 
Hadfortunebroughtmetothatfieldof| death, where thou wrought' st wonders with an ass's* 



1 .1 

tam'dthee. 

jaw, I'd left thy carcase where theasslay 



dead. 



25. KEY C. 

s .s :s .s |d' .d 1 : 

For the horse of Pharoah 



.d' Id' 

went! in 



D. t. m. "Israel," p. 133. 

:d' .r 1 h'r'.r" : .r'.d'.r'it .t :t .d'.r'l s 

with his chariots and with hisl horsemen in - to the sea. 



[Intermediate Transitions.] 



194 



26. KEY Gfr. 

. t| : n .t| | d . t| : 
Be - hold thy servant, 



Three Removes. More difficult Rhythms. "Samson," p. 44,45. 



.t, Id .t| : n .t| | r 
Thy" servant in dis-tress, 







God! 



:- .r |r :- 

be - hold, 



!l 



e n : r .d |t| .lj,S|: d .t| 
To dust his glo -ry they would 



r .d_,t|:n .r,d|f .n,r:g ,f,n 
tread,To dust his glo - ry they would 



r 

tread, 



.Is 

Anc 



Js :f .jn 


n : 


i ' 


him 


| num ber 


27. KBY B?. 




, id : d .d 1 1| : .n, 
( | Here lies the proof: If 




f.E>. 


,ti .d :r .s, |d : .rl 

f \ in- vo - cato his aid. His 


jit : .t |t 


.t :1 .8 


' 1 spells that gave our hero 



.r,d|t, 

a - mongst 



- -t, 



the 



dead. 



l,.li :1, .t, |d : 

Da-gon be thy God, 

f .f :f .n id : 

glo-ry is con-cern'd. 

d 1 : .s Id 1 ! 
strength, Then know 



"Samson," p. 74. 

.d :d .r 1 1, .t, : 

With high devo - tion 

C. t. m. 1. 

.d : d ,r |n .."s: s .1 

Let him dis- solve those magi 

.n :f. ,s|d : 
whose God is God. 



II 
II 



28. KBY B!7. 

: g |r .n : f .n 

Sound then the last a - 



II 



f .f :s .r |n : 

with in - trepid hearts; 

29. KIT E. 

: |n .,r:n 



d : | .d : d .r 

larm ! And to the 

D. t. 

.d in .n : r .df |t .,t : t .d 1 

Del -pendent on the might of Israel's 



G. t.m.l. "Jephtha," p. 31. 

"s .,r : r ,n |f .f : 
field ye sons of Is - rael ! 



God. 



8 .n : r .d 



Taught by great Al - fred, never from your 



door, 



If 



MI :n_ 
I thrust the 



poor. 



. d. f. a. 



No 



Macfarren't "Christmas," p. 21. 

-.f|s :1 1 :r 



will you re - 



lent - less 



tale can to the time more 



r .,d:d.d |d 

fitt - ing be than one 



30. 



KBY B7. 

: .1, Hi 

His migh 



ty 



r :- .r, |f, .,f,: t ( . 

griefs, His mighty griefs re-dress, 

flntermediate Transitions.! 



" Samiwn," p. 43. 

I .HI : HI .HI 

His might; 



II 



1. s 

griefs, 



d. f. 



I .li :l|.t| d s I :- .di .t .r :f .n |d 



His mighty 



: 



E">. t. m. 

: r .n |f .f : f ,n 

Nor by the hea-then be they 



II *K 



griefs, 



told, 



His mighty griefs re-dress, 



F. t. m. 

.is : r .n if .f : f .n 



|de 



Nor by the I heathen be they told. 



31. KEY G. 



Two and Three Bemoves. Advanced Rhythms. 



A. t.m. 



" Jephtha," p. 102. 



n r : r ,n ,f : r jn ,f n ,r ,d 


: r ,d ,t, : d "r : 


r,n,f:r,n,f n.r.d : r ,d,ti: d 


j| Still I'm of thee 

32. KEY G. 

, 1 si : - ,f e,,S| : li t t\ ,d 


pos - sess'd Such 

n ,,d : s : HI 


is kind heav'ns de - cree. ' 

Macfarren't " Christmas," p. 26. 
s.d.f. Bt? 
fi 8 ~ . f i : 8 |P1| .,HI i 
red up - on the) 

.,li d ,,ti : d I 


1 1 Blood of Dan - ish 

j,f, :- I .1, 

| 1 snow, A - 

33. KEY G>. 

y! ,t| | d .t| : n ,t| 
Be-hold,be-holdThy 

E>. t. m. 1. 
ii- .de n :r .d |t|l t ,S|. 


war - riors la 

1, :- .r :d 

mid the con 

d .t| : .t| d ,t| : i 

ser-vant, Thy ser-vant i 

t .d r,d.t| 


qu'ring Sax - ons. 
" Samson," p. 42, 43. 

n ,t| r : | : 

n dis- tress, 

: .n |f .n ,r : s .f ,n j 


Re turn, re - turn, 

fir : .l,s|s :- ,f,n 


O God! 

n : .r si : 

hold Thy ser 


Re - turn, O God of } 

- .f rT :r" .,d|d : || 


M hosts! be- hold, be- 


vaut in distress. 



34. KEY B|?. 



And 



hear'n 



Maefarren't " Christmas," p. 22. 
G. t.ra.l. 



li : 


- .r : d .1| d .,ti: d : 


li 11 





.r :d,l|.- 


n : 


:is 


breath 


- ing forth his sor - rows, 


Lifts ' up 




his withered 


hands : 





: 


:s. 


d : :d 




S| : 


d 


"" ~* 


n 


~ 


. "~* 





iy 


King who 




reigns 


on 




high, 


: r 


: n 


1, :s :-. 


f 


n : 


r 


: 


d : 


I 


hirq 


who 


hears 


the 


poor 


man's 




cry." 



The) 



[Intermediate Transitions.] 



196 



II 



35. KBT B&. L is O. Minor Mode. "As the Hart," p. 8. 

.t| |n .,t| : t| .d Ir : se, .1, |t| t .t|,n,lr ,,r :d . t t ,ti) 

My tears have been myl meat day and night, While theyl dai - ly say unto' 



Id 

me, 



C. t.ni. 

"r 1 .,t : t .1,1 1 se 

dai - ly say unto me, 



in 1 .,d':l .,se|t 

I Where is now thy God P 



II 
If 



36. KEY F. X is D. 
1, : |1| : ill 

Fount of I mer 



s.d.f. 



End 



.,1,| se, : n ( 
cy free - ly 

.,!,( se, : HI 



d :- 

flow 



Rossini's " Stabat Mater," p. 16. 

- *' : ~ ' 



less 



streams of love be - 



stow - 



t, :- 

ing. 



37. KEY B7. More than Three Removes. 

, se, : - : seill, : - :d |t| : - : HI | 



1 Song of the Bell," p. 27. 



flii :- : 

' Night con: 



Night comes) on 



with sa - ble I man - tie, 
O. t. m. 1. 



| "8 : - : 8 
Soft - ly 



:- :1 |t :1 :s Id' :s :n 



sleeps 



the burh 



er peace 



ful, 



r. s. d. f. E?. 



111 : :f 


n : - : - |r 

dread, soft 


- 


: r 


< With - out 


j, : : 


B7. t. 

: : pi, :- 

Guard 


:t, 

- ed 



d : - : d rn | f : - : r 

sleeps the pea sunt 



n : - : d 



peace 



ful,) 



G. t. m. 1. 

d : - : de | r : - : re I |f| s : - : - 

and! care - 



by 



the law, 



:r d :- :d 



ful watch - ing o - ver ' o'er 

[Intermediate Transitions.] 



s :_&_ : n \ *__'_{_ : r I d : - : 

his lone - ly I bed. 



fr0m it Classics. 



More than Three Removes. 

38. KEY E. r.s.d.f. C. 

.s :s .s :1 .t jd ! .d :d'n' .r 1 :d' .t Id 1 

Of swift-er flight, of ' swift-er flight and sub - tier ' frame, 
d.f.Bb- 



" Jephtha," p. 42. 



Of 



:r :n 

swift - er 



r 

flight 



.r :r .r 

and subtler 



frame. 



39. KEY C. 



.1 



t .s :d' .n 1 



d 1 .t,di:r' .s 



- .d' :d> 

- men,A 



Beethoven's " Mass in C," p. 23. 
s.d.f. Ek 



d' 

men, 



d.f.Db- 



A . 



id 1 



men, A 



d 1 

men, 
C. t.m.l.r.s. 



A - j 



n 1 
men, 



d 1 . 

men. 



40. KEY 



:d 

When she 
r.s.d.f. 

n 

go - 



:s 



saw Him, 

It 
all 



.,f:f .,i 

the Lord of 



f :n . 

glo - ry, 



:- .t 

His 



:d ., 

All his 



Rossini's "Stabat Mater," p. 9. 



jr," p. y. 

:f -,fj 
marr'd and' 



:- .d 1 |de' :- .de 1 

age marr'd and 



Ab- t.m.l.r. 

n| ; if ; I :'d' l-.s ;fe.s 

from the 



:- .s 



Fa 



ther's 



ry, Smart 

d : 

rod. 



41. KEY G. 



:s 
And 



|s.f:n.r 



in his eyes with 



s : |n : 

bright - ness 



"Creation," p. 42. 

f : I :f n : > 

shines The soul, > 



l.r.s.d.f. 



:n 

the 



ise : | :se 



breath 



and 



: | :f .r d 



ir :d 



age l of 



his 



d :- 
God. 



Price ONE PENNY. J. CURWEN & SONS, 8 & 9, WARWICK LANE, E.G. 

197 



198 



42. KEY D. 



Graun't " Te Deum," p. 9. 



j The 
<|8 : 


s :f.n |s :f 


n 1 .1 : 1 .1 11 .,s : s .d> 


-.t :- .1 |-.s :- .1 


good - ly fel low 

f ,n.f | n : 


ship of the prophets praise Thee, praise 
B. d. f. F. 

: R :l,.n f 

praise Thee, The n 

d 1 : t.l .s,f |n : - 


.f :f .f,f|f .n : 


>-ble army of martyn 

r : 1 

Thee. 


<| Thee, 
O. t. m. 

j,.f.n : |1 .8 : 

1 1 praise Thee, praise Thee, 


praise Thee, praise 



! 



43. KEY GK Transitional Modulation. Two Removes. " Israel," p. 100, 101. 

A. t. m. f. D. X is B. 



.8 

The 



n : d .d |i t si : s,.s 

depths were congeal - ed, the 



n 



: d .d 



:n.n' id 1 : 1 .1 |se 



:n 



depths were con-goal - ed, the) depths were congeal - ed. 



:d 



44. KEY A. 



\ Like 

if. 



me, a - vene to 



" Samson," p. 49 

:- |- :r.d|t, :- | 



each 



de - light, 



:r > 

She ' 



: | : r | se : I : t ir : | : n I d : | :1| 

wears the te - diousl wid - - ow'd night, She 



H 



d. f. GK 

: | :r 



wean 



the te 



dious 



wid 



ow'd night. 



45. KBT B>. 

(in :d :1 


r : : :n 


"Acis and Galatet 

: f n : r : d t,.r : d 


i | Melt - ing 
C 


mar 

t. m. X is A' 
det : : t d 1 : s 


man, last 

: d 1 r' : t : s n 1 : 


1 1 love. 
,,fi :1 :f 


Melt - ing mar 

n 1 : 1 : d 1 


man fill the grove. 

t :d' :1 se : 


1 1 Melt i 


ag mar - man, 


last ing love. 



ing 



[Advanced Transitions.] 



199 



46. KEY P. 

|n : n .n 1 1 .1 

In the warm! sunshine 



II 

II 



r .r : r 

ver-si - ty, 



: |n .n 


: n .ba 


O. t. m. L is E. 

se : T | s : 


ne of our prosp'rous 


days, friends swarm ! 


.r :f .n 


d 


' II 


draw in their 


head. 


II 



47. KEY C. L is A. 

: n .ba Ise .1 : t .d 1 

till Thy peo - pie pass 



I- :r' 

ver, 



"Samson," p. 14. 

t| : t ( .Id t,.t, : t,.d I 

But in the winter of ad- 



"Israel," p. 152. 

d 1 :t .1 



which Thou hast) 



pur 



chas 



D. t. m. 

I.SI^IL :t| .d |r .n :f .s |l__.t_ id 1 .r' |t 

o - ver, Lord. 



ed, till Thy peo -pie pass 



48. KEY A. 



:r .d |t|.r : d .t, il, :r|.r, In, : -.HI 



u ; r .d | t|.r : d ,t, 

' I Thy peo - pie 



Thy peo - pie | which Thouhastpur - chas- 



ed, 



li II, :n 
they shall be 



'Israel," p. 128.129. 
d. f. G. L is E. 

fe,se,:sei.l| \ 



still, till Thy 



Jt|.d ;r .n 

| people pass 



49. KEY D. 



II 



: |f :n 
ver, 



The en - e - my 



d> 



: n .r 



will 



Lord. 



d 1 :- 

said, 



will 



take, 



pur - 



d. f. C. L is A. 

*r .n : ba.se: 1 .t Id 1 .r 1 : n 1 .r 1 : d' .t 



"Israel," p 103. 

s : : 

sue, 



d' 



50. KEY At>. 

8 : f in 

Lord ! lay | not 



Transitional Modulation. Three Removes. "St. Paul," p. 21. 



: - ,n |n 



:r.l, t, 



this sin to their 



charge. 



: s 
Lord 



f :n 

Je - BUS ! 



II- 

I i ceive 



|n 



: r 



ceive my spi - rit ! 



fiP s d.f. C>. L is A). 
.41:1.1 |l.t ;d'.d' i 

And when he had said this hel 

[Advanced Transitions.] 



se :-.! il : 

fell a -I sleep. 



200 

61. KEY B>. X is O. 

But all the 



II 

II 



C. t. m. L is A. " Creation," p. 40, 41. 



woik 



1 : 

plete. 



t| t d . sei 
was not com 


-plete, But 


:t .t d' 

all the work 


: - .t :d' .sej 

was not com-) 


f. F. L is 
There 


D. 

1 : 

want 


: n d 

ed yet 


:- .d :t, .1, * 

that wondrous 



: n 



D. t. m. 1. 

d : n 



be 



ing, 



That grate - ful 



should 



God's 



pow'r 



62. KEY A!?. LiaF. 

Id : n : se 11 
works 



The | works 

r 

thou 



li :t, 

of thine 



d :1, :- 



ad- 



Haydn's " First Mass," p. 4. 
F. t.m.l. 



hands. 



: r 

thy 



s 

face 



: f 



from 



us, 



d' :t 

Hide not 



d 1 

thou 



Hide 

:- :d' 



:n I 

not ' 



d' 

thy face. 



63. KEY F. 

Re - I joice, 



d 

IV 



Beethoven's " Mass in C," p. 40, 41. 

|r :r 

in the 



n : - .n |n : n 

Lord and mag - ni - 



C. t. 

xi*t : t |t .t: t .tid 1 

} I fy him all ye gecd ofl ! 



ra-el, 



:d' Id 1 rd'.d 1 

How plen - ti-ful, 



Lord, 



thy 



Si 

II 



B. d. f. E7. L ia C. 

msi d i : 1 1 : - 1 1 : 1 



good 



: s 



which thou hast laid 



: n 



up 



|re : - .re 



for them that 



re :n 

fear thec. 



64. KEY E7. 

:r |s : I :1, 

Its voice to 



: S| |IT_ 
row it 



II 

) I loud. 



F. t. m. 



:f |_J_n_ I : r d Id : t, |f 

it - ' self not I feel - ing joy 

[Advanced Transitions.] 



Romberg's "Bell," p. 41. 

j^J^_i | r :_d_ 

I shall 



or pain, And) 



20i 



r .d : t ( .l| |n : n .n 



<|r.d ;t|.l| 

I with its 



va - ry-ing 



:d 



:1, 



notes 



' va - rv - insrl snflnfl : 



va - ry - ng scene 



soi : | .n : se.n II : li 

tend, On life's e'-vent - ful, 

D. t. m. 1. 

: | m ,S| : d .n 

And as ita 



s t-.rils^jvtilr^: ,d|s :-.n|l :-.slf .s : l.t 

tones, which first so I clear, Soon fade, and! on the ear de - 



d 1 :|: 

cay. 



II 



Transitional Modulation. More difficult Rhythms. 

65. KEY El?. " Acis and Galatea," p. 24. 

Bt?. t. d.f. At?. L is F' 



.t :d' 

No show'rs 



|- .r' :t .,t 



to larks so 



d 1 .s : 

pleasing, 



."ill .f :r .s 
Not sunshine to the 



bee, Not sleep 



|- .t : se .,se 

to toil so 



1 .1 



E?. t. 
.tpi'lf .r 1 :t 



As these dear smiles to 



d' 



56. KEY F. 

: s Ife : f .f |n .f : s .1 |r :s 

' They ' loa - thed, they loa-thcd to ' drink of 
d. f. Si?. L is G. 

d 1 .s :d'r' I- .d',t:di |- .ta :1 .se |1 

ter in - to blood. 



II 



II 



57. KEY B 7. L is G. 

T : ti ,t| | sei : .se 

Wretch-ed in - deed! But 



sei.se,: li .t, |d 



.li 



"Israel," p. 16. 

f :n .s |1 :1 .t 

ri ver : He turn -ed their' 



" Judas Maccabseus," p. 9. 



HI 
brace. 



C. t. m. L is A. 

| i,s : s .s 

Dis - tractful 



.f : 1 .s |n .n : 

the cho-son na - tion, 



let not Ju - dah's race Theirl ru-in with desponding arms em-' 

d 1 : | .s :s .1 it .t : |t .r 1 : f j 

doubt and deeper- 1 a - tion 111 be - come * 

D . t. m. L is B. 

.n II : .is |t : .s j 
I I AM ! The Lord of ! 



in .n : n .ba| se 
I Chosen by the Great 



Hosts 1 



:n .ba 
who still the 



in 



same, 



We trust, 



.1 id'.l :1 .n |f : 
will I give at- ten-tive ear. 



[Advanced Transitions.] 



202 



SI 

ill 



58. XBT E>. 
d : : d I tj .,r : s 

Hal le - llu - jah. 



M 

Hal 



le - llu 



jah. 



A*>. L is F. Haydn' t 

ta,f, : - : f, 

A - men, 
. m. Z is A. 

s if, : - i f. 

A - men, 


" First Mass," p 
A - men, 

H| .,861! t| 


A - men. 



69. IBT A. is F$. Beating thrice to the measure. 



Singing great Jeho - rah's praise, The 



f .n ;r .d |t t : 1| | 

ho - lv choir em - ploy, 



Jephtha," p. 49. 

;- .l,[t| .1| : t, .del 



f. D. L is B. 

[|n.e: 1 .t Ise.ba; n.ba[se.l ; t .d'jr'.t ; n'.r'ld'.t ; d'.r 1 n 1 :1 |t ; l..se| 1 : { 

The ho - ly choir em - ploy. 



II ' 



' 



iB^itnd'in :f In : is.,f:n.,r|d : ta 1 1 :- 

Such as on our ao-lemn days, I Singing great Jehovah's praise. 



60. 



II 
H 



Q. 



.d 



The wa 



.1, 



" Israel," p. 100, 101. 
A. t. m. 



ten were ' gath - er - ed, the wa 



.1| : t, .s, j 

- ters were / 



f. D. L is B. 

d .,d :d .n |de 8 e.ba : se .n II .,1:1 .d |t| .t, : 

gath - er - ed, the wa - ters were ' gath - er - ed to - geth-er. 



61. 



. t 



,: . |1 . :r .8 In .r.d: d |- .r : t ( .,d Id 

No show' rs to larks so 'pleasing, Not sun - shine to the ' bee, 



jl 



E>. t. L is C. 



d .t,,l,:l 

as - ing As these 



t : se .,1 
dear smiles to 



[Advanced Transitions.] 



" Acis and Galatea," p. 42. 

d. f. A7. 
: . r n If .r : ti .n 



Not sleep to toil BO 



: ti .n j 

o toil BO i 



203 



62. XEY D>. Zis .BO. 
n' :- 

Thou, 



Id 1 : 1 se.,1: t . | : 1 i se : t .t|d 



Lord, art 



Saydn's "First Mass," p. 21, 22. 



God a-lone, 



n 1 : I - : - 

A 

1, .t, :d .r,r,if : 

e 



n : 

men, 



aJ. - I migh - ty and e - ver - 



if- 2 ; Y 



n : 8 .f,n| r 

ver. A 



: - .r 



Lord for 

63. KEY F. L is D. 
( In .r_ : d .t, : d ,t|.l| j f .n 

| I Thou in thy I mer 

O. t. m. 



tn 



: r 



se : t 

last - ing. A - men.) 
B>. t. m. 1. 

jit's : |n rd.dj 

I O praise ye the) 

|d .r :n .fe s 



:f 



men, I A 

: - .n 



"Israel in Egypt," p, 112. 

r .de : r : 



cy 



r .r 


: n . 


f 


'. ^r .d 


ti 


: - .r 


: s, tt| 


d .t| 


:d 


hast led 


forth 




thy peo 


pie, 


which thou 


hast 




f, .n, 


:r, . 


1 

*l 


: se, .t| 


1, 


: 


: se, 


1. 


l 


deem ... 


. 


ed. 





s.d.f. B?.Zistf. 
:- ,.,,j 



- i 



Transitional Modulation. More than three Removes. 

64. KEY At?. "As the hart," p. 28. 

f. DO 



:d 

From 



r :1 |s :f 

hence - forth and for 



n :- - : 



At?. t.Zis F. 



d' 


:- |- :t 


1 :- 1- 


: m'l 


se 


: n 


11 


: 


... 


... 


.... 



il ! 



0. t. m. 1. r. 



|t 



65. XBY 0. 



er - 



mora. 



:d> 

for 



It 

I OT 



er 



n' : 

more. 



II 



All our 

n : 

strong. 

B .fe:f 



cher - ish, 



d 1 :n 

art and 



|f 

toil 

I 



r 

re 



s.d.f. A?. 



d 

pay. 

: 
:d 



r.s.d.f. A>. L'uF. " Song of the Bell," p. 22. 
Should the mould be] wrong, Or the " gush " too) 

:- .r |d 



F. t. m. 

|"s : - .f in 

Ah ! perl-haps, 



; r ,n 

while joy we 



:- .d id :., I 



All our hopes and wish 



es I per 



ish. 






[Advanced Transitions.1 



204 

66. KEY D. L is B. 

id 1 :- .d 1 |d' .,d':di.d' Id 1 .,t ; 1 

,- 1 All th'inhab-i - tantsofl Ca - naan 



.t 

shall 



d'.l 



" Israel," p. 121. 

.se |1 : .t 



melt 



a - way, 



shall' 



melt 



d<.l : .se 1 1 

a - way, 

s. d. f. Bt?, 

: s |d'l : 

the 



f. G. 

:d'g |- 



by 



great 



.r 1 : 


n 1 .de 1 


r< : 


- .d 1 


t 


:- .1 


shall melt a - way, 


shall 


melt 


a 


! 


I 


). t. m. 1. 


,r'| r 1 


B. 


t. m. 1. 
r'f : 


ness 




of 


Thy arm, 


of 



a - way ; 



67. KEY C. L is A. 

\\ 



Thy arm. 



Hossiiti'y " Stabat Mater," p. 14. 



1 .,t 


: Q' .,t : i .,i 


n .,a : i| : 


a .,r : n 


.,T : s .,1 


n ,,r 


:a : 


For 


His 


peo - pie's 


sin 


He 


suf - 


fer'd, 




1. r. s. d. f. Db. 






1 .,t 


:d' .,t:l .,f 


n ,,re: n : 


'n .,f : s 


.,1 : s .,f 


n .,r 


:d : 


His 


own 


pre - cious 


life 


Ho 


of - 


ferd. 



68. KKY B?. 



d :d 

As at 



:d d 

Mer- i 



:-.d:r n 

- bah they did, 



n 

und 



si* - :r 

! des ert, 



A!?, t. m. 

:*t ( : r 

Af - ter 



f 

for 



" Come, let us sing," p. 23. 
r. s. d. f. G?. L\&EJ. 

: n | m se : - .1 : se.l i 

at I Mas r sa in the) 

f :-.f if :n.t|:d.r ( 



years grief at I this diso-bedient' 



1.1 
i] 

II 
II 



d 

race, 



said: 

de 
bel, 



: 1 

I 



said: 



: :d.t,in :d : t|.l ( 

'Tis a I peo - pie that do 



r :d :t,.f 

err, and in their 



n :-.d:l, 

hearts re - bcl, 



Bfr.t. m. Zis G. 



n 


: n 8 : 


:f 


Af 


ter for 


ty 


. 


f. At?. X is F. 
jlfl.n f 


:f 




'Tis a peo 


- pie 



: s .s : f .n r 

and that of my sta 



:f :-.f 



f. E7. L is C. 



years grief 



d 



this 



n .t\: de.r 

dis-obcdicnt 



:n 

I 



: n .r jde : 

that do ' err, 



t r ii t n 

tutes I are still 

[Advanced Transitions.] 



Bb. t. m. X is (?. 

:-f I- :f .f :n.r J 

and in their hearts re - 



un '-mind - fuL 



NEW EDITION. 



MINOR MODE PHRASES, 

SELECTED FROM WELL-KNOWN COMPOSERS. 



For the 6th requirement of the Intel-mediate Certificate, any one of Noa. 11 to 22, taken by lot must 
be Sol-faad in correct tune and time. Two attempts allowed. The key may be changed when necessary. 



No. 1. KEY Q. L is E. 

li :l|.t, |d :r n 

as un-daunt-ed 



nl, : 

|* I Still 

II 



SIR H. BISHOP. From " Tis when to sleep." 

:f |ti :n 1 .1 :d |r :n II, : | 

y a tan - gled ' brake, 



n :- .r |d .r :d .t 

pause to mark the 



on we stray, Thro' 

li td |ti :rii 
si - lent way The 



Wo \ 



li :ti |d :r in : - 

cau - tious trav'1-lers I take. 



No. 2. KEY 



II 



| . m m 1 

Bump not the flask, thou 



>. L is O. 
t, 



MENDELSSOHN. From the "Turkish Drinking Song." 



d :1,.,1 



churl-ish clown, On the' board as tho* you would 



n 



break 



:- |d 



it! 



No. 3. KEY A. L is ft. 



;n .r 



d :1, it, :n, 

Christmas - time, when 



W. BOTD. 

li :-.t, Id :d 

frost is out, The 



From a Part-Song. 



|f :f 
grow -ing 



old, 



:ni il| :- .ti |d :r 

But I sure - ly, soon as 



:f in 



:r 



A - pril comes, 'Twill 



:se ( |1| : | 



wake and bloom a - ' gain 



No. 4. KEY C. L is A. 



( Sweet 



The 



:n 



|n 



d 1 : 



WELSH A.H. 

It :t |1 

ing, Makes' ev 



From " The Dawn of Day." 



It 
bo 



:1 



1 : 

glad, 



|se 



Spring a - gain re - | turn 

n :f jr :n ,d :r 

birds are sing - ing j from each spray, 'Tis' I a - lone am | sad. 
PRICE ONI HALFPENNY. LONDON: J. CURWEN & SONS, 8 & 9, WARWICK LANE, E.G. 

20.1 



206 

No. 6. KBT A. I is I 



J. . THOMAS, from - There are good fish in the aoa." 

l:n.r|d :d iti.li :t,.djl| : | :l|.tijd.t,:l,.ti |n, :se, 1 1, : i 
' I ' f 

i:n In.frn.f in :li In : | :n |n :r .d it, :n |1| : i 



No. 6. KIT D|>. L\sB\>. 



WILSH AIB. From "Of noble race was STienkin." 



f From his 



|8e.l:t.sel 



d 1 : 

cave in Snow-don's' moon-tains, Hath the 



d .l,;r .t||n :n 

pro - phet niin . strel 



spo - ken ; 



:1 .t Id'.n'rr'.d 1 It .r'rd'.t 



f It o - mens great sue - 



1 .d':t .1 |se :- .m, f .n :f .r in :ie 



cess in war, Of I con - quest the sure i to ken. 



No. 7. KBT 0. Li* A. 

,:n il :n |f :n 

i 

I We I all must work, it 



:n 



H. LAHKR. 

|f :n .r 



From a Part-Song. 

d 1 :- I- 



, :n.r 

/There's 



d 1 :d id :d'.t 



our lot. Each 

:1 |1 .l.se 



no - thing done, There's no - thing won, With- 



one must take his 



1 :l.se|l :l.se 
out the earn - est 



part, \ 

heart. " 



No. 8. KBT A. Liaft. 

, :n, d : it, :1, 

} The sad leaves are 


ti :- 
dy 


0. O. ALLBN. 
- |n, :m 
ing, the 


Fn 

n : |r :d 

sweet birds have 


am a Part-Song. 

t, :- 1- 

flown, 


' O'er ev 


|t| :d 
f ry fair 


ti :sei |n) :n. 


i :- |r :d 

iloom - ing and 


t, :- i- 

bright, 


bios 


som once 


:t, n : 
r The frost 


|r :d 

spi - rit 


r :- 

lays 


- Id :li 

her cold 


1, I |1, !80, 
fin gen to - 


1 :- i- 

night. 


No. 9 KBT ] 
i-.d.rm :sci 


Jb. 

li :ti.d |r 


:d.t> 


HANDBL. 

d :r.n|f :n 


.r n :r.d it, :1, 


From "Judaa," 

n : I 

sword. 


f Where warlike 


Ju - . 


das 


wields h 


is right - - eous 



( Minor Mode 



No. 10. KBT F. LiaD. 



J. R. THOMAS. 



c:n 



:n 



|d :n.,n 



'Mournl not for the owl, nor his 



:n 

Nor 
<:se 



n 



:n.,n 



lone - ly the bird, nor his 



t| :m |1| : .,t| 
gloomy plight; The 



ghast-ly mate, They're 



d :d ,,r in :n 

owl hath his share of 



207 
From "The OwL' 

i. = i , 

good; 



d :n .,n | 

each un-to each 



:- r 



n 

pride, 



|f 



:n .n 



^Thrice fond - er, perhaps, since a 



r :d |f :- ,nl 1 :f .r in :n 

strange dark fate Has' rent them from all be - 



side. 



No. 11. KBT Bb. L is O. 



i :ni 

' Veil'd 



n, 

by 



HKNHT SMART. From " Good night, thou glorious sun." 



:- .n, |ba ( :sei Hi 



thy cloak of ' crim-son gold, Thy 



d :n |r :1, 
day's high du - ty 



d : 



done. 



No. 12. KBT 0. 

se :1 ise :n 



On 



thee a - lone our 



P. LA THOHB. 



in 



:n 



spi - rits stay, While 



ba :se 



From the Tune " Hereford," 



:t 



held in life's on - e 



:t |1 

ven way. 



No. 13. KBT D. Z is B. 



:n 

Or 



lie, 



:n 



Iba :se 



HANDEL. 

1 :- I 



heav'n, earth, seas and I sky 



:t 
In 



:f 

Ere 



From "Jephtha." 
d 1 :se |1 :t 
one con - fa - sion 



:r |d :ti 1| 

a daugh - ter's ' blood 



II 



No. 14. KBT D. LisJB. 
n :n |ba :se 



HBNKT SHAUT. 



From "The Lady of the Lea." 



Cold, with - in the 



:t id 1 : 



grave lies she, 



d :d !r :- .d 

Sleep-ing peace - ful- 



No. 15. KET D. L\B B. 



:1 .t 



:t 



All in the 



{.d :n .b 

'Does my sweet 



:se .1 



downs the fleet was 



se 



:n .n 



.t 



William, Does my sweet 



LBVKRIDGB. 

n :- .f :n .r 

moor'd, The streamers 

d :n' ' 
Wil - liam 
minor Mode Phrases.) 



From "Black-eyed Susan, 1 
:t, .1, :d ., 



ing in the 



wind, 



: "< 



in .,l:d' .t 



.sell 



Sail* mong your ' cre^P 



IN 

No. 16. KEY 0. Lis A. Hnonr SMART. From "Now May is her&" 

rl.sell :t |se.ba:se.l|t :se in zl.iell :se 't :n Id 1 : | 



L:l.sel 
I I 



No. 17. KBT A. L is Ft. 

:li In : It. :se ( ini : | :m Iba: :i 



From the same. 



:t 



No. 18. KBY C. L is A. 

In :n |ba :n Iba :se 



Un : 



HAYDN. From "Achieved is the glorious work." 
:se |1 it If : |n : | 



j| 1 :t id 1 :d' 1 :t lie : ]ie :se |1 

No. 19. KBT C. LuA. 

{ 



in 



HANDEL. 



in 



From "Esther." 



:n lae :n II : 



For ' ev - er ' bless 
No. 20. KEY B 



ie :n iba :se 11 : ,se :1 it :se id 1 : It 



od, For I ev - er I bless - | ed, For I ev - er I bless 



ed. 



H d * 

S|n, :se. 



baj :se, |1 ( 
d :ti it, 



J. L. HATTON. From "Jack Frost" 

d :r iti :sei | li :ti |sei : I 



111 :d 



:ie ( Hi : 



H 



No. 21. KBT 0. LuA. 

n :ba m :ba lie :1 



G. A. MACFARRBX. 

t :d' |t :d' 



From "The Three Fishers. 

|r' :t II :- i : 



No. 22. KBT Eb> is ?. HANDBL. Phrases from " Israel in Egypt" 

e II :n iba :se 1 :f |n : II : I :se ba :se |1 



:se ll.ttd'.l se : In :- I :d' 11 :se in n Iba -ba lie 



(:se ll.tt 

(:M 11 : : :n Ise :ba |n :ba se :1 t Id 1 :1 . se : 

(Minor Mode Phrases.) 






FIRST EXERCISES FOR MIXED VOICES. 

TO BE USED AS AN INTRODUCTION TO "ADDITIONAL EXERCISES." 



Ex. 1. KEY D. 

d : n : 



FIRST STEP. 
;- d' :- d 1 :- 



In : Id : 



Ex. 2. KEY E'p. f (Sopr. and Bass.) 



:s 
:d 



n :d s 
d :d d 



:n 



Ex. 3. KEY C. f 
d :n s :n d : 

d : : d :n 



s :n 



:s 
:d 

n 
d 



t 
d :n 

:- d :d 

t 



s 



:s 



:s Id :- 



d 



Ex. 4. KEY F. 

n :d 



In :d 



d :n 



Ex. 5. KEY G. 

d :s, :d 



:d 



:n 



:d 



:n 






:s 



:s 

_ t 



Ex. 6. KEY F. 



d.s,:d 



n .d :n 



:n 



id 

:d 

d :- 

n .d :n 



n 

si : 

s .n :s 
s :n 



n .d :n 
d : 



Ex. 7. KEY G. 

Si :si 

!l. Swell the 

s, :s, 

n :n 

!2.Hark! the 

id :d 



SECOND STEP. 
SWELL THE ANTHEM. 



d 

an 

l 

n 

voice 

d 



:d 

them, f 



:n 

of 

:d 



na 

d 



:d 

the 

:d 

:n 

ture 

:d 



s 
song; 

t, 

r 

sings, 
S| 



d 

Praia 

d 

n 

Prais 

d 



A.L.C. 
:n 

es f 

:d 



68 f 

:d 



LONDON: J. CURWEN & SONS, 8 & 9, WARWICK LANE, E.G. PIUCE Id. 
8t. Co. (New). 






210 



FIRST EXERCISES. 



r :d 






t, :d 


r 


: 


8| 


:s. 


d 


.d 


to our 






God be 


- 


long; 




Saints and 


an - gels T 


si :BI 






8, JPV 




S| 


; 


l 


:BI 


l 


8| 


8 :n 






r :d 




t, 


: 


n 


:n 


n 


:n 


to the 






King of 




Kings! 




Let 


us 


join f the 


t, :d 






Si :BI 




Si 


! 


d 


:d 


d 


:d 


n :d 


r : 


s :s 


8 !PI 


r :r 


d :- 


join to 


sing 


Praia - esf 


to the 


heav'n -ly 


King. 


d :d 


t : 


t| lt| 


d :d 


d :, 


d :- 


s :n 


t i 


r :r 


n :s 


s :s 


n : 


chor - al 


song, 


And the 


grate - f ul 


notes f pro - 


long. 


d :d 


8 ( : 


i :>i 


d :d 


sj :s, 


d, :- 


SWEET SUMMER-TIME. 


Ex. 8. KKY G. 


A.L.C. 


8 .n :n 






d 1 .8 :s 


t .d 1 


:ri .t 


d' .r 1 :n 


8 


.PI IPI 


1. Summer-time, 






Summer- time, 


Mer-ry, 


mer-ry 


Summer- time ; 


Gai-ly fling, 


n .d :d 






PI .Pi :n 




s .n 


:s .8 


s .8 :s 


n 


.d :d 


2. Summer-time, 






Summer- time, 


Mer-ry, 


mer-ry 


Summer- time ; 




nga - gain, 


d 1 .8 :s 






8 .d 1 :d' 




r' .d' 


:t .r 1 


"n 1 *. 


r 1 :d' 


d 


.8 :s 


3. Summer-time, 






Summer- time, 


Mer-ry, 


mer-ry 


Summer- time ; 


Sing a - gain, 


d .d :d 






d .d :d 




8 .8 


:s .8 


d .d :d 


d 


.d :d 


d 1 .8 :s 






PI' .n 1 :n' 


. r i 


d 1 


: 


tr 1 t c 
. 1 .V .0 


d 


.n 1 :s 


gai- ly sing, 






'Tia sweet Summer- 


time. 




Brightly now the 


sun's gay beam, 


n .n :n 






s .B :s 


.8 


n 


: 


s .8 :s .s 


8 


.s :s 


sing a - gain, 






'Tia sweet Summer- 


time. 




Sweetly scent-ed 


is 


the air, 


s .d 1 :d' 






d' .d 1 :d 


.t 


d 1 


: 


r 1 . 


t :r' .t 


d 


.d 1 :t 


sing a - gain, 






'Tis sweet Summer- 


time. 




Now the birds on 


er - 'ry tree, 


d .d :d 






d .n :s 


.8 


d 


j~ ~ 


I . 


B :* .s 


n 


.d :s 


t .r 1 :t .8 




d .n 1 :s 


8 .PI :PI 


d 1 .8 :s 


n 1 .n 1 :n' .r 1 


d' :- : 


Glances o'er the 


crys-tal stream, 


Summer- time, 


Summer- time, 


'Tis sweet Summer 


-time. 


8 .8 18 .8 




8 .s :s 


n .d :d 


PI .n :n 


s .s :s .8 


n : 


RpHUteoui flow'n bloom 

r' .t :r' .t 


er - 'ry - where, 

d 1 .d 1 :t 


Summer- time, 

d 1 .s :s 


Summer- time, 

8 .d 1 :d 


'Tis sweet Summer 

d 1 .d 1 :d' -t 


-time. 

d 1 : 


Warble their sweet 


mri - o - dy. 


Summer -time, 


Summer- time, 


'Tis sweet Summer 


-time. 


8 .8 :s .s 




n .d :s 


d .d :d 


d .d :d 


d .n :s .s 


d : 



In marking the Teno; Registers (as p. 68), study the optional tones (pp. 32, 110), the phrasing 
St Co (New) (PP' *^ 7 ^) ^^ ^ e nee< ^ ' or P^o or forte in each case. 



FIRST EXERClSKb. 



211 



MUSIC IN THE VALLEY. 



Ex. 9. KBT Ab- 



A.L.O. 



d : 


8, 


Id 


:r 


n : 


|r : 


d 


:s 


Id 


:r 


n : 


1. Mu- 


sic 


in 


the 


val 


ley, 


Mu 


- sic 


on 


the 


hill, 


Si : 


s, 


is. 


:si 


si : 


is, : 


Hi 


:n ( 


IS, 


:si 


si : 


2. Mu- sic 

n :n 


by 

|n 


the 

:r 


fire 

d :- 


side, 

It. :- 


Mu 

d 


- sic 

:d 


in 

Id 


the 


hall, 
d : 


3. Sing 

d : 


with 

d 


joy 
Id 


f ul 

:d 


voi 

d :- 


ces, 

is, : 


Friends and lov'd 


ones 

;s. 


dear ; 

d : 


r : 


r 


|r 


:s 


n : 


Id :- 


t| 


:d 


|r 


:t, 


d : 


Mu - 

t, : 


sic 

t. 


in 

It, 


the 


wood 

d : 


land, 

is, : 


Mu 

S| 


- sic 

:mi 


in 

IS, 


the 


rill; 

s, : 


Mu - 
s : 


sic 
S 


in 

Is 


the 
:s 


school 
S '. 


room, 

in" : 


Mu 
r 


- sic 

:d 


for 

It, 


us 

:r 


all; 

n : 


Dis - 


cord 

8| 


and 


vex- 


a 

d :- 


tion, 

Id :- 


Ne'er shall 

s, :s. 


en - 


ter 


here, 

d, : 


s : 


n 


Id 


:n 


s : 


in : 


r 


:t, 


IS, 


it, 


r : 


Mu - 
d : 


sic 

d 


on 
id 


the 
:d 


moun 

d :- 


tain, 

is, : 


Mu 

S| 


- sic 


in 


the 


air, 

s, : 


Mu - 
n : 


sic 
S 


in 

in 


our 

:s 


spr 

pf : 


row, 

Id :- 


Mu 

ti 


- sic 

:r 


in 

It, 


our 

:r 


care, 

t, : 


Join 

d : 


the 

d 


hap 

Id 


- py 
:d 


cho 

d : 


rus 

Id :- 


Of 

8, 


all 


na - 

Is, 


ture 


fair, 

si : 


d : 


8, 


Id 


:r 


n : 


id :- 


t, 


:d 


|r : 


t, 


d : 


Mu - 


sic 

n. 


in 

IS, 


the 


true 
s, : 


heart, 

is, :- 


Mu 
l 


- sio 


ev - 


'ry- 


where. 

n, : 


Mu - 
d : 


sic 

d 


in 

Id 


our 


f*:- 


ness, 

|n : 


Mu 
r 


- sic 

:d 


ev - 

It, : 


r 


where. 

d :- 


Swell 

d, : 


the 
d. 


glo 


- nous 


an 

d :- 


them, 

Id :- 


Mu 

81 


- sic's 


ev - 

|si : 


'ry- 


where. 

d, :- 


St. Co. (NewJ 



212 



I IK8T EXERCISES. 



HIGHEB, HIGHER "WILL WE CLIMB. 



Ex. 10. KEY D. 






A.L 


s :s |d' :cl 


n 1 :-.r'|d< : 


s :n |s :d' 


d 1 :t j : 


l.Higher, high - er t 

n :n 'n ;n 


will we climb f 

s :- .s |n : 


Up the mount of 

n :d |n :n 


glo - ry, 

n :r | : 


2. On - ward, on - wardf 

d 1 :d' Is :s 


may we press f 

d 1 :-.t|d' :- 


Through the path of 

d 1 :s d :s 


du - ty; 

s :s | : 


3.Clos-er, clos - er, f 

d :d id :d 


let us knit t 

d :s |d : 


Hearts and hands to - 
d :- .d id :n 


ge - ther, 
s :s | 


8 :s |d :d' 


n 1 :- .r'|d' ; 


s :n |s :d' 


d 1 :t | : 


That our names f may 

n :n |n :n 


live thro' time, f 

s :- .s in : 


In our coun - try's 

n :d |n :n 


sto - ry ; 

n :r | : 


Vir - tue is true 

d 1 :d' is :s 


hnp - pi -ness, t 

d 1 :- .t |d' : 


Ex - eel - lenco, true 
d 1 :s |d' :s 


beau - ty : 

s :s | : 


Where our fire - side - 

d :d |d :d 


com - forts sit, f 

d :s, |d : 


In the wild - est 
d :- .d |d :n 


wca - ther ; 

s :s | : 


r :-.n|r :r 


r :- .n |s : 


s :- .n |s .'d 1 


d 1 --.t|t 


Hap - py,fwhen her 

t, :d is, :t. 


wel - fare calls, 

t, :d |r : 


He who conquers,! 

n :- .d |n :n 


he who falls. 

n :- .r |r : 


Minds are of ce - 
s :- .8 |s :s 


lea - tial birth, 

8 :- .s is : 


Make we then fa 

d 1 :-.d'|d' is 


heav'n of earth, 

s :- .s Is : 


O, they wan - der 

s, .'d it- :s 


widefwho roam 

8| :d |t| : 


For thnjoys of 

d :- .d d :n 


life f from homo, 

s :- .s |s : 


d 1 :s |n :d 


d 1 :- id 1 :d' 


d' :t m 1 :r' 


d' :- 1- : 


I.He who con - quers, 
2. Make we then a 
3. For the joys of 

d :s |n :d 


he who 
heav'n, make we 
life, for the 

n : in :n 


con - quors, he who 
then a heav'n of 
joys of life from 

n :r |s :s 


falls, 
earth, 
home. 

n :- |- : 


: 1 : 


d 1 :s m :d 


s :- Id 1 :t 


d 1 :- |- : 




I.He who con - quers, 
2. Make we then a 


he who 
heav'n of 


falls, 
earth. 


: 1 : 


3. For the joys of 

d 1 :s in :d 


life from 
8 : 'Si : 


home. 

d :- |- : 



St. Co. 



Ex. 11. KBV Ap. 



/ BI :d :ti 


d :- .r :n 


s :n :d 


r : : \ 


l.I'm but a 


stran - ger here, 


Heaven is my 


home; 


S| :si :s. 


S| t- .S| :BI 


8| :Pl| :d 


si : : 


2. What though the 


tempests rage ? 


Heaven ia my 


home ; 


n :n :r 


d :- .t, :d 


s :n :d 


ti :- :- 


3. There at my 


Sav - iour's side, 


Heaven is my 


home ; 


d :d :s. 


HI :- .81 :d| 


s, in, :d| 


Si : : 


4.There-fore I 


mur - mur not, 


Heaven is my 


home ; , 


s, :d :ti 


d :- .r :n 


s :n :d 


8| J : 


Earth is a 


de - sert drear, 


Heaven is my 


home, 


ri, :si :si 


S| :- .8) :S| 


s :n :d 


s, : : 


Short is my 


Sil - grimage, 


Heaven is my 


home ; 


d :n :r 


:- .t, :d 


s :n :d 


s, : : 


I shall be 


glo - li - fied, 


Heaven is my 


homn; 


d :d is\ 


pi :- .S| :d| 


S| in\ .'d 


s, : : 


What - e'er my 


earth - ly lot, 


Heaven is my 


home ; 


d :d :d 


t, :- .d :r 


r :r :r 


d :- .r :n \ 


Dan - ger and 


sor - row stand 


Round me on 


ev - 'ry hand ; 


Si :s, :si 


si :- .HI :si 


t| lt| !t| 


d :- .t, :d 


And time's wild 


win - try blast 


Soon will be 


o - ver- past : 


n in in 


r :- .d :t, 


s" :s :s 


n :- .r :d 


There are the 


good and blest, 


Those I loved 


most and best ; 


d :d :d 


Si :- .8) :si 


S| tS| :S| 


d ;- .S| :d 


And I shall 


sure - ly stand 


There at my 


Lord's right hand ; / 


s .n :d 


r :- .n :r 


d :n :r 


d :- : 


Heaven is my 


Fa - ther-land, 


Heaven is my 


home. 


d :d :d 


t| :- .d :si 


HI :si is. 


HI : : 


I shall reach 


home at last, 


Heaven is my 


home. 


n :s :n 


r :- .d :t r 


d :d :t, 


d :- :- 


And there I, 


too, shall rest, 


Heaven is my 


home. 


d :d :d 


S| :- .S| :S| 


d i S| *S| 


d, :- :- 


Heaven is my 


Fa - ther-land, 


Heaven ia my 


home. 


St. Co. (New.) 




214 



Ex. 12. KKT F. 



FIRST EXERCISES. 

SWEETEST, FAIBEST. 



A.L.C. 



; 


\ : 


', 


1 : 


s : 


|n 


:s 


r r : 


I. Sweet 


- est, fair - est, 


fbest 


of pla - ces, Is 


home, 


sweet 


home; 


d :- 


.r |d :s. 


n :- 


.r |r :d .d 


d : 


- Id 


: 


t, :- - : 





1 : 


: 


1 : 


n : 


- 18 


: 


s :- |- .: 


2.There 


the dear ones 


fwait 


to meet me, At 


home. 


sweet 


home; 


1 


1 : 


: 


1 : 


d : 


- Id 


:n 


8 *^ | "~" * 


: 


1 : 





1 : 


n : 


m 


:r 


d :- |- : 


There 


are dear ffa 


mi 


liar fa - ces, At 


home, 


sweet 


home; 


d :- 


.r |n :r 


d :- 


.t; id :S| ,s 


d : 


- Id 


:t, 


d : | : 


: 


1 : 


: 


1 : 


s : 


|8 


: 


n : | : 


Tried 


and true hearts 


flong 


to greet me, At 


home, 


sweet 


home; 


S 


1 : : 


1 : 


d : 


is. 


' 


d :- | : 


r :- 


.r |r :d 


t. :- 


.d |r :-- 


n 


- .n in 


:r 


d :- .r |n : 


Oth - 


er skies fas 


clear 


may be, 


Oth 


- er landsfas 


fair to see, 


81 :- 


.s, |s, :s, 


81 :- 


HI Is, : 


81 : 


- .8, |8| 


:t, 


d :- .d |d : 


t, :- 


.t, 1 1, :d 


r :- 


.d |t, : 


d : 


-.d |d 


:r 


n :- .8 |s : 


Friend 


ship's handfl 


oft 


have press* d, 


Hap 


- py though tsfoft 


fill my breast, 


s, :- 


.8, |s, :n : 


81 :- 


.8, IS, : 


d : 


-.d |d 


:8, 


d :- .d id : 


8 


:- .n |d' :n : 


n :- .r |r 


:d 


s : |n :s 


None 


can be f so 


dear to me 


tAfl 


home, sweet 


d 


:- .d |n :d 


d :- .t, it, 


:d 


d : Id :- 


' n 


:- .s |s :s 


:- .8 s 


:n 


n : |8 : 


Yet 


I long fa 


gain to rest 


tAt 


home, sweet 


d 


:- .d |d :d 


81 :- .8, |s. 


:d 


d : id :n 


t r 


: | ; 


n : in 


:r 


d :- |- : 


home, 




Home, sweet 




home. 


, *' 


: 1 : 


d :- |d 


:ti 


d :- 1- : 





: 1 : 


8 : |8 


: 


n : | : 


home, 




Home, sweet 




homo. 


\ 8 


: 1 


d :- 8, 


: 


d :- i- : 


St. 


Co. fjfetoj. 









FIRST EXERCISES. 



215 



MAY IS COMING. 



Ex. 13. KEY G. 


A.L.C. 


d :d :d 


ir :- :r 


PI :- :- |r :- :- 


d :d :d |t 


:- :d 


1. Coming thro' clouds t and 


dark - ness, 


Com-ing thro' sleet t and 


d :d :d 


It, :- :t, 


d :- :- |t, :- :- 


S| :S| :s, |s 


:- .n, 


n :n ;PI 


is :- :s 


s :- :- is :- :- 


n :n '.n Ir 


:- :d 


2. Coming fa 

d :d :d 


morn of 

is, :- :s, 


Slo ry, 
:- :- Is, :- :- 


Com-ing f a day of 

d :d :d |s, :- :s. 


r :- :- 


1- :- : 


si :t, :r |s :- :PI 


n :- :- |r 


;_ ;_ 


rain, 




Beau-ti - ful month of 


flow - ere, 


s, :- :- 


1- '- ' 


S| :si :si jS| :- :d 


d :- :- |t, 


:- :- 


t, :- :- 


I- :- : 


s, :t, :r |s :- :s 


s :- :- |s 


:- :- 


rest, 




Faith sees its gold en 


pro - raise 


1 s, :- :- 


1- :- : 


s, :si :S| |s, t- :d s :- :- is. 


_ _ * 


d :d :d 


|n :- :r 


d :- :- |- :- : 


r :r :r |r 


:- :d v 


Hast'ning to 


us a - 


gain; 


Thought of the win - try 


d :d :d 


Id :- :t, 


d :- :- h :- : 


t, :t, :ti |t. 


:- :d ' 


n tn ;PI 


is :- :s 


PI :- :- |- :- : 


: : 1 


' ' 


Break thro' the cloud - ed 
dj . j 


west; 


Star of the dark - est 


:d :d 


|S| :- :si a| :-:-|-:-: : : i 


I 


t, :- :- 


1- :- : n :n :n |PI :- :r d :- :- - :- : 


s :s :s 


hour 


Cheer of the dark - est day 


Comingjftho' 


s, :- :- 


- :- : d :d :d |d :- :t| d :- :- - :- : 


PI IP! :P1 


: ; 


1 : : : : : : : : : : 


s :s :s 


hour, 


Beaming with death - less ray 


Coming,ttho' 


' ' 


I : : : : : : : : : : 


d :d :d 


|s :- :n 


PI :- :- |r :- :- d :d :d |p> :- :r d :- :- 


- ;- ; 


tern - pests 


low - er, Beauti - ful month of May. 




|n :- :d 


d :- :- |t ( :- :- d :d :d |d :- :t| d :- :- 


:- : 


|s :- :s 


s :- :- |s :- :- PI :n :n is :- :s n :- :- 


- :- : 


tern - pests 


low - er, Blessed e - ter - nal May. 




Id :- :d 


S) :- '- Is, :- :- d :d :d |s, :- :s, d, :- :- 





St. Co. fNew). 



21G 



FIRST EXERCISES. 



THIRD STEP. * 



Ex. 14. KEY F. BllAILSFORD. 


Ex. 15. 


KEY A. NARKS. 


/C\ 

/ n 


n :f 


s :- 


s 


f :n 


r :r 


n - 




/TV 

n 


f :r 




ti - 


d 


1, :f 


n :r 


d - 


L 

1 d 

i 


d :d 


t, :- 


d 


t, :d 


d :t, 


d 


- 




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li :1 




S| - 


l 


f. :1. 


s, :f| 


n, - 


8 


s :d 


r :- 


n 


f :s 


1 :s 


8 


- 




d 


d :f 




r - 


d 


d :d 


d :t. 


d - 


d 


d :1, 


s, :- 


n 


r :d 


f. :n 


d - 




d 


l.:f, 




8| - 


n, f,:r, 


si :s, 


d, - 


EX. 16. KEY G. GttEOOlUAN. 


Ex. 17. KE - G. J.S S. 


<f 


n :r 


d :- 


r 


n :f 


n :r 


d - 




/r\ 
n 


f :n 




1 - 


? 


n :r 


d :t, 


d - 


8| 


d :t, 


1.:- 


t. 


d :d 


d :ti 


d - 




d 


r :d 




d - 


1 


si :fi 


HI :f. 


HI - 


n 


s :f 


n :- 


8 


s :1 


s :7 


n - 




s 


s :s 




f - 


d 


d :t, 


d :r 


d - 


d 


d :s 


1, :- 


S| 


d :f s 


81 :s. 


d, - 




d 


t, :d 




fi - 


f 


si :BI 


s, :si 


d - 


FOURTH STEP.f 
Ex. 18. KEY F. 


E. J. HOPKINS. 


S 


n :1 


s :- 


S 


d :n 


r :d 


d :t 


8 


n :1 


s :- 


s 


d :n 


r :r 


d :- 


d 


d :d 


d :- 


t, 


d :d 


li :BI 


si :- 


t, 


d :d 


t :- 


d 


1, :d 


d :t, 


d :- 


n 


s :f 


n :- 


r 


d :s 


f :n 


n :r 


S 


8 :fe 


s :- 


s 


n :s 


1 :s.f 


n :- 


d 


d :f, 


d :- 


8| 


1, :n. 


f, :d 


s, :- 


Hi 


1 :r, 


si :- 


n, 


1, :n 


I ; S | 


d :- 


Ex. 19. KEY Eb- 

Bb-t. 






G.O. 

f.Eb- 


n 


1 :s 


f :- 


d 


1, :t 


d :r 


^ 

n :- ] 


r 


d :t, 


d :- 


1,11 


1 :s 


f :r 


d :- 


d 


r :n 


d :- 


rs 


1, :f 


S ' 8| 


s, :- 


s 


8| <S| 


si :- 


f ,d 


r :n 


d :t. 


d :- 


8 
\ d 


f :n 
t :d 


f :- 
1. :- 


A 


d :r 

f ' r 


d :t 

HI :s. 


d :- 
d :- 


t 


d :r 

HI '.T\ 


n :- 
d :- 


U 


f :n 
t :d 


1 :s.f 

f :si 


n :- 
d :- 


Ex. 20. KEY F. DR. Cmrr. 


Ex. 21. KEY G. G.O. 


At 


n :r 


d :- 


T 


s :f 


n :r 


d :- 




n 


r :r 




R :- 


n 


f :s 


r :r 


d :- 


I 

J 


d :t 


1.:- 


d 


d :d 


d :t, 


d :- 




d 


t, :t 




d :- 


d 


d :d 


d :t, 


d :- 


n 


B :f 


n :- 


f 


ta:l 


s :f 


n :- 




1 ' 


8 :s 




s :- 


8 


d :d 


f :r 


n :- 


d 


d .8, 


1.:- 


f, 


n, :f, 


s :s 


d :- 




( d 


s,:f 




n, :- 


ta 


l,:n, 


f,:s, 


d :- 



St. Co. (New.) 



* To be introduced before page 1 of "Additional Exercises." 
t To be introduced before page 12 of " Additional Exercises." 



ADDITIONAL EXERCISES, PART I. 

NOTE. In teaching to sing, these exercises should be preceded by at least a selection from the 
Exercises of the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd steps in " Standard Course," or by the " First Exercises for Mixed 
Voices." And before the Ex. on p. 12 is commenced, either the St. Co. Ex. of the Fourth Step, or those 
on the last page of " First Exercises," &c., should be introduced. For style of singing see " Hints on 
the Tunes." 



Words by GOD SPEED THE BIGHT. Music from the 


W. E. Hickson. By permission. German. 


KEY D. M. 66. 


s : s |d' : -.s 


n : n | s n 


PI : |r : - .r 


n : | 


l.Now to heav'n our 


pray'rsas - cend ing, 


God speed the 


right ! 


s : s |d' : - .s 


n : n | s n 


d : |t| :-.t, 


d :- T : 


2. Be that pray'r a- 


gain re - peat ed, 


God speed the 


right ! 


s :s |d' :-.s 


PI : n | s n 


s : |s : - .s 


s ;- | 


3.Pa - tient, firm, and 


per - se - ver - ing, 


God speed the 


right! 


s : s |d' : - .s 


n : n | s : n 


d : |si : - .81 


d :- | : 


\ 4. Still their on - ward 


course pur - su - ing, 


God speed the 


right! 


s : s Id 1 : - .s 


n : PI | s : n 


PI : | r : - .r 


PI :- | : 


In a no ble 


cause con - tend - ing, 


God speed the 


right! 


s : s |d' : - .s 


n : n | s : PI 


d : |t ( :-.t. 


d :- | : 


Ne'er des - pair - ing, 


though de - feat ed, 


God speed the 


right ! 


s : s |d' : - .s 


n : n [ s : PI 


s : | s : - .s 


s :- | : 


Ne'er th'e - vent nor 


dan - ger fear - ing, 


God speed the 


right! 


s : s Id 1 : - .s 


PI : n | s : PI 


d : |si : - .8) 


d :- | : 


Ev - 'ry foe at 


length sub - du - ing, 


God speed the 


right ! 


d' :t |1 :s 


1 :s |f :PI 


r : n | f : r 


s : f |n : r 


Be their zeal in 


heav'n re - cord - ed, 


With sue - cess on 


earth re - ward-ed, 


n : s |f : n 


f :PJ |r :d 


ti : d j r : ti 


PI : r |d : t| 


Like the good and 


great in sto - ry 


If they fail, they 


fail with glo - ry, 


d' :d' Id 1 :d> 


d 1 :d> |s :s 


s : s |s : s 


s : s | s : s 


Pains, nor toils nor 


tri - als heed - ing, 


And in heav'n' s own 


time sue - ceed - ing, 


d :d Id :d 


d :d |d :d 


si : si |si : S| 


si : si | s : f 


\ Truth ! thy cause, what - 


e'er de - lay it, 


There's no pow'r on 


earth can stay it, 


d 1 :- |r' :-.r 


n' :- I- : 


s : | s : - .s 


d :- |- : 


God speed the 


right! 


God speed the 


right ! 


d : | s : - .s 


S ! | : 


s : |s : - .s 


d :- 1- : 


God speed the 


right! 


God speed the 


right! 


s : It :-.t 


d 1 : |- : 


s : | s : - .s 


d :- |- : 


God speed the 


right ! 


God speed the 


right! 


n : |r : - .r 


d :- |- : 


s : I s : - .s 


d :- I- : 


God speed the 


right! 


God speed the 


right ! 



LONDON : J. CURWEN & SONS, 8 & 9, WARWICK LANB, B.C. In three parts, 4d. each 



218 



ADDITIONAL EXEKCISE8. PAHT I. 



GOING HOME. 



KEY F. M. 88. GW-**. 


:d 


n : s 


d 1 : - .f n : r 


s :- .d 


r : n 


l.How many a 


pang, How many an 


ill, How many a 


: S| 


d : r 


d :- .d 


d : t. 


d :-.d t, :d 


2. He bears us, 


as in win - try 


storms, When winds are 


: n 


s : r 


n : - .f s : s 


s : - .s s : s 


3. Be God our 


guide, whate'er be - 


tide, And when our 


: d d : t, 


li : - .li i : fi 


HI : - .HI 


si : d 


f ,,s : n .,f | r : 


: s 


t .1 : 1 .s 


s :1 .t Id 1 :- .t 


harm - ful snare 


Might sore - ly 


plague, and bruise, and 


r : d t, : 


:t. 


r .d :d .t, 


t| : d .r |d .n : s .f 


rav - ing wild, 


A faith - ful 


ten - der fa - ther 


s : s 


s : 


s : 


s : s 


8 : s 


s : - .s 


time shall come, 


For us pro - 


vide in man - sions 


t, :d 


s, : 


s : 


s : s 


s : s .f 


n : - .r 


1 







d 1 .t : 1 .8 


1 .8 :f .n 


n : 


r :- d :- 


: 


kill, Were God not 


with us 


there. 


n .8 : f .n 


f .n : r .d 


d : t, : 


d :- 





warms His lit - tie 


dar - - ling 


child. 


s :- .d |d :d 


: 


s :- .f 


n : 


: 


wide, An ev - er - 


last - - ing 


Home. 


d :- .d |d :d 


s, : 


s, : 


d :- 


: 


KBY Et>. M. 72. JACKSON'S EVENING HYMN. W, Jackson. 


n : : n 


f : - :n 


n : r : d 


t, :d : 


f : in 


r : : n 


l.Fa - ther, 


in high 


hea - ven 


dwell-ing, 


May our 


eve - ning 


d :- :d 


r :- :d 


1. :- :li 


s, : s, : 


d :r :d 


t t : : d 


2. This day's 


sins, 


rdon, 


Sa - vieur, 


K - vil 


thoughts, per - 


s : : s 


8 : : s 


:- : 


t in i 


I :s : s 


s : : s 


3.From en - 


tice - ments 


of the 


De - vil. 


From the 


might of 


d : :d 


t, : : d 


f, : - : f . 


s, : d : 


1, :t| :d 


f :- :n 


\ 4. Whilst the 


night - dews 


are dis- 


till - ing, 


Ho - ly 


Ghost, each 


/ 8 : f :n 


n : r : . 


ci 1 : f : 1 


s :d :f 


n : : r 


d : :- 


song be 


tell - ing 


Of thy 


mer - cy 


large and 


free. 


8, : : a. 


8| : s : 


f : :d 


d : - :d 


d : : t, 


d :- :- 


verse be - 

F : - : d 1 


ha - viour, 

d 1 :t : 


En - vy, 

d 1 : - : d* 


pride, and 

f :- :1 


van - i - 

s : :f 


ty; 
n : : 


spi rits 


e - vil, 


Be our 


shield and 


pan - o - 


pty; 


r : :d 


81 : BI : 


1 :- :f 


n :- :f 


s : : 8 t 


d :- :- 


\ heart be 


fill - ing, 


With thine 


own se - 


ren - i - 


tv; 



St. Co. (New.) 



' 



ADDITIONAL EXERCISES. PART I. 



219 



p 

r : : r 
Through the 

ti : :t, 

From the 
s : : s 
Let thy 

6 ( : : si 

\ Soft - ly 


n : : s 

day thy 

d : :d 

world, the 
s : : d 1 

pow'r this 

d : : n 

will the 


1 : s : i'i 

love hath 

d :- :d 

flesh, de - 

d' : - : T 

night de - 

f :n :d 

eyes be 


s : f : n 

fed us, 
r :- :d 

liv - er, 

s : : s 

fend us, 

t, : : d 

clos - ing, 


r : - :f 

Through the 

d : t ( : r 


n : : s \ 

day thy 

r :d :d 


Save us 

s : : s 

And a 

s, : : s, 
While on 


now, and 
s : : s 

heav'n - ly 

d : : n 

thee the 



1 : s 


:d' 


t :l 


: s 


f : 


care 


hath 


led 


us, 


With 


d :- 


: n 


f : 


:d 


ti : 


save 


us 


ev 


er 


o 


f :d' 


:d' 


d" :- 


:d' 


s : 


peace 


at - 


tend 


us, 


And 


f in 


:d 


f :- 


: n 


r : 


\ soul 


re - 


pos 


ing, 


Ev 



n 


ri : r 


:f 


n : 


di - 


vin 


est 


cha 


d 


li :- 


: r 


d : 


thou 


Lamb 


of 


Cal 


S 


s :f 


: I 


s : 


an - 

d 


gel 

. 


ic 

: r. 


com 

s, : 


er 


bless 


ed 


Trin 



pa - 



d :- :- 

ty- 

d : - : 

ry! 

n : : 

d ny< :-:- 

ty. 



SPUING LIFE. 

(Words translated from E. M. ARNDT, by J. S. STALLYBRASS.) 
KEY D. M. 144. 



: 


: 


S |d' 


l.Hur 


-rah! 


Hur -rah! 

s |n 


2. Hur- 

: s 


rah! 

d 1 : 


Hur - rah ! 
8 i S 


3. Hur 

: s 


-rah! 

PI : 


Hur -rah! 
8 |d 


4. Hur 


-rah! 


Hur -rah! 


f .s:f .n| 


r : 


ti - ny 

r .n : r .d 


leaves, 

ti :- 


hill and 

: 


dale, 


days are 

: 1 


long, 


kg be - 


hind, 



n .s : f.l | s : 


n .s : f.l |s : n 


Gersbach. 

d 1 : t |1 : s \ 


Flow - ret fair, 

d .n : r.f In : 


Bloom and be fragrant; 

d .n : r.f |n : d 


Put forth all thy 

1 :s |f :rt , 


Brook - let clear, 

: 1 : 

Bird - ie dear, 

: 1 : 
Heart of Man, 


Mur-mur, thou youngster ; 
Warble, thou songster; 

: 1 : 

Leap up and worship ; 


Slant- ing down thro' 
Woods are leaf - y, 
What, thou would'st not/ 



s : - .t |t : s 

Clam - ber up my 

s : - .r |r : t ( 

Bid - ding all my 

: I : 

Flow' rs are nod ding 

When all else are 



t.d':t.l|s :- 



cot - tage eaves, 

r ,n : r .d 1 1| :, 



loved ones hail, 

: I : 

to thy song, 
glad of mind P 



t :-.d'|r' :d' 

Clam - ber up my 

s : - .n| f : n 

Bid - ding all my 

: I : 

Flow' rs are nod - ding 

s : s |s : s 

When all else are / 



St. Ci. (New.J 



220 



ADDITIONAL EXERCISES. PART I. 



t .1 : s .fm : 


: 


:i 


d' :- 


t 


:-.r' 


d 1 :-!-; 


cot - tage eaves. Hur- 
r .f : n .r |d : 


rah! 


Hur- 

1 :s 


rah ! Grow a- 

n :- |r :-.f 


way ! 

n :- |- : 


loved ones hail. Hnr- 
: | :s 
to thy song. Hur- 
s : s |s : s 


rah! 

d 1 :- 

rah! 

n : - 


Hur- 

- |- :s 

Hur- 

- I- :s 


rah! 

s : 

rah! 

d :- 


Slant a- 

s : - .s 

Chant a- 

Si : - .s 


way ! 

s :- 1- : 1 

way ! 

d :- I- : 


glad of mind. A - 


way! 


A - 


way ! Praise and 


pray ! / 


8 :- I- :- 


n : - 


- 1 : 


f :- 





: 


n :- | : 


Flow 

n : 1 : 


ret, 

d :- 


- 1 : 


bios 

t, :- 





: 


som! 

d :- | : 


Brook ... 

: 1 : 


let, 


1 : 


mur 

s : 





; 


mer ! 

8 :- | 


Song ... 


ster, 


1 : 


war 

s : 





; 


ble! 
d :- | : 


Take 


part, 




my 




heart! 


THE FORTUNE HUNTER. 

(Words translated from EUCKERT, by J. S. STALLYHUASS.) 
KEY F. M. 60, twice. Oet-sbach. 


: si |s, : 1, : ti 

1. I'd of - ten been 

: 8, | si : li : ti 

3. With clat - ter and 

: 81 Is, : I, : t, 

7. I'll give up, me - 

: si |s, : li : ti 

8. I spied a green 
9. By la - bour and 


d :- 

told 

d :- 

noise, 

d :- 


:d.d|r 


-.d:r 
was a 
- .1|! 8, 
tions did 

: - .s : s 

- ter this 

:-.l ( :t, 

est so 
and per 

S 


n :d :r |n :n :f \ 

ro ver; I thought I'd make 

d :d :t, |d :d :d 

throng them, Men, wo - men and 

8 : n : s | s : s : s 

bub - ble ; Who knows that when 

d : d : s/ |d : d : r 

sha - dy, To build me a 
sis - tence, My house I have/ 

^^ 


That luck 

:d.d|t, 


Whole na 
: n .n| s 


thought, Running af 

d : - : d .d| s. 


spot In the for 
thought, By skill 


/ s : - : n.n|r : - : n.r 


d :d : 


1 :- :d'.l 


s : - : n.s |f : -.s: f 


bold Her haunts todis 

d :- :d.d|t| :- : M, 


-cov - er. 

d :d : 


La, la, 
f :- :l.f 


la, la, la, la, la, 

n : - : d.n| r : - : ti 


boys, But no Luck was a 

s : - : s . s | s : - : s .f 


-mong them ! La, la, 

n :n : |d' :- : d 1 


la, la, l.i, la, 
d 1 :- : s |t :- : s 


caught She will pay for the 

n : - : d.d| s\ : - : S|.s, 


trou - ble ? La, la, 

d :d : |d :- :d 


la, la, la, la, 

d : - : n |s : - : si 


cot Without ask - ing my 
wrought, Without For-tune's as 


La - dy. La, la, 
-sis tance. La, la, 


la, la, la, la, 
la, la, la, la, 



St. Co. (New.) 



ADDITIONAL EXERCISES. PART I. 



221 



FINE. 



in :d :d .f : - : d 1 

la, la, la, la, 

d :- : if :- : 1* 


d'.t : l.s: f.nlr :- :s 

la, la, la, la, la, 
n : - : d | ti : - : t t 


A' IKi E. 

d :- 

la! 

d :- 


Si I s : 1| : t> \ 

2.1 left my own 

si | S| : If : ti 


la, _. la, la, 

s :- :n 1 1 : - :f.l 


la, la, la, la, 
s :- :s |f :- :f 


la! 

n : - 


4.1 ask'd of those 
s, |s : I, : ti 


la, la, la, la, 

d :- : 1 :d :d 


la, la, la, la, 
d : - : | S| : - : S| 


la! 

d :- 


5. At one place I 

S| | S| : 1| : t| 


, la, la, la, 
la, la, la, 


la, la, la, 
la, la, la, 


la! 
la! 


6.Atagreat ci - ty's 
lO.Here. Luck, is my 


d :-.t,:d |r :d :r 


n : - : r | n : n : f 


s :-.f : PI | r : n : r 


D.S. 

d :- :- 


gate - way, And wander 'd a - 

d i -.S| : S| | ti ! 1| ; S| 


broad, Went this way and 

Si : - : t| | d : d : d 


that way, And tried ev'ry 

d :-.t,: d 1 1| : t ( : t| 


road. 

d :- :- 


near me, Where was the shy 

d : -.r : PI 1 s : s : s 


elf ; But none seem'd to 

s : - : s | s : s : s 


hear me, Each sought for him 
s :-.s : s | s : s : f 


-self. 
PI : - : - 


ask'd them If For -tune was 
d :-.d : d j s. : 1, : t. 


near; They said she had 

d : - : si | d : d : r 


past them Full ma-ny a 

n :-.r : d | s, : s, : s. 


year. 
d : - : - 


\ gate -way I ask'd, had she 
dwell- ing, And here will I 


been ? They ansvver'd " here 
stay ; Come in, if you're 


wait we, To wel- come her 
wil - ling ; If not, keep a - 


in." 

way! 



KEY Q. 



THE MAY-TIME. 

Words translated from the German by J. S. STALLYBKASS. 
M. 66, twice. 



/: s 


s : d 1 : PI 


In : 


s :d 


n : PI.S 


:f.l|s :- 


:s, | 


The 

:d 


May-time, the 

d : - : - 


May-time, how 

|- :PI :d 


love - ly 
d : d.n 


and fair, 

:r.f|n :- 


What 


The 


May 


- 


time, howl 


love-ly 


and fair, 




: PI 

The 
:d 


n : - : s 


|s : 
time, 

Id : 





. 


: I : 


: s 


May 

d : - : - 


\ The 


May 


time, 








What 


r : - : - | - 


; - 


: s 


s : -.f : PI 


|r :t, : 




there ; 
t, :- :- 1- 


: - 


The 

: n 


night - in-g 

n : -.r: d 


ale sing - eth, 

|t| : sj : 




s :- :- |- 


: - 


! 


: : 


i : : 


S S 


there ; 

s :- :- |- 


; _ 


: 


: : 


1 : : 


The 1 
n n 


St. Co. (New.) 











:d.n:r.f|n 



Gersbach. 

:d :f.n\ 



pas - time and plea - sure is 

: : si | S| : d : d 

What pleasure is 

: : r i n : s : s 

What pleasure is 

n : d : t|.r| d : n : d 
pas - time and plea - suro is ' 



Over 



:-.f:n |r : t, : 

it up - springeth, 

: s, : 



: -,r: d 1 1, 



222 



ADDITIONAL .EXERCISES. PART I. 



1 d :- : d |n : - : n 


s : - 


:- Id 1 :- :n.f 


s : - 


: d .r | n : - : r \ 


field and hill and 


dale, 


Over 


field 


and hill and j 


: :s ( .sild :- :d 

Over hill and 


n : - 
dale, 


: - 1- : - : 


: 


:d.d|d :- :t, f 

Over hill and,' 


: : 1 : : s .s 


s : - 


: s Is : - : d .r 


n : - 


: s.l |s :- :f \ 


Over 


hill 


and dale, Over 


field, 


Over hill and 1 


: .- 1 : :d.d 


d :- 


:d |d :- : 


: 


: n.f |s : - is,/ 


/ d :- :- 1- :- 


8 .' d 


:n |n :s :d n :n.s 


:f.l|s :- :., x 


dale. The 


gates of 


the earth, that were 


lock'd up 


so fast, Let 


d :- :- 1- :- d 


d :- 


: - |- : n : d 


d : d.n 


: r .f | n : - : 


dale. The 


earth 


gates, so 


late - ly 


look'd fast, 


n : - : - 1 - :- n 


n : - 


: s |s : - : 


: 


: 1 : : 


dale. In 


May""" 


time, 






d :- :- I- :- d 


d :- 


:- |d :- : 


; 


: 1 : : s 








Let 


/ d : d JT. r .f | n : d : f .n r : - 


:- |- :- it 


8 : -.f 


: n | r : t| : \ 


out their poor pris'- ners at 


last, 


As 


li - lies and ro - ses, 


: : BI | si : d : d 


t, :- 


: - | - : - : n 


n : -.r 


: d 1 1| : S| : 


poor pris'- ners at 


last, 








: : r | n : s : s 


s : - 


' - | - ; - : 


; 


: I : :s 


poor pris'- ners at 


last, 






And 


n : d : t|.r |d : n : d 


s : - 


: - | - : - : 


: 


: | : :n 


out their poor pris'- ners at 


last, 






; 


: : I : : s,.s 


d :- 


: d |n : -.n : n s : - 


:- Id' :- :n.f 


And the 


pinks, 


and bunch - es of 


blue 


bells, And the 


; | ; ; 





: |d : - .d : d 


n : - 


:- |n :- : 






Bunch - es of 


blue 


bells, 


s :-.f:n |r : t ( : 


: 


: I : :s 


s : - 


: - |s : - : d .r 


vio - lets for po - sies, 




And 


blue 


bells, And the 


n : - .r : d 1 1, : s, : 




I : :d 


d :- 


:- Id :- : 


s :-.d:d |n :- :r 


d :- 


:- I : s 


s : d 1 


: n In : s : d 


red lit- tie pim - pcr- 


nels. 


In 


May- time, in May-time, oh, 


: :s, |d :- : t. 


d :- 


:- I : d 


d :- 


: - | - : n : d 


And pim - per- 


nels. 


In 


May 


time, ob, 


n :-.n:n I s :- :f 


n : - 


:- 1 : n 


n : - 


: s | s : - : 


red lit- tie pim - per- 


nels. 


In 


May 


time, 


j 1 

: : a 1 8j : - : s, 


d :- 


:- I : d 


d :- 


: - | d .' - : 


And pun - per- 


nels. 




, 


St. Co. fNewj. 







ADDITIONAL EXERCISES. PART I. 



223 



n : n.s : 


f.l|s : 


- : BI 


d : d .n : 


r .f | n : 


d :f.n 


r : - 


waste not 


the hours, 


Go 


twine you 


sweet gar - 


lands of 


flow'rs ; 


d : d .n : 


r .f | n : 


: 


: : 


s, |s, : 


d :d 


ti :- 










sweet gar - 


lands of 


flow'rs ; 


; ; 


1 : 


; 


: ; 


r | n : 


s : s 


8 : - 










sweet gar - 


lands of 


flow'rs ; 


: : 


! : 


: s 


n : d : 


ti.r|d : 


n : d 


S 






Go 


twine you 


sweet gar - 


lands of 


flow'rs; 


s : - .f : 


n | r : 


t. : 


. t 


1 : 


: s,.S| d :-.d 


far on 


the mea - 


dows, 






There is 


ful - n< 


n : - .r : 


d It, : 


8, ' 


; " ; 


! : 


; 




: : 


1 : 


: s 


s : - .f : 


r, | r : 


t, : 


. 






And 


deep in 


the sha - 


dows 







1 : 


: n 


n : - .r : 


d It, : 


s, : 





S t ""* 


:- |d' 


: - : n .f 


s :d 


: d .r | n 


: - : r d : 


joy. 




And there 


3 reach-eth 


us no 


an- noy. 


n : - 


:- I- 


;: - : 


; 


: S| | d 


: - : t, d : 


joy. 








And no 


an- noy. 


s : - 


:- 1- 


: - : d .r 


n : n 


: n .f | s 


:- :f n : 


joy, 




And then 


3 reach-eth 


us no 


an- noy. 


d :- 


. i 
~ i 


; ; 


: 


:d |s, 


: - : s, d : 










And no 


an- noy. 



8 
Oh! 

n 



: d | n : - : n 

ness of life ana 

: S|.8|| d : - : d 

There is life and 

? I : : s .8 

There is 

: ' : :d.d 



THOU SHALT SHOW ME. 

KEY D. M. 96. Canon, four 



d' :- 

life 
f ;n 



|s : 

Thou 



in 
|f 
the 



: s 



r 
path 



BS) in two (subjects) 

d 1 :- - : 

show 

: : 


't |d' : 1 

me the path 

Id :- - 

Thou 

I 


S. Webbe. 

- 1- 't 

of 

:d |f :- 

shalt show 
i 


, f 

t : d'.,t : 


1 : 
d'.,r'|d' :d' t 


1 

:- |d' :d' 


Thy pre 

: s .f n : 


sence is ful 


ness of 

:- |n :- 


of life; 

: : 
: '* 


in 

|s :- - 

Thou 
1 : 


Thy 

. c 1 A\ . 
S | U 

shalt show 
: 1 



St. Co. (New). 



224 



ADDMIOXAL EXERCISES. PART I. 



r' : Id 1 :d' 

joy, And at 

f : I n ' 

pre - sence, 
me the 

: |d :- 


f :f |f :r'.r' 

Thy right hand there is 

: |r :r 

in Thy 

1 :- 1- :t 

path of 

- :d |f :- 


n 1 :- |d' :d' 

plea - sure for 

d :- |1, :1 

pre - sence is 

d 1 :- |d' :- 

life ; in 

:n |f : 


r 1 :- | :r> \ 

ev - - er 

f : is : s | 

ful - ness of 
Thy ' 

r :- |- : s.f 


Thou 


shalt shew 


me the 


patu of ,) 


d 1 :- Is :- 

more. Thou 

d :|: 
1 cR : d'.,r'| d 1 : d 1 


shalt shew 

: 1 : 
t :- Id 1 :d' 

ful - ness of 

r : |n : 

in Thy 
Thy 


- :t |d' :- 

me the 

: |d :- 

Thou 

r> :- |d' :d' 

joy, and at 

f : |n : 
pre - sence, 

FINE. ^ 
d'.,t : d'.,r'| d : : d 1 


1 : i : t \ 

path of 

:d |f :- , 

shalt shew 

f :f |f :r'.r' 

Thy right hand there is 

: | r : r 

in Thy ( 
D.S. 

t :- Id 1 :d' 

ful - ness of 


pre - scnce ia 
life ; ' 

d 1 :- Id' :- 

life ; in 


pre - scnce is 


- :n |f :- 


r :- 1- :s .f 


n :|: 


r : |n : 


me the 
plea - sure for 

d :- |1, :1 

pre - sence is 


path of 

r 1 :- |- :r' 

ev - er 

f : |s :s 

ful - ness of 


life ; ^ 

d 1 : |s" : 

more. Thou ^ 

d :!:- 

joy. 


in Thy 
; g | (Jl ; 
shalt shew 

: 1 : 


KEY 0. M. 72, twice. 
Fa la la 

: n .f 8 : - : - 


THE WAITS. 

1st time P-, 2nd/., 3rd/:, 4th/., 5th p., 6th pp. Jeremiah Savillc, 1667. 

r' :- :- d' : 1 :t Id 1 :- : r'.n 1 f ' : - :- \ 

la, Fa la la la, Fa la la 

s :- :- n :n :s |n :- :f.s 1 :- :- / 


: d'.d 1 d 1 : - : - 


t :- :- d' :d' :t |1 :- :t d' :- :- jj 


Fa la la 

: d'.d 1 d 1 : - : - 


la, Fa la la la, Fa la 

s : - : - 1 : 1 : s 1 1 : - : s f : - : - } 


n 1 :- :- r 1 :t :-,d'|r> :- rn'.f s' : - .1' : s .f |n' : n 1 :- 


la, Fa la la la, Fa la la la la la la la, 

s :- :- s :s :-.s|s :- : n .r n :-.f :n.r|d :d :- f 


d 1 :- :- t :r' :-.d'|t :- : t .t t :-.t:t.t|d' :1 :- i 


la, Fa la la la, Fa la la la la la la la, 1 

d :- :- s :s :-.s|si :- :n.i n :-.n:n.n|l :1 :- / 



St. Co. (New.) 






ADDITIONAL EXERCISES. PART I. 225 


f : 


f i :-. n '|r' :- : 


n 1 


B.C. 

d 1 :1 : r' |t :s : d 1 d 1 : d 1 :-.t|d' : 


Fa 
r : 

1 : 


la la la; 

r :-.d|t, :- : 
1 . :-.l|t :s : 


Fa 
S 

d'.t 


la la la la la, Fa la la la la. 

f :f :f.n|r :r : n n :r :-.r|n : 

Fa la la la, 

1 : d 1 : r |r' : t : d 1 s : s : -.s |s : 


Fa 

r : 


la la la la ; 

r : -.r| s : : 


Fa 

n 


la la la la la, Fa la la la la. 
f ' f :r Is :s :d s : s, :-.S||d : 








THE CUCKOO. 


KE1 


' F. M. 96. 

: 1 : 




SOLI. /. Gersbach. 

\ \ : * m : | : : | n : d 


. 


: 1 : 




Cue - koo ! Cue - koo ! and 


: 


: 1 : 




: 1 : : 1 : n : | : d 


CHOR 

: s, 

' Who 


us. 

d : d.d|n.,r : d .n 

sings in the shady thicket 


s 

near? 


Cue - koo ! and 

- 1 : : 1 : d : | :d 


f 


:-.f|l :f 


1 


: s 


| s : s 


m : | : n .r 


n : n | n : s \ 


hark 

d 


how c - cho 


an 
f 


- swers clear, Cue - 

: n |n : m 


koo! The 

d : \ :d.t, 


two short notes are 1 

d :d |d :n f 


1 


:-.l|f : 1 


d" 


:d' 


Id 1 : 


: T \n : s 


s : s | s : s 


hark 
f, 


how e - cho 


an 

d 


- swers clear, 

:d |d : 


Cue - koo ! The 
: m \d : d 


two short notes are 

d :d |d :d 


S 


:f |f :f.n 


r 


: r 


|r .n:f 


n : - .s |n : s 


n : \ : s \ 


scarce-ly heard, when 

n : r |r : r .d 


e 
t, 


cho quick -ly 

: ti | t|.d : r 


mocks the bird, Cuc- 
d : - .n | d : n 


koo ! Cue- , 

d : | :* / 


s 


: s | s : s 


S 


: s 


I s : s 


s : - .s | s : 


: h : 


scarce -ly heard , when 

S| . : si | s, : s. 


e 
i 


- cho quick ly 

: si |si : s. 


mocks the bird, 

d :-.d|d : 


Cue - koo ! 
: n \d : , 


m 

koo! 

d 


: 1 : 




' 


1 : 

1 : 


: s \m 
Cue - koo ! 

: m \d : 


:* I* : \ 

Cue - koo! 

:* \d : / 




: 1 : 




: 


1 : 


: \ :s 


n : 1 : 


\\ 


o 


tell me now the songster's 

d .d : d .d | r : si 


name. Cue - 

d : | :* 


koo! 

d : I j j 



St. Co. (New.) 



226 



ADDIlIONAL EXERCISES. - PART I. 



: 1 : 


: | : 


n : | :d.r 


n ; - .PI j PI ; PI .f ' 


1 : 1 : 


Cuc- 
: | : n 


koo ! We 

d : \ :d.t. 


hear them sing, and 

d :-.d|d :d.r 


f :-.f|f :s 


1 : s |s : 


: s \ n : 


: 1 : 


Bird of beau - ty, 

11. :-.l,|li :d 


bird of fame, 
f :d |d : 


Cue - koo! 
: n \d : 


: 1 : 


s :-.f|f :-.r 


r : n .f | s : s 


s .f : n .r | n : 


PP 
: : s \ 


catch the tone, Then 

n : - .r |r : - .t. 


turn and sing it, 
t ( : d .r |n : n 


sing it as our own. Cuc- 

n .r : d .t||d : n 


koo ! Cue- 

^1 
1 * n i 


: 1 : 


: 1 : 


: 1 : 


it \ : 


: 1 : 


: 1 : 


: : 


Cue - koo ! 

:m \d : 


/ n : I : 

' koo ! cm. 
di 
: : 8| 

PP o 
: s | n : s 

Cue - koo ! O 

:n |d : 


: : s 
O 
d.d:d.d|r :r 

tell me now the songster's 

n .PI : n .n| s : s 

tell me now the songster's 

: 1 : 


s .s : s .s 1 1 : 1 

tell me now the songster's 

n : |f : d 


s :- |f :-'4 

name, O 

t, :- |d :r 


name, Q. 

d- : 1 f : 

name, O 

= 1 :f. 


tell me 

r : 1 1 : s 


tell me 
tell me now the songster's 


n : - .f | s : 1 
tell me now the 

d : |d :d 

tell me the 

s : s | : f .1 


n : |r : 

song - ster's 

d : 1 1| : 
song - ster's 
s :- | :f 


d : s |n : 

name. Cue - koo! 
d :n Id : 

name. 

n : | : s 


: s |n : 
Cue - koo ! 

:n |d : 
n : | : r 


tell mo the 
d :ci.r|ri :f 
name, tell me now the 


song - - ster's 
song - ster's 


name. Cuc- 

d : | : n 

name. 


koo! 

d : | : s, 


: 1 : 
: 1 : 

n .n : n .n|n : s 
tell me now the song -ster' 

d.d:d.djd :d 


dim. dim ^ 

:s |pi : :s |ri : : | 
Cue - koo ! Cue - koo ! 
:n |d : :n |d : : | 
PP 
di :- |- :d' s :-|-:d s :- | 
s name, Cue - koo ! Cue - koo ! 

A . I . . .__, I . . 1 



St. Oo. fNmo.J 






ADDITIONAL EXERCISES. PART I. 



227 



KEY G. M. 80. 



BON ACCORD. 

(Music from the old Scottish Psalters.) 



s : | s : d 
Lord, bless our 

d : | a, : S| 


ti : - .d | r : n 

fel - lowship this 

S| : - .1,1 ti : d 


r : s |n : d 

hour, And bless the 

r : ti | d : si 


r :r |d : 

food we eat ; 

1, :t, |d : 


n : |n : n 

Lord, bless our 

d : - | d : d 


r : - .r 1 s : s 

fel - lovvship this 


s : s |d : d 

hour, And bless the 

t ( : si | 1, : n. 


f : r |n : s 

food we eat ; Oh, 
f i 8| ! dj : 


:' 1 : 
: | :d 


t : 1 : s 

Oh, 
t- ; 1, |s, :d 


f : n | r : d 

grant us by Thy 

ti : d | 8| : si 


t| : ~.d | r : n 
sav - ingpower.A - 

8| : - .Sil si : Si 


Oh, 

f :n |r :d 


grant us, by Thy 
s : f |n : s 


sav - ing power,A - 
s : s |s : n 


round Thy throne, a- 

r : - . r | r : s 


grant us, by Thy 
:d |t, : 1, 

Oh, grant us, 


sav - ing power, Oh! 
si : l|.t||d : n 


grant us by Thy 

r : d ft, : d 

po\ver,A - round Thy 


sav - ing power, A - 

s, : - .1,1 1| : d 

throne to meet, / 


by Thy eav - ing 


r :d |d : t, 
round Thy throne to 

A , J 1 1 1 Jf m. 

t, : a | i|.S|. i, ,S| 


d :-|-:- 

meet. 

n, : | : 


s : | s : d 
On ev - 'ry 

d : | si : s. 


t, :-.d|r rn 

soul as-sem - bled 
S| : - .1|| t| : d 


f : n |r : r 


d :- I- : - 


n : |n : n 


r : - .r | s : s 


round Thy throne to 

s, : 1, ifi : s. 


meet. 


On ev - 'rv 

d : |d :d" 


soul as-sem - bled 
s, : - .s,|si : d 


r : s |n : d 

here, Oh, make Thy 

r : ti | d : si 


r : r |d : 

face to shine, 

li : ti | d '. 


1 : 
: I : d 


: | : s 

Thy 
ti : 1, Is, : d 


s :s Id :d 

here, Oh, make Thy 

ti : s, | 1| : HI 


f : r | n : s 

face to shine, Thy 

fi : s, jd, : 


Thy 

f :n |r :d 

good - ness more our 

:d |t, : 1, 


good - ness more our 
s : f |n : s 

hearts can cheer, Thy 

s, : l,.t|| d : n 






Thy good - ness 


more our hearts can 


f : n |r : d 

good - ness more our 

t| : d | s, : s, 

hearts can cheer, Than 
s : s | s : n 


t, :-.d|r :n 

hearts can cheer, Than 
8, : - .8,1 S| : S| 
rich - est food, Than 
r : - .r | r : s 


r :d |d : t, 

rich - est food or 

u, U |1|.S|!I|.S| 


d : I : 

wine. 

n, : | - : 

wine. 

d : |- : 


rich - est food or 

f : n | r : r 


good - ness more our 

r :d |t, :d 

cheer, Than rich - est 


hearts can cheer,Than 

s, : - .1|| t, : d 

food or wine, Than 


rich - est food or 

s, : li |ft : s, 

rich - est food or 


wine. 

d, :- |- :- 

wine. 



Si. Co. (New.) 



228 



ADDITIONAL EXEliCISES. PART I. 



*HOPE WILL BANISH SORROW. 



KEV F. M. 72. Words by GEO. BENNETT. 


Hivabiait Melody. 


P 


' ~ 


--= a - P 


, - 


^v 


-^rr ' " 


S I - 


.n : l.s 


s .,f : n : 


r .n : f . 1 : s .f 


f :n : 


s : -.n : 1 . s 


s .,f : n : \ 


l.Once again we're 


doom'd to part, 


Deem not 'tis for 


ev - er ; 


Love if rooted 


in the heart, 


d :- 


.d:d.d 


r .,r : d : 


t|.d : r.f :n.r 


r :d : 


d : -.d : d.d 


r.,r:d :- ' 


2. When 


I'm far a 


-way from thee, 


O'er the o - cean 


sail - ing, 


You will often 


muse of me, 


n : - 


.s : f .n 


So a __ 
.,9 


s .s : s :s 


s : s : 


n : -.s : f .n 


s .,s : s : 


3.Faith and trust in 


heav'nwe have, 


God is ev - er 


near - est, 


He can still the 


stormy wave, 


d :- 

f 


.d:d.d 


t,.,t,:d :- 


f .n : r.Si:l|.ti 
-o 


t, :d : 


d :-.d:d.d 


t|.,t,:d :- ( 


J 

i .8 : 


t.l :s. 


fe 


A A 

1 : s : 


r 

f :- 


.n : r ,d 


ti.,d 


. r : 


1 : - .s : f .n 


Time nor tide can 


sev - er; 


'Tis 


the sad a- 


dicus that chill, 


Make the parting 


t|.r : n : r 


r : r : 


r : - 


.d : t|. 


1, 


8| ,,1| 


: t/ : 


f : - .n : r .d 


Tears & sighs pre - 


vail - ing, 


But ne'er think of 


me with fear, 


Check at once the 


s".t :_ 


r'.d: t. 


1 


d 1 : t : 


ti :- 


.d : r .n 


f 


1 r : 


r :-.n:f.s 


Bear me safe - ly, 


dear - est. 


Then, farewell my 


na- tive shore, 


Clasp me to thy 


\ Si . S| : 


3 :r 




fe : s : 


81 : - 


.li: ti. 


i 


r ,,d 


: t, : 


t- : - .d : r .n 


cres. 

r ,,n : 


r : 




8 : - .n : f .s 


1 .t :r' 


d':t 


1 


s 


:r> 

: - .n : f .r 


r :d : 


sadder 


still. 




Say "we" 11 meet to 


-mor 


row," 


Hope 


will banish 


sor - row. 


d .,d i 


81 : 




Si :-.d:d.d 


d :- 


- :d 




d 


: - .d : t,.t. 


t : d : 


ris-ing tear, 


Sing "wiHlmeetto 


-mor 


row," 


Hope 


will banish 


sor - row. 


1 .,1 : 


t : 




d 1 : - .T : s . s 


f .8 : t 


1 ' 8 


f 


n 


~ .8 : r . s 


f : n : 


heart once more, 


Sing "we" 11 meet to 






r ," 


Hope 


will banish 


sor - row. 


-mor 


rov 


f .,f : 


f : 


n : - .d : r .n 


f :- 


: f i 




Si 


! ~ .8|! 8|.8| 


si : d : 






HOW BEAUTIFUL 


THE 


SUNSHINE. 


KEY D. M. 80. Words by GEO. BENNETT. 


German Air. 


mf 


^ 


-.,. 




em. 


^___^= 


: .s 


8 ..(1 


d 1 :- .8 


s . f r':r' : 


.8 


n 1 ..r 1 : 


d 1 .t :1 .r 1 


8 


1. How 


beau ti - f ul the 


sun - shine gleams In 


glorious summer's golden 


prime, 


: .n 


n .,n : 


n :- .n 


f..,f:f : 


.f 


n .,s 


s .8 :s .fe 


r 


2. But 


oft the sun shine 


brighter glows, 


And 


dear-er 


seems to heart & 


eye, 


: .s 


8 .,8 ' 


8 : .8 


8 .,8 :s ! 


.r' 


d .,t: 


d 1 .r 1 :n' .r' 


t 


3. 'Tis 


thus in 


life, the 


cares and clouds 


But 


make the pleasures sweeter 


still, 


: .d 


d .,d: 


d :- .d 


t ,,t :t : 


t, 


d .,r: 


n .r :d .r 


S 


P 


A.t. mf 


: s 


s .,n :n .8 :d' .,8 


1 : : 


1 


r 's f 


n .r ;d .r 


n \ 


On 


all a- round it sheds its 


beams, 


From 


ear - ly morn to ev - en- 


time ; 


:r 


n ..d :d .n :s .,s 


f : : 


f 


l r ..t 


d .t, :1, .t, 


d - 


When 


sparkling 


j o'er the wintry 


snows, 


Or 


glowing o'er the autumn 


sky; 


:t 


d .,s : 


3 . d 1 :d' .,d' 


d 1 :- : 


Ji 


rig r 


n .s :s .8 


S 


When 


twilight sorrow's vale en - 


shrouds, 


Hope 


shinesmorebrigliton sun-kiss'd 


hill; 


:s 


d .,d :d .d :n ,,n 


f : :f 


t et, .,s : 


S| .Si :s, .S| 


d 



St. Co. (Ncir.J *In teaching, introduce here St. Co. Ex. 133 to 145, or "First Exercises" 18 to 21. 



ADDITIONAL EXERCISES. PART I. 



229 



f. D. in/ 


eres. > 


/ 


: *s 


s .,d':d' 


-. c 
t D 


1 .,d':d' 


:- .d 1 


And 


yet we tire 


ere 


summer's sped, 


And 


: t r 


n ,,n : PI 


: - .n 


f .,f:f 


:- .1 


When 


light and shade 


more 


e - qual seen, 


The 


: "t 


d 1 .,s : s 


:- .d 1 


d 1 .,1 : 1 


: - .f 1 


The 


r Id-en threads 


time's 


weft per- vade, 


Shine 


: dg 


.,d:d 


:- .d 


f .,f:f 


:- .f 



t .,d':r' .PI' :f .,t 

wish the long long days were 

s .,s : s .s : t .,f 

cloud will make more bright the 

r 1 .,PI': t .d 1 : r' ,,s 

brighter for its warp of 

s .,s : s .s : s ,,si 



d 1 

fled. 

n 

beam. 

8 

shade. 

d 



COME, FREEDOM'S SONS. 



KEY 


Bi?. M. 72. 








Schultz. 


/ S| 


d :d 


d :- .si 


S| .Pi| : 1| ,S| 




_si__.fi : HI .d 


l.Come, 


free - dom's 


sons, and 


join in ring- ing 


cho - rus, In 


.S| 


PI| '. PIj 


Pl| I - .Pl| 


t f 




i'i '. di pi| 


2. In 


rain and 


storm our 


sky is oft - en 


frown - ing, And 


|i 


s, : si 


Si :- .8) 


si .d : d .d 




s, : s, .s, 


3. Then 


free - dom's 


sons, come 


join in ring- in 


o 


cho - rus, In 


.S, 


di : di 


d, : - .d, 


d| .d| : d, .cl| 




t a : d, .d; 








B.C. 






n .d 


: s .PI 


r .n : 


r .d 


t, .t, :1, 


.1, 


s, : . 


.8, 


li : ti 


joy- ful mu - sic 


praise 


this 


fa - vour'd spot of 


earth ; 


Come 


, praise the 


S| .n 


: s, .s, 


s, : 


- t ]. 


S| . S| : fe, 


.fe, 


S| : 


S 


1 


f i : f i 


girt by ra - ging 


seas 


our 


land is rough and 


sear; 


But 


health and 


d .d 


: n .d 


t, .d : 


t| .H 


r .r : d 


.d 


t, : . 


.d 


d : si \ 


joy- ful mu- sic 


praise 


this 


fa - vour'd spot of 


earth ; 


Come 


, praise the 


d| .d 


: d| .HI 


s, : 


- -d, 


ri .r, : n 


r. 


S| : . 


,ll 


f . : r, / 


d 


: - .r 


n .d : 


f .n 


n .r : 


.8 


f .n :r 


.d 




t, .It : si .d \ 


skies 


in 


beauty shin-ing 


o'er us, 


And 


loudly sing to 


praise the land that 


PI, 


: - .si 


si .BI : 


S| ,8| 


si .s, : 


.81 


S| .8) : si 


S| 




si .f, :PI, .li 


peace 


our 


dai- ly 


la- bours 


crowning, 


Give 


countless blessings 


to the cheerful 


8 I 


: - .t, 


d .PI : 


r .d 


d . t| : 


.n 


r .d : ti 


.1, 




si .r : n .n 


skies 


in 


beauty shin-ing 


o'er us, 


And 


loudly sing to 


praise the land that 


\ d, 


: - .s, 


d .d : 


ti .d 


S | . S | .' 


.8, 


S| .si : si 


.il 




S| .t| : d .1, / 


r 


8! 


d : 


.i 


li :t, 




d :- 


.r 




PI .d : f .PI 


gave 


us 


birth; 


Come, 


praise the 




skies 


in 




beauty shin-ing 


1, 


f 1 


"I : 


.8, 


f, :fi 




HI : - 


S| 




S| .81 : si .s. 


spi 


rit's 


here ; 


But 


health and 


peace 


our 


dai - ly la - bours 


f 


: r 


d : 


.d 


d : S| 




si : - 


.t| 




d .n : r ,d 


gave 


us 


birth; 


Come, 


praise the 




skies 


in 




beauty shin-ing 


f, 


: si 


d, : 


HI 


If : r i 


d, 


.ii 




d .d : t, .d 



St. Co. (New). 



230 



ADDITIONAL EXERCISES. PART 1. 



n .r .s 


f .n : r .d 


t, ..It : 8, .d 


-*^ ^ 
r : t| 


d .n : n .n 


o'er us, And 


loud-ly sing to 


praise the land that 


gave us 


birth, the land that 


S | . S , S| 


S| .8) : S| ,S| 


si .f, : HI .1, 


L : f i 


PI) . Si : 1 1 . 1 1 


crowning, Give 


countless blessings 


to the cheerful 


s[-i - rits 


here, the cheerful 


d .t, .n 


r .d : t, .1, 


8| .r : n .n 


f :r 


d .d ;.d .d 


o'er us, And 


loud-ly sing to 


praise the land that 


gave us 


birth, the land that 


III .81 .8, 


S| .s, : S| .s. 


si .t, :d .1| 


f| I S| 


d, .d :1, .1, 


/ f r 


n .d : d .d 


r : t, 


d :^ . 




ijave us 


birth, the land that 


gave us 


birth. 




1, S, 


8, .1, :li .1, 


li : si .f| 


n\ : - . 




spi - rite 


here, the cheerful 


spi - rite 


here. 




r t. 


d .n : n .n 


r : r 


d :- . 




gave as 


birth, the land that 


gave us 


birth. 




f. 8, 


d, .1, : 1, .1, 


f ( : s, 


d, :- . 




THE QUAIL CALL. 


(Words translated from the German by 
KEY 0. M. 66, twice. 


J. S. STALLYBRASS.) 
P f Gtrsbach. 


,n ; - : n.n | n 


: -.n : n 


f 


-.s : f |n : 


: s.,s 


s : 


: | : : 


I.I lark to the Quail how she 


pipes at morn, "Comea- 


long! 


Come a-long ! 


d :- :d.d|d 


: -d : d 


r 


-.r : r |d : 


: 


- 


: s.,s | s : : 


2. Cool on the hea - ther the 


dew 


yet lies ; " 


Cold the 


night ! 


Cold the night ! " 


8 : - : s.s | s 


: -.s : s 


S 


-.818 |s : 


: 


j 


: 1 : : 


3. Now come the huntsmen with 


horn 


and hound; "Get you 


gone! 


Get you gone ! 


d :- :d.d|d 


: -.d : d 


t| 


-.t,: ti | d i 


: 


: 


: ! : : 


1 4. Hark, when the reaping is 


ov 


er and done, ' 


' I'll be- 


gone! 


I'll be- gone! ' 


d 1 : d 1 : d 1 | d 


-r'-d 1 t 


- : |s:-. 


s : s 


s : 1 


: t Id 1 : -.r 1 : d 1 


come let us hide in the 


corn 


" Look 


at her, 


steal- ing through yonder green 


n : s : 1 | s 


: -.s : s 


8 


- : |s :-. 


s : s 


8 :fe 


: B 1 :-.!:! 


flutt'-ring and shiv - 'ring she 


cries 


j Runs 


to the 


sand, where she mak - eth her 


d 1 : d 1 :d'.r'|r, 


: -.f: n 1 


r 1 


- : |"f : -.t : t 


r 1 : d 1 


: t |1 : -.1 : 1 


here I lie safe in the 


ground : While the wheat 


stands and the leaves are yet 


d : n : f | s 


: -.s : s 


S 


- : | s : -.s : s 


t : 1 


: s |fe :-.fe: fe 


ruth - less the win - ter comes 


on." 


Hi - ther and 


thi - ther she flits and she 


t :- :- |s 


<C 
: 1 : t d 1 




~7~:n' If :-.':' n' :- 


: | d 1 : d 1 : d 1 v 


field, Tell -ing of 


sweets that the har - vest will 


yield, 


Sing-ing the 


,8 :- : - |s 


: s : B 


s : 


B : 8 Is : -.s : s 


B : - 


: |s : s : s 


bed, Pa - tient-ly 


waits till the shades are all 


fled, 


Wist-ful - ly 


) r 1 :- :- |t 


: d' : r' 


d 1 : 


t : d' r' : -. 


r! r 1 


d' :- 


: |n' : r 1 : d' 


f green, I 


by the 


bun 


ter shall nev - er be 


seen ; 


Ah, but the 


8 : - : - |s 


:s :f 


n : 


r :d It. :-.t,:ti 


d :- 


| d : r : n 


I Sies, But not a 


glean-ing of har - vest she 


spies, 


Tho' in the 



St. Co. 'Ntw.J 



ADDITIONAL EXERCISES. PART I 



231 



while that she joy - ful-ly 


glides, " God be 

d' :- :- - :- : 


thank'd, God be thank'd ! 

o c 1 1 _ 
.0 .,5 | 1 . . 


watch - es the bright > en -ing 

r 1 : -.r 1 : d 1 |T : -.1 : s 


skies ; 
bare ; 

d 1 :- :- 


"God be 
Who'Uba- 


thank'd, God be thank'd ! 

d 1 :- jd'^'ld 1 :- :- 

friend? Who'll defend P " 

,':. : PI., PI |f :- :- 


reap - ers they lay me so 

f : - .s : 1 | s : - .s : s 


\ vale of her birth she would 


stay, Look she 


goes, Look she goes, 


eres - cen do. 

1 s :-.s:s | s :1 :t 


A\ . 
u . ~ i 


_ . _ 




who for the hum-ble pro- 
n :-.n:n |f :f : f 


vides." 

PI : - : - 


_ _ . 




slum - her he gave to mine 

d' :-.d':d' |t : d 1 : r 1 


eyes. 
d 1 : - : - 


_ ; _ ; 




God for his crea - ture will 
s : - .s : s | s : s : s 


care. 
d :- :- 


_ . _ . 




, ov - er the moun-tains a - 


way. 




Words by 
/. S. Stallybrass. 
/KEY B17. S.S.C.T.B. 


THE TIME FOB JOY. 

(" Soldiers, brave and gallant be") 
M. 144. 
PI : - .n |d : n : n .r | n : f e 


Oaitoldi. 

s : - .s i s : 


n : - .n|n : s 


l.When the win - tor's 
d : - .d | d : r 


past a - way, 

d : - .d | d : - 


When woods put on their 

d :d.r|d : 1, 


green ar - ray, 


s, :-.s,|si : 8, 


s, :-.S||s, : 


li i 1| .i'il 1| 1| 


si :-.Silsi : 


2. la the leaf -y 

n : - .n|n : r 


month of June, 

n : - .n |n : 


Un - dera high and 
d : d ,t|| 1| : r 


cloud - less moon. 
r : - .r | r : 


3. Let the sum - mer 


sun be high, 

d :-.d |d : 


Or winter fogs blot 
li : 1, .t|| d : r 


out the sky, 

si :-.S||si : ' 


n .n : n .n |PI : r 


n : | : s 


n : d | r : r 


d :- 1- :- \ 


Fa la la la la la 

d.d:d.d|d : t, 


la, Fa 
d : s |n : d 


la la la la * 
: n .f | s : s 


la. 
n : | : 




Fa la la 


Fa la la la 


la. 


BI.S,: S|.s,|si : s, 


s : | d| : n ( .f| 


S| : 1| | r.| : si 


8) J 1 : 


d.d:d.d|d :r 


Fa la la, 

d :n.f |s :- 


Fa la la la 

:d.d|d :t, 


la. 

d ,ti: d .r |n : 


Fa la la la la la 
di ,d, : d|.d|| d| : S| 


la, Fa la la, 

d. : - | : d .d 

Fa la 


Fa la la la 

d : li Is, : s, 

la la la la 


la )a la la la. 

d. :-!-:- 
la. / 



St. Co. (New.) 



232 



ADDITIONAL EXERCISES. - PART I. 



n . - .n|n : s 


n : - .n|d : 


n : n . r | n : f e 


s : - .s | s : , 


Then the birds con- 


spire to sing, 


Then, then with joy they 


hail the Spring, 


d : - .d|d : r 


d :-.d|d : 


d :d.r|d : 1, 


ti :-.t,|ti :- J 


si :-.s,|si : si 


si :-.8,|si : 


1, 1 1| .Til 1| I 1 ; 


s, :-.s,|si : 1 


E'er the dew hath 


shut the rose, 


While yet a breath of 


eve - ning blows, I 


n : - .n|n : r 


n : - .n|n : 


d : d .t|| 1; : r 


r : - .r |r : \ 


Songs of joy can 


still a rise, 


Deep in the heart their 


foun - tain lies, 


d :-.d|d :t. 


d :-.d|d :- 


1, :l,.t,|d :r 


si :-.8,|S| : / 


P 


n .n ' n .n | n i r 


n : I : s 


n : d |r : r 


d :!-:- 


Fa la la la la la 


la, Fa 


la la la la 


la. 


d.d:d.d|d : t, 


d : s |n : d 


: n .f ! s : s 


n : | : 


Fa la la la la la 


la la la la, 


Fa la la la 


la. 


S..S,: s,.s..s,. : s. 


s, : |d, : n,.f 


s/ : li |r, : si 


si :-!-:- 


Fa la la la la la 


la, Fa la la 


la la la la 


la. 


d.d:d.d|d :r 


d :n.f|s : 


:d.u;d : t ; 


d .ti: d .r |n : 


Fa la la la la la 


la, Fa la la, 


Fa la la la 


la la la la la. 


d..d. : d .d d : s. 


d, ! | :d.d 


d : I, | si : s, 


d, :-|-:- 




Fa la 


la la la la la. 


P cres. 


t| : t|.lj t| : d 


t| : t, |r : r .d 


r : n |r : r 


n : s | s : f e \ 


Hark ! do you hear the 


tale they tell? Near 


and more near the 


tid - ings 


r : r .d|r : n 


r : r |t, : ti.li 


t| d | t, I t| 


d :t, |r :- 


s, :si.ri||si : s. 


81 : s, | si : 


: | : s, 


i :~ 11. :- 


Hark ! do you hear the 


night-in - gale, Sing 


loud and clear, His 


thrill - ing 


: 1 : 


: P\T :s.n 


s : | : s 


n : 1 1 : r 




Hark! do you 


hear, 




Hark ! do you hear our 


songs re - sound, Still 


loud and clear, The 


whole year 


8| : s. . 1|| s : d| 


si : s ( |s, :s,.l 


s, : d, | a, : si 


d :n |r :- / 


/. ff 


s :- I- :- 


r : r .d|r : n 


f :-.f|f :- 


s :f.n|f :r 


swell : 


Now with a sun - ny 


sky a - bove, 


Now is the time for 


t, :- 1- :- 


t, :t|.d[t| : Si 


d :-.d|d :- 


n : r ,n|d : s 


si :-|-:- 


s, :8|.ni|s, : s, 


fi :-.fi|fi :- 


HI : f, . S|| 1| ; S| 


tale? 


Here, in the green and 


sha - dy grove, 


Here is the place for 


F :- I- :- 


t| t|.l|| S| : d 


1, : - .1,1 1| : 


d :l,.d|d :t, 


round P 


Where joy desccnd-eth 


frm a - bove, 


There is the place for 


si :!: 


8, :s,:i|ti :d 


fi :-.fi|f| : 


d, :r,.di|f, : si t 



St. Co. (New.) 



ADDITIONAL EXERCISES. PART I. 



233 



d :-.d|d :- 


VP 

n .n : n .n|pi : s 


n :- I- :- 


P 
d.d:d.d|d : t, \ 


joy and love, 

n : - ,n|n : 


Fa la la la la la 
d.d:d.d|d : t. 


la, 

d :- |- :- 


Fa la la la la la 

n .n : n .n| n : s 


s, :-.Si|s, : 


S|.s,: S|.s,| s, : s, 


si :|: 


BI.SI: si.sil si : s ( 


joy and love, 


Fa la la la la la 

: 1 : 


k, 
n .n : n .n|n : s 


Fa la la la la la 


joy and love, 
d| ; - .d|l d, : 


d.d:d.d|d :n 


Fa la la la la la 

d :- |- : 


la, 

d .d : d .d|d : n 




Fa la la la la la 


la, 


Fa la la la la la / 


cres. 

d : | : s .s 


n : | : s .s 


.ff 

n : : n .n 


n : i : 


la, cres. Fa la 

n : s .s |n : 


la, / Fa la 

: s .s |n : 


la, ff Fa la 

: s .s |n : d .d 


la. 

d :- |- :- 


la, Fa la la, 
S, : H|.P1|| 8) ! 


Fa la la, 

:ni.ni|s, : 


Fa la la, Fa la 


la. 

i HI ,pi|| n, i 


Fja la la, 

:"d~.d|d :-. 

cres. 

d :- ! :d.d 


Fa la la, 

:d.d|d :- 
d :- | :d.d 


Fa la la, 

:d.d|d : 

ff 

d :- | :d,.d 


Fa la la. 

d, :- j- :- 


la Fa la 


la, Fa la 


la, Fa la 


la. 


KEY F. PP 

n :f |s :1 


HEAR ME WHEN I CALL. 

r : | s : d : |r :n 


G A Hacfarren. 
f m 1 n ' \ 


Hear me when I 

d :d |d :d 


call, O 

t, :- Id :- 


Lord of my 

d :- It, :d 


right - eousness; j 

d :-.d|d : 


s :f id" 1 :1 


S ""~~ | S ~~ 


n : | s : s 


1 :-.sjs : 


Hear me when I 

a :li In, :f, 
n :f |s :1 

Hear me when I 

d :d |d :d 


call, O 

s, : | HI : 


Lord of my 

1, :- Is, :d 
? :d |f :n 


right - eousness ; 

r : - .d|d : n 

right - eousness ; Have 

t, : - .d | d : d 


call, O 

t, :- |d :- 


Lord of my 


s :f |d :1 


s : | :f 


n :- |f :s 


s : - .n|n : s 


Hear me when I 
d ' 1| |PI| : f | 


call, O 


Lord of my 

L : | r, :m.f 


right - eousness ; Have 
s, : - .d | d : d 


St. Co. (New.) 



234 



ADDITIONAL EXERCISES. PART I. 



ertt. 
s : In : r 


i. my. 

d :d | :d s , 


t :- |n 


: r 


JT.t. 

d :d | : 


mer cy up - 

d : Id : s, 


on me, Have 
1| ! 1| | ;d g| 


mer - cy 

d :- |d 


^ up - 


on me, f 
li :li 1 :",!. ' 


s : |s : s 


n ' n | '. * n 


8 :- Is 


: s 


And 

n : n | : 


mer - cy tip 

n : | d : ti 


on me, Have 


mer - cy 

n : |d 


up - 

:ti 


on me, 

1, : 1. 1 : 


: I ;l|r 

and 

r :d |t, :1, 


t 

s :- |f :n 


'im. 

f :- |r 

un - to 

r : d | ti 


: r 

my 
my 

: s, 
: s 


r : | n 

pray - er. 

t, :- |d : 
:- |s : 

pray - er. 

d :- |d : 
1 :1 I : 


heark en 

d : - |r : n 


heark - - en 
and 

: | :df 
C.t. ff 


8 :1 |T :d' 


1 :- |s 
un - to 

r :- |s 

r 1 :-.s|s 


heark en 

n : |r : d 


n 1 : d' |1 : t .d 


Lord, lift thou 
M :- |f :f 


up the light of thy 

n : s |f : f .n 


coun - te- nance up - 
s . | ,f : PI .r 


on me, 

f :f 1 : 


d 1 : | d 1 : t 


d 1 :d p |d' :r'.d 


d> :t |t 


: t 


d :d' | : 


Lord, lift thou 

t ( n : | r : r 


up the light of thy 

d :n |f :r.l 


coun - te - nance up - 
8 : - .8 | 8 : 8 


on me, 

f :f 1 : 


,?._!_:_ 


t : d 1 1 1 : f 


? : I 


:1.1 


t :d' fl :d' 


Lord, 


lift thoj up the 

f :s |f :d 


ri- ,- 


of thy 
:f .f 


coun - te - nance up - 

f :s |f :n.f 


fi ':- \- :- 


r 1 : d' |d' : 1 


f :- |- 


:"?.!' 


r 1 :d' Id' : d' 


Lord, > 

: | r : 


lift thou up the 

f :n if : 


light 
:r |r 


of thy 

: r .r 


coun - te - nance up - 

r :n |f :1 


Lord, 


lift thou up the ligh 
f. F. # dolce. 

:_ |_ : _ dig : f | n :r 


* 1 
d :1 |s :~ - :r 

down in peace and 

and take 

: | :d's r : 


on me. I will lay me 

s : | : f n : | : : I : 


r 1 : I : d 


: I : : I : 


on me. 

s :-|-:- d :-|-:- : | : 


and ta 1 e 

: | :i,n, s, : 


&, Co. (New.) 





ADDITIONAL EXERCISES. PART I. 



235 



r : s.f 


PI : 


s : 


- :f 


PI : r 


d :1 


s : 


: r 


r : n 


take my 


rest, I 


will lay me 


down in peace, 


and take my 


t, : 


d : r d : t, 


d : : 


: :d 


d : 


t, : 


my 


rest, and take my 


rest, 


and 


take my 


s : 


s : f n : r 


n : 


: 


: : s 


r :- |s :- 


* 8| : ~~ 


d :- 


: 


: : 


: : PI, 


S| : | s ( : 


/ f :- 


J 


fc_ 

: r 


~s :7~ 




f :- If :- 


: s 


n : 


: 


rest; 


For it is 


thou, 


Lord, on 


. 


d :- , : 


: 


: 


: : 


:1, r :d 


t, :- , 


rest; 






For it is 


thou 


f 
i * . 


: 


: 


:s" |d' :t 


1 : 


1 : 


: s 


rest; 




For it is 


thou on 


. 


li : 1. 


r :d 


ti : 


: 


d :- - :- 


r : r, : 


S, 1 


\ For it is 


thou, 


Lord, 


thou, Lord, 


on / 


f. B7. pia. 


PI :*S| 1, : -.8, 


si : 


1, : : s, 


1, : t, d :r 


i :. 1 : r \ 


ly that 


mak - est me 


dwell in 


safe 


ty; that 


d : d Si 


f| ! -.PlJ P1| I 


f i : : si 


f, :- 


f, : 


: s, | S| : si 


that 


mak - est me 


dwell in 


safe - ty ; 


Thou on - ly 


|d :fd 


d : 


d :d 


d : r.d t| : d 


d :- f :- 


n : :T 


ly that 


mak - est me 


dwell in 


safe 


ty ; that 


ll :1,PI| 


fi : -.d|| d| : 


f, ' ^ 


: n, 


f, : s, |1| : t, 


d : : ti 

1 


, ly that 


mak - est me 








F. t. PP 


PI : -.r 


r 


mi; : s 


1 :t |d' :1 


s : : s 


IT t ~"~ 


mak - est me, 


dwell in 


safe 


ty. A - 


men, 


8 t : s, : s. 


s,d : r.d 


t, :d 


d : f : 


n : Si 


d : 


: t-.l. 


' mak - est me 


dwell in 


safe 


ty. A - men, 




d : -.t, 


t. : 


df : - 


: s 


f :- - : 


s : 


: n 


s : 


mak - est me 


dwell in 


safe 


ty. A - 


men, 


d ! -.S|| 8| ! 


d ,f 1 : ! n ( 


f i : S| 


li : f, 


d : : 


: 


Jff 


s :f 


n :- d 1 :- 


: 


t : 1 


t : |t : 


d 1 :- 


: 


A 


men, A 


. <, .t* .', . 


men, A 


men, 


t, :- 


d :- d : 


r : | : 


- :- |s :f 


PI : | : 


|s :- 


1 : 


n : 


s : 


: 


- :- |s :- 


8 . "~~ ~~ 


A - 


men, A 


men, 


A 


men, 


i : 


! 


1, :- 


si : : 


: 


81 : ~!ld, i s - i- : - 



8l. Co. (New.) 



236 



ADDITIONAL EXERCISES. PART I. 



KEY F. M. 108. 

d' :d'.t|l : 


r' :r'.d'|t : 


C. t. Matthew Locke. 

d'f rr'.d'lt :s' r'.f : n'.r'ln'.d 1 : 


We fly by night, 

: | d : d .d 

We fly by 

: |f :f.s 


we fly by night, 

f : - -n ! r : 


we fly by night 'mong troops of spirits, 

"1 : 1 . 1 1 1 : s s : - . s | s . s : 

we fly by night 'mong troops of spirits, 

d' ff |r' :d" d 1 : t |d f .d': 


night, 


1 s : 8 .8 


We fly by 

: |f :f.n 


night, we fly by 

r : |s : s .f 


night, by night 'mong troops of spirits, 

"1 : f ! s :n s : s |d .d : 


f. p. 
: 1 : 

r :r.d| t, : 


d'g :g.f|n : 

We fly by night, 

d :d.t,|d : 


d 1 :d'.t|l.t:l.s f .s:f .n|r : 


we fly, - - 

d : d .d|d : r : r .r |r : 


We fly by night, 
| n't :t.l| s : 


_We fly by night, 

? : s ,s| s : 


we fly by night, we fly by night, 

1 :1.1|1 : 1 :l.f|s : 


: |d' s :s.f 
\ We fly by 


n : |d :d.t, 

night, we fly by 


1, : If 

night, we 


: f .n r .n : r .d| t|.d : t ( .l ( 


fly / 


/ s : s .f |n .f 


: n .r 


d .r :n .d 


|r .n : f .r 


n .f : s .n |f .s : 1 .f 


we fly - 
r : r .r |d 





d " :d .d 


t, :-".t, 


d" :- |f :"f .f i 


we fly by night, 

t : t .t |d" 
a, : Id 


:d .t. 


We fly by 

n :n .n 
li .t, :d .t,,l 


night, by 

: - .s 

s, : si 


night, we fly by , 

8 :d' Id 1 :d'.t 


d .r : n .d |r .n : f .r 


we 


fly, 


- 


we 


fly / 


s .1 : ta.s |1 .t 


:d' 

by 
:f 


t :d' Id 1 :t 

night 'mong troops of 

r : n r : r 


D.C. 
d' .d 1 : - | 

spi- rits. 

n .n : I : 


n : - .n |d 


night, we fly 

d 1 :- .d 1 |d r 


. by = 


night 'mong 

s : s 


troops of 

8 : s 


spi- rits. 

8 .8 :- i : 


n .f : s .n |f . 


:1 .f 


8 :d 

night 'mong 


8, : si 

troops of 


d .d : I : 

spi- rits. 


... 


by 


St. Co. (New). 




- 






f 



ADDITIONAL EXERCISES. PART I. 



237 





MY 


LADY IS AS FAIR AS FINE. 


KEY '. 

1 : d .r 


B>. M. 90. p 

PI : - .n | PI ; f 


F. t. 
PI : r .d | f : r n : r .d | r s : d 1 


John Benet, 1614. 

d> :t |d :d.r\ 


My" 


la - dy is as 

si :-.s,|si : 1 ( 


fair as fine, With milk - white hands ane 

si : f..ri|| TI : t 8| : d | tn : d 


I gold - en hair ; Her 

r : - .r | d : d 


: si 


d :-.d|d :d 


d : si | si : s".f n : s | sd 1 :T 


1 : s .f | n .f : PI .r 


My 

: d ( 


la - dy is as 

d, : - .d,| d, : f , 


fair as fine, With milk - white hands an( 

di : d| |s, : s, d| : d, | s d : n ( 


I gold - en hair ; Her 

fi :si |d i \ 


n : 


ores. 1 

r .n | r .d : t|.d 


'. B?. 

rl,.ti:d.n|r : 


n : - .s |f 


:d 


r : r |n 


. 


eyes 

d : 


the ra - diant 

4- A 1 4. 1 M 1 

l| .u | l| . 1, . S| .1 


stars out - shine, 
ta,f, :S|.l||t, : 


Light - ing all 

S| : - .S|| I, 


things 
: d 


far and near : 

d :ti |d : 


d : 


r | r : - .r 


s r 


: n .d| r : 


d : n |r 


:d 


T : s | s 


! 


eyes 


the ra - diant 
S| | S| ! ~ .S i 
Her eyes the 


stars out - shine, 

8 iri ; di | Si ; 

stars out - shine, 


Light - ing all 

n, : - .nj f| 


things 
1| 


far and near : 

si : si |d| : 


d 


: - .r |n : d .s 


l,.t 


:d |d.t,:- 


r^ripT 11 


:=> 

:d 


d :t, |d 


.d: 


Fair 
Pll 


as Cyn - thia, 

:-.f ( |si : si 


not 
f, 


so fickle ; 
I Pll |7|]T|! 


Smooth as glass 


, tho' 
:PI, 


not so brittle. 

n :r, Idi.d,: 


d 


: d |d : s, 


r 


: |s : r .PI 


f :d |d.r 


:n.f 


s :-.f|f 


.n: 


Fair 
d, 


as Cyn - thia, 


not 
f| 


so fickle ; 

: d, |s,.si:~ 


Smooth as glass, tho' 
f i .S| : 1| ,t|| d : d| 


not so brittle. 

s, : s, |d.d,: 












# F. t. 




: | :d.r 


n 


: - .n |PI : f PI : r .d| t| 


: r 


n : r .d | r 


s :d' 




My 

: | :pi|.f 


heart is like a 

si : - .s,| si : 1, 


ball of snow, Fast 

s, : f t . n\\ TI : ti 


melt - ing 

s, :d |t 


at her 

PI : d 




: 1 : fi~~ 


"d 


:-.d|d :d 


d :si |s, 


:I.f 


n : s | 8 


d 1 : af 




My 


heart is like a 

d| : - .d|| di : f| 


ball of snow 
d| ' d| | S| 


, Fast 


melt - ing 

d, : d| | 


at her 

d : P>I 


d 1 


cr 

:t id 1 :d.r r 


es. f. Bl?. ., 

1 : r .n |r.d : t,.d r l|.t,: d.n|r : " 


r 

PI : - ,s | f : d 


r :r 


glan 
r 

1 


ces bright ; Her ] 

: - ,r | d : d < 
: s .f | n .f : n .r < 


a - by lips like nightworms glow, 


Spark - ling thro* the 
S| : - .S|| 1| : d 

d : PI r : d 


pale twi- 

d : t, 
s : s 


1 : r | r : - .r r 


:s|.ljt ( :-.r 


glan-ces bright; Her 

f, :s, |d :- 


ru - by lips like nightworms glow, 
: si 1 si : -,s, s ir, : d ( | S| : 
Her lips like nightworms glow, 


Spark - ling thro' the 
PI, : - .P)|| f i I li 


pale twi- 

S| : s. 



SI. Co. (New). 



238 



ADDITIONAL EXERCISES. PART I. 



/ In ' 


PP 

d : - .r | n : d .8j 


l,.t,:d |d.t,: 


d : - .r | n : d 


d : t| | d .d : 


light: 
Id : 

Is : 


Neat she is, no 
it :-.fi|s, : a, 

d :d |d : s ; 


fea - ther lighter; 

f i ^ 

r : 7 | s : r .n 


Bright she is, no 

f :T |d.r:n.f 


dai - sy whiter, 
r, : TI | d|.d|: 

? : - .f | f .n : - 


light: 

Id, : 


Neat she is, no 
d| : - .d|| d| : n, 


fea - ther lighter; 

TI : d, | Si.Si : 


Bright she is, no 

f,.s,: Ij.tild :d| 


dai - sy whiter. 



NIGHT AROUND. 

KBY P. M. 72, thrice. (Arranged for this work by GEO. OAKEY). 



BI : n ; r 
Hm, 



d :- 

Hm, &c. 

a, : - 

n : - 
d :- 

Hm, &c. 



I - 



1 : : 
B, | t| : 1| : ti 


d 


- If, :- :- 


n, 


- |r :d :r 


d 


- Is, :- :- 


d 



Air by Weingand. 

' I <i : n : r 

1. Night a- 

2. Tho' a- 



round 
round 

d : 8| 



t^ \d\J 


:/ 


* : - 


:- 1* :- 


: 1" :/ 


: n 


r : - : - \ 


is soft 
these clois - 


ly 
ten 


creep 
night 


ing, 
ly 


All 
Spi - 


the 
rits 


earth 
awe 


Id :- 


: - 


r : - 


: - |d : - 


: - |d : r 


: d 


t, : - : - 


ii, . 


t 




I _ 


- 1 - 


. 




i *i 

8 |fe :- 


: r 


s, . 
a : - 


i 
:- 1- :- 


i 

:- 1- :- 


: - 


Sf . . - ' 

s : - : - 


- 1- :- 


: - 


ti :- 


:- Id :- 


:- 1- :- 


: - 


s, : - : - 



j\ - - \ ! 


r : 


/ 


: m 


d : - 


to 


rest 




is 


laid, 


the 


tim 





id 


breast, 


1- :- :- 1 


s, : 


1, 


:t, 


d :- 


1- :- :- I 


- : 


- 


: - 


s, : - 


If :r :n | 


f : 


- 


: - 


n : - 


1- :- :- 1 


- ; 





: - 


d :- 



St. Co. (New.) 



Grief it- 
Love fear- 



d :- :- \- :- : t\ \d : I \ fe 

self lies calm - ly 

not where sulmb'ring 

d : ti : d | s, : - 



n : - : - | - : - : s | fe: - 



i9 :-:-) : - : 

sleop - ing, 
light - ly 

r :- :- |d :- : 


ADDITIONAL EXERCISES. PART I. 
C. t. ores. 

- !*': t :d* * : - : - i- : - : mi 7 1 : n 1 :r' 


maid? 

rest. 

d 1 : - : - 
n ; - : - 
s : - : - 
d : - : - 

area. 
8 ife: s 


239 

" ! ) 

- : : 

1 '.-',- 

on 
waft 

f :n :f 


Sleep - est 
I - da 

- | t|H : r : n 


thou be- lov - ed 
lies in heav'n - ly 

s:-:-|-:-:d't:-:- 
t,n:f:n|r:-:d|r:n:f 


si : - : - |- :- : 
t, :- :- |d :- : 


- 1 : : 
- 1 : : 


sd 1 : t :d'|s :- :- - : - :- 


-:- : - |d : t| :d |s :- : - 


dolce. f.F. 

|rf' : t : d ] rl / : - 


- - ' - :~a~ \f : n : r w : - : - | s : - : - 


I - da hear 
Play - fill ze 

: : taf : - 
: : "t,:- 


m: 
. - - P h 

: - - : - : n 
: - d : t, : d 


f lute's soft num. - bers, 
yrs gent- ly steal - ing, 

r:d:t, d:-:-|-:-:- 


Float - ing 
Up - ward 


!,:- :- - :- :- - :- :- 
f:s:f n:-:- -:-:- 


t, : - : - ' 
r : - : - 
s, : - : - 

d : I :fe\ 


: : r : - 

/-:-:*!/: 


: - - : - : n 

Poco rit. 

: r m : - : d 1 


- :- :- d :- :- |- :- :- | : : 
a : - : - |7| : w : r d '.-',- \- '.-'. t { 


the balm - 
my song 

r : - : n r : - 

- : - : - 1 , : 1, 


to thee, 
: - d : - : n 


Yet, my lute 
May its tones 

s : - : - | : : d : S| : 1| 


if 

mi 

si : - : - 


I - da 
T love re- 

d : - : - 

Hi =- :- 
|fe:- :r 


:t|d :-:-!-:-:-] : : s, :-:- 


- : - : s 


"" ~~ "* 8 ~* 


:- -:-:-|PI:-:-| : : n : - : - 


- : - : - |- : - 

18 : - : - \n : - 

slum - bers, 
veal - ing, 

, r :- :- |d :- 


:- d:-:-|-:-:-| : : d:-:- 

dim. 

: \l :*:<*' :-:-|-:-: I/ :*:* 


- :- :-|- :- :- 
d :- :- I- : : 

fair, 
me. 

d :- :-|- : : 
8, :-:-)-: : 
n : - : - - : : 
d :-:-!-: : 


Hush ! nor 
Fill thy 


wake my la - dy 
dreams with thoughts of 

n :- :-|- : - zd|r : d :t| 


s, :- :- |d :- 


: - I f e : - : - 


- :t, :d |s,:- :- |- :- :- 


s : - : - | - : - 


s : - : - |- : r : n f : - : - 


t, : - : - |d : - 


:- 1, :- :- 


si :-:-|-:-:-|-:-:- 



St. Co. (New.) 



ADDITIONAL EXERCISES. PART I. 



COME, LET US ALL A MAYING GO. 

Arranged for mixed voices by GEO. OAKEY. 
KET E7. Vivace. M. 132. 
/ P 



L. Atterbury. 



,8 I 8 .8 


s : s 


1 


: s 


s : .s 


l.f :f .1 


s .n : s 


r .n : f .n 


r : i 


Come, let us all a 


May - ing go, And 


light - ly trip it 


to and fro ; f 


PI .' PI .PI 


r : n 


f 


: r 


n : .n 


f :d |d :PI 


t,.d:r.d 


t, :r.d. 










Let us 


d 1 :d'.d'|t :d' 


d 1 


: t |d' : /s 


f.l:l.f|d~i :d" 


r'.d 1 : t.d 


s : r .r 


Come, let us all a 


May - ing go, And 


light - ly trip it 


to and fro ; 


d : d .d | si : d 


f| 


: s, |d : .d 


f :-.f 


n .s : d 1 


s : s 


s : / 


p-R'y, t. 




P cres - een - do. 


: t n .d j li : 




: f .r |t, : - . d : d .d |r : - .r 


T : PI v 


Let us go, / 




let us go. Come, let us all a 


May - ing 


t, : 1 :1, 


l 


fi : f .I, | 8| : - . S| : s, .8| | S| : - .8) 


BI : li 


go, let 


us 


go, 




8 : | :"1| 


1| 


r : 1| .li |r : - . n : n .n |r : - .r 


i :d 


P 




let us go. Come, let us all a 


May - ing 


:id|.pi||f| : 




: TI ,f| | S| : - . d : d .d 1 1| : - . ti 


i : 1, 


Let us go, 






f ,-., 


f :r 


n . 


d:f .r 


p .r : d .t. 


d :- 


. 


. 


P 

r .t,: t|.s. 


go, And 


light -ly 


trip it 


to and fro, 


P 


trip it to and 


It, :-.!, 


8, :t| Id. 


d: 


s, : s, 


s, : 


BI .HI : n, .d 


li : 


: 












trip it to andjro, 




r : - .r 


r : s 





: 1 


s .f : n .r 


n : 


: 


f .r:r.t 


Si :si.s 


go, And 


light ly 


trip 


it 


to and fro, 


tripittoanc 


fro, to and 


r :-.d 


t, :-., 


d 


:f, 


8, :-.s 


d : : 


: : / 


Id :- f :r 


n . 


d : f .r IPI .r : d .t 


1st time. 
f.Efr.D.C. 


2nd time. 

d : .s, 


8 

d .n. r .d tj.li: si.f,\ 


fro, 


light- ly, 


light -ly 


trip it to and fro. 


fro. The 


bells shall 


Pit d| ! S| .Plj 


BI ; t| 


d 


d: 


s .'s : s .s 


if : 


s, : .s, 


d|.d : ti.l 


f l|.f|! ni.r, 


tnp it, trip it, 


light - ly 


trip it, 








8| : 


r :T 


8 


: 1 


s .f : PI .r 


Pit :- 


n : 


s : n 


: 


fro, 


light -ly, 


light -ly, 


trip it to and fro, 


fro. 


Cue - koo, 


, 8|.n,: ivd 


t, : 8< 


Idi-drf, 


s,.s : S'.Sil <M, : 


d, : .d 


f :- if :- 


trip it,trip it, 






The bells shall 


St Co. (New.) 







ADDITIONAL EXERCISES. PART I. 241 


rii.n : r .d| t|.l ( . s\.f 


ri(.n : r .d | ti . 1| : s t .f\ 


f. El?. 
n, :- | : 

sing, 


*s : n | : \ 

Cue -koo, 


ring, and the 


cue - - koo 


d|.d : t| . 1:| S|.f| 1 PI .f| 


d|.d : t|.l|| l|*f|! n, .r 


d, :- I : ( t, 

sing, The 

s : n I :* r 1 
Cue - koo. The 


bells shall 
d'.n':r'.d'|t.l : s .t 


ring, and the 

s : n | : 

Cue - koo, 


cue - - koo 

s : n ' : 

Cue - koo, 


bells shall 


f :- I :d.d 

ring, and the 


f :- |f :- 

cue - koo 


f :- 1 :d s 

sing, The 


d.d 1 : t .l|s .f :n.r 


bells shall 


s : n | : 


s : n | : 


s : n | : 


0fl 

I :d'.d 


Cue - koo, 


Cue - koo, 


Cue - koo, 


And the 


d : I : d .si 


d" :- Id" :- 


T :- |- r 


: | : n .n 


ring, and the 

d'.n':r'.d'|t .1 :s.t 


cue - koo 

d'.n':r.d'|t .1 :s .t 


sing, /= 

d' : I - : d 1 

sing, The 

d :- i : 

sing, 


s : d 1 | s : 

drum shall beat, 

: 1 : 


ring, and the 

d.d 1 : t .l|g .f :n.r 


cue - - koo 
d.d 1 : t .1 |s .f : n.r 


ring, and the 


cue - - koo 


t :d' |t : s s : - .s 


f 

s : s .d 1 


ff 

t :d' |t : .t \ 


fife shall play, The drums sha 

r : n |r : n r : - .n 


11 beat, and the 
r : s .s 


fife shall play, And 

s : s | s : .s | 


: | : d 1 t : - .d 1 


t : n 1 .n 1 


r 1 : n 1 |r' : .r 1 


1 
d< : s |s 


The drums sha 

: d si : - .d 


11 beat, and the 
s, : d 1 .d' 


fife shall play, And 

s : d 1 |s : .si 


IST TIME. i 

: f .n r : s 


B?.t. D.S. 


2xu TIME. 

r : s |n : 


so we'll pass our time a - way. The 

s :- f |n :d d :- .t, |*f, : .s, 


time a - way. 

d :- .t. |d : 


d> : r | d 1 

so we'll pass 

li :t, Id 


: 1 .s s : s | 


sd : 


s : s |s : 

time a - way 

s, : si |d : 


our time a - way. The 

: f . si : si I d f i : .d 


St. Co. (New,) 



242 



KEY D. Allegro. M. 88. 



ADDITIONAL EXERCISES. PART I. 

HALLELUJAH, AMEN. 

(From " Judaa Haccahaaus.") 



Handel. 



/ 


: 1 : 




: : 


: \ 




: 1 : 




: 1 : 


: d .r |n,f .s : 1 .s 










Hal-le - lu - jah, A-men, 




: 1 : 




: 1 : 


; ~5* . t | d',r'.n' : f .n 1 


/ 











d 


: - .r |n,f.s : 1 .s 


1 . 


s : f .n | f .n : r 


d : | : 


Hal 


le - la - jah, A-men, 


A- 


men, Halle - lu-jah, A - 


men. 






/ A. t. 


/ 


: 1 : 




:d .r | n.f.s : 1 .s 


1 .s : f .n |f .n : r 








Halle - lu - jah, A-men, 


A - men, Halle - lu- jah, A - 


1 . 


s : f .n |r .n : f 


n 


:d.t| |d :d 


- .d : t| d | S| .d : - .t| 


A - 


men, Halle - lu- jah, A - 


men, Halle - lu - jah, 


Hal-le - lu - jah, Hal - le- 


f . 


PI' : r' .d 1 1 1 .d' : r' 


d' 


:r' 8 .f |s .8 :f .s 


f .s : .s | s : - .s 








Halle - lu - jah, Hal-lo- 


lu - jah, Hal-la - lu- 




: 1 : 




:* n .r |d,r.n : f .n 


f .n : r .d 1 1| .d : s, 








Halle - lu - jah, A-iucr., 


A - men, Halle - lu- jah, Hal - 




f. D. 




d 


if | : m t 


1 


: - |s : d' 


d" :f |f :n'.r" 


men 


, A - men, 


A 


men, Hal - 


le - lu - jah, Hal 


d 


: - ,ti,l|i 8| : - .ir 


n 


:f .n |r : 


s : f ,n.r | s : 


la 


jah, Hal - le- 


lu 


- jah, Hal - 


le lu jah, 


8 


: f | s : - . r 1 


d 1 


:r' .d 1 It .1 :T 


d' :- .r 1 Id 1 .8 : d' 


jah, 


Hal-le - lu- 


jah, 


Hal- 


le - lu - jah, 


1. 


: - .8|,1,| t, .8) : <U 


- . 


d :f | :n 


1 : - .t | d 1 


la 


la - jah, 


- 


Hal- 


le - lu - jah, / 






A. t. 


n 1 


:- .r 1 |d' :- .d 1 


d 1 


: | : t 


d'f : n .r id.r.n : f .n \ 


le 


la - jah, 1 1.il - 


le 


- lu - 


juh, Hal-le - lu - jah, A-men, 


S 


: - .t, | d.rji : f .n 


f . 


n : 1 .s 1 1 .s : f 


"1, : | : 


Hid 


lu - lu - jah, A-men, 


A - 


men, Halle - lu- jah, A - 


men. _. 


S 


: - .f | s : d 1 




1 : 


s d : - .r | ri.f.s : 1 .s 


Hal 


le - lu - jah, 






Hal - le - lu - jah, A-men, 


d 


: - .r |n,f.s : 1 .s 


1 . 


s : f .n |f .n : r 


d i'i : : 


Hal 


le - lu - jah, A-men, 


>- 


men, Halle - lu- jah, A - 


mon. 


St. Co. fNewJ 



/ f n : 1 .s |1 .s :f 
A - men, Halle - lu- jah, A - 


n : 'd' |r' : r .r 1 

men. O Ju - dah, re- 

:d s |f :f .f 


s : .d 1 r 

joice, re-j 
n : .s |1 


1 .,iV:f ji' f r\ 


jice, - - l 
If 


1 .s : f .n |f .n : f 
A - men, Halle - lu- jah, A - 


Ju - dah,re- 
d : in 1 | r' : r' .r 1 

men. Ju - dah, re- 
: f d' Id 1 : t .t 


joice, re- joice, re - 

d 1 ; .n 1 |fi .,n':r' .n'.f 


joice, re -joice, 

d 1 : .d 1 |d .r',d':t .1 ,t 




/ 


/ n 1 : .d 1 |r' .,n':f jn'.r 


n'.r'.d 1 : .s 


1 :- .t 

songs di- 

f :- .f 


d' : .n 1 If'.f :fi.f \ 

vino, With cherubim and 
n : .s 1 .1 : 1 .1 


Re-joice, 
s : .s |1 :s 


Ju - dah, in 
S .8 : .8 


joice, Re-joice, 
n 1 : .n 1 |f .,n':r' .n'.f 


Ju - dah, in 

n 1 .n 1 : .n 1 

Jn - dah, in 

d> .d : .d' 
s : .t 


songs di- 

r' : - .r 1 

songs di- 

f :- .s 

d' .d 1 : d 1 .d 1 


vine, 
d 1 : .s f .s : 1 .t 

vine, With cherubim and 

1 : 1 : 
t .t : t .t d 1 : - .d 1 N 


Re-joice, 

d 1 : .d' Id 1 .r',d':t .1 ,t 


n 1 .n 1 : n 1 .n 1 r 1 : - .t 


se - ra - phim harmo - nious 
S .8 I S .8 f I - .f 


join, Wi 

n : .s 


hcheru-bimand 

s .s : s .s 


se - ra - phim harmo - nious 

s .s : s .s s : - .s 


d 1 .r 1 :n> -d 1 r 1 .d 1 :t .8 


d' : .r 1 

join, Wi 

: .s 


n 1 .n 1 : n 1 .n 1 

,h cheru-bim and 

d .r : n .f 


r 1 .r 1 : r' .r 1 n 1 : - .n 1 

se - ra - phim harmo - nious 

s .1 : t .s d 1 : - .d 


se - ra - phim harmo - nious 



A. t. 
/ t : sd ,r |n,f.s : 1 .s 


1 .s :f .n 


|f .n :r 


s : 


f. D. 

in 1 : r 1 \ 


join. Halle - lu - jah A-men, 

s : r S| | s, : f| 


A - men, Halle - 

d :d 


lu-jah, A - 

Id :t, 


men, 

.d : - 


and in 
dg ; s 


Har - mo - nious 

' r 1 : tin .r | d,r.n : f .n 


join. Hal - 
f .n : 1 .s 


le - lu - 
|1 .s :f 


jah, 
n : 


and in 

I m t : t 


join. Halle - lu - jah, A-men, 
s : "d |d : 
\ Har - mo 


A - men, Halle 


lu-jah, A - 

: r 

nious 


men, 

d :- 

join, 


and in 

ds : s 


St. Co. (New.) 







244 ADDITIONAL BXERCISK3. PART 1. 


/ f :- Is :- 


s : 


- :d' 


d' :- |r> :- > 


songs di 

\f :- If :- 

songs di 

d 1 :- IT 1 :- 

songs di 

1 :- It :- 


vine 

n : 

vine 

n 1 :- 

vine 

d' : 


bar - 

- :1 .8 


mo - - nious 

1 .s :1 .s |f .n :f 


har - 

- : f ' .n 1 


mo ... nious 

f .n 1 :" .n' Ir'.d 1 : r' 


har - 

- :d' 


mo ... nious 

d 1 :- I- :t 


/ s :d'.t |d',r'.n' :d'.s 


d'.s :l,t.d" 


l.t.d' : t 


i. , I : 


join. Halle - lu - jah, A-men, 


A- men, Hal-le - lu - jah, A - 


men, 


n : s .f I s,f .n : f .n 


f .n :1 .s 


1 .s :f 


n : : 


join. Halle - lu - jah, A-men, 


A- men, Hal-le - lu - jah, A - 


men, 


d' :n".r' Id 1 .t : d 1 .t 


d^t :d' .s 


d 1 .s :r> 


8 :|: 


join. Halle - lu - jah, A-men, 


A- men, Hal-lo - lu - jah, A - 


men, 


d 1 :d .r |n,f .s : 1 .s 


1 .s :f .n 


f .n : r 


d : | : 


: | :r' d 1 : I 


. Adagio. 

: \ :t 1 : | : d 1 


A - men, 

: I : : I : 


A - men, Hal- 

: i :f n : | :s 


A - men, 

: | :' n 1 : | : 


A - men, Hal- 

I :r' d 1 : | : d' 


A - men, 


A - men, Hal- 


: | :t d' : | : 


: i :s 1 : I :n 


t :-.t|d ! : d 1 :- |t :- 


men. 
men. 
men. 


le - lu-jah, A 

, f :-.f!s :- s :- |- :f 


le - lu-jah, A - - 

r 1 :-.r'ln' : f 1 : Is : 


le - lu-jah, A 

r :-.r|d :- s :-,': 



St. Co. (NtwJ 



ADDITIONAL EXERCISES. PART I. 



245 



Words by SWIFTLY FROM THE MOUNTAIN'S BROW. Music by 


Cunningham. Samuel Webbe. 


KEY EU. Allegretto. M. 80. 


d 1 :s 


d 1 :d' 


.r',d': t .d' 


r" : r .f 


: 1 .f 


: s .d 1 


Swift - ly, 


swift - ly 


from the mountain's 


brow, Shadows, 


shadows 


nurs'd by 


: 


n : d 


.t ( ,d : r .n 


f : 


n .d : 


t| .r : r .n 




Swift - ly, 






Shadows 


shadows 


: 


d : n 


.s ,s : s . s 


f : 





r ,t| : t .s 






from the mountain's 


brow, 




nurs'd by 


d : n 


: n .d 


f .f : f .n 


r :t|.s, 


d :f,.l, 


S| : - .m 


Swift - ly, 


swiftly 


from the mountain's 


brow, Shadows 


nurs'd, shadows 


nurs'd by / 





dim. ft 


d 1 


: t 


d 1 : 


: t 


d 1 


night 


re - 


tire, 


re - 


tire, 


r 


: r 


n : 


"~^ r 


n 


1 


: s 


s : 


: s 


S 


night 


re - 


tire, 


re 


tire, 


fl 


: s, 


d : 


: si 


d 



s :d' 

swift - ly 

n : d 

s : n 

swift - ly 



.r',d':t .d 1 


r 1 :r .f 


: 1 .f 


: s .d 1 


d' : t 


di 


from the mountain's 

.ti,d : r .n 


brow, Shadows, 

f : 


shadows 

PI .d : 


nurs'd by 

t| .S|,l|: t[,r.d,n 


night re - 

li : si 


tire, 
8| 


.s,s : s .s 

from the mountain's 

f .f : f .n 


f :- 

brow, 

r : t| .s i 


shadows, 

d : fi .1| 


shadows 

r ,ti,d : r .n 


r : r ,n,f 


n 

tire, 

d 


Shadows nurs'd by 
S| : - .PI, 


night re - 

f| : S| 




Shadows 


nurs'd, shadows 


nurs'd, 









P 


Dole. M. 


80, 


twice. >. 











: t 


d 1 


: 


: n : n 


If 


: - : s 


1 : - : - I s : - : - 


d 1 : - 


: - 


1 - : - 






re - 


tire. 




And the peep - ing 


sun - beams 


now, 











: r 


PI 


: 


:d :d 


Ir 


: - : PI 


f :- :- |n :- :- 


d :- 


: - 


|- 5- 


: - 





: s 


S 


:d> 


d 1 : - : - 


|- 


: - : - 


-:-:-!-:-:- 


: pi 


: n 


If :- 


: s 




re - 


tire. 


re - 


tire. 








And the peep - 


ing 





: si 


d 


: 


- : - : - 


1- 




- : - : - 1 - : - : - 


:d 


:d 


1 r : - 


: n 


St. 


Co. (New.) 















246 



ADDITIONAL EXKROISES. PART I. 



B?.t. 


- : - : - - : - t 


: : s 


d : - : d 


ti : - : - Is : - 


f :- :- v 




Now paint with 


gold, now 


paint 


-:-:-)- : - : 


: : n "I, : - : 1| 


8 ( : - - s, : - : - 


- :- : s 








now 


I :- :- s :- :f 


n : - : - *r : - : - 


r : - : - 


n : - : - 


r : - : - 


sun - beams now 


rint with 


gold, now 


paint 


f :- :- |n :- :r 


: - : - df , : - : - 


BI : - : - - : - : - 


- : - : s. 








now, 


in:-:- r :- : - | n : - : - 


r :- :- |d :- :- 


t, :- :- d :- :d 


with gold, now 


paint with 


gold the 


s, : - : s, BI : - : - |- : - : - 


- :- : s, 


s, : - : s. 


8, : - : - - : - ! i, 


paint with gold, 


now paint with 


gold the 


|d :- :- t, :- :- |s :- :- 


f :- :- n :- :- 


T : - : - n : - : r 


with gold, now 

Is,:- : s, s, : - : - |- : - : - 


paint with 

- : - : 81 Id, : - :d| 


gold the 

s, :- :f, |n, :- : f i 


\ paint with gold, 


now paint with 


gold the 


f. E?. 


/d :- :- It, :- :- 


da:- :- |- :- :- 


: n : n f : - : s 


1 :- :- \ 


vil lage 


spire, 


And the peep - ing 


sun 


s, :- :- |- :- : f , 


,t,:- :- 1- : - :- 


:d :d 


r : - : n 


f :- : - 


n :- :- |r :- :- 


ds:- :- |- :- :- 


- : - : - : : 


: : 


vil lage 


spire, 






s, : - : - Is, : - : - 


.<*,,: - : - |- : - : - 


:d :d d :- :d 


f : - 


! 


And the peep - ing 


sun - / 


Bt?. t 


/s:-:- d 1 :- :- -:-:- 


- : - : - 


- : - : : : 8 d : - : d \ 


beams, now, 




now paint with 


n:-:- d :- :- -:-:- 


- : - : - - : - : 


: n "1, : - : 1| 


j : : : n : n f : - : 8 


1 :- :- 


8 :- :f 


n : - : - lr : - : - 


And the peep - ing 


sun beams now 


paint with 


d:-:- :d:d r:-:n 


f : - : - n : - : r 


d : - : - 1 d f i ' - 


beams, 






St. Co. (New.) 



ADDITIONAL EXERCISES. PART I 



247 



t, : - : - 

gold, 

I si : - : - 

gold, 

r : - : - 

gold, 
8| : - : - 

/Id :- :- 


is :- :- f 

now pai 

now, 

|n : - : - r 
now pai 

Is, :- : - si 

t, :- :- |d 


nt with gold, 
: - : si | 8| : - : s, s, : - 
now paint with gold, 

:- :- Id :- :- t, :- 

nt with gold, 

: - : s, | Si : - : s\ si : - 

now paint with gold, 

:-:d d :- : - | ti : - 


:- |n :- : - r : - : - 

now paint 
now 

:- Is :- :- f :- : - 

now paint 

:- 1- :- :- - :- : ., 

now/ 
f. E7. 


with 

8| '. '. S| 
paint with 

n : - : - 


gold 

s, : - : - - 

gold 

r" : - : - n 


the vil - lage 
~ i| S| i ~ !~|~ I ~ 
the vil 

:-:r n :- : - |r : - 


spire, 
lage spire. 

: - d s : - ; _ _ : _ . 


with 

Id, :- :d, 


gold 
s, : - : f | n. 


the vil - lage 

: - : f i s, : - : - | s ( : - 


spire. 


paint with 
! dolce. 

s :1 .1 


gold 
i |f : B .s,f 


the vil - lage 

n .,rn: 1 | s .d 1 : t 


spire, 
d' :- j- :- 


Sweet, * 


ah sweet the 
|r : n .t| 


war ... bling 

d .,t,d: f .f |n : r 


throng, 

n : 1 : .d 


' 


Sweet, oh 
1 : 

1 : 
! s 


sweet the war - bling 

- .1,8 |f :n j 


throng, the 

s : - .s 1 1 : s 

Sweet, oh sweet the 
d : - .d |f :n 

f : - .r 1 |r" .,d': d 1 .,t 


d .t< :- . 


Sweet, 
t| |d n 


oh 

- - .f,n|r :d 


sweet the war - bling 
r : - .f |f .,n:n .,r 


f :- . 

war - 1 

r : - . 


f |n 
>ling throng 
r Id - 


1 : 


: 1 : 
: 1 : 



d 1 : - I - 

throng, 

n :- I 
s :- .s |1 

Sweet, oh sweet 

d :- .d |f 

St. Co. (New.) 



:s .d 1 

On the 

|d : 



t ; r' : r .f |n : - .n \ 

white emblossom'd spray, the! 

I : s .d 1 ( 

On the! 



248 ADDITIONAL EXERCISES. PART I. 


/ r .f :f .r |s : 

white emblossom'd spray, 

: |d :d 


: |f :f 

On the 

d .n : n .n |f : 


f .s : l.t.d' |d' :t 


white emblossom'd spray, 


On the 

t .r 1 : r .f |n : s .1 


white emblossom'd spray, 
ta.ta:ta.s |1 : 


: | T : s 


white emblossom'd spray, on the 

: I : d .f 


white emblossom'd spray, 

n .s : BI .ta : |1| : 1 .s 


Na - ture's 

f .n : r .d | s, : 




on the 


white emblossom'd spray, / 


: |n : n 


n .r,d: r,n.f,s 1 1 : 1 .1 


t .d'.tjd 1 .d 1 |t : t .s 


Na ture's 

: 1 : 


u-ni - ver-sal song, Nature's 

: | : f .f f n 


u-ni - ver-sal song Echoes 

r .n,f: n .n |r : r .t| 


s .f,n:f,s.l,t|d" : 


- : |- :d .d" 


r 1 .1 : s . s | s : 


u-ni - vor-sal song, 


Nature's 

: |f :f 


u-ni - ver-sal song 
f .n,r : d.r.n.f | s : 


: 8 .n | : 


: | :d .s 


:d'.s |1 .t :d'.r' 


echoes, 

: n .d | : ti .d 

to the 

r' .t : s .n : r .n 

Echoes, echoes to the 
t .s : |n .d : 


'_ echoes, 
1 .t| : d .r |rT : 


echoes, echoes to the 
d .s, : |d .r : d .d,f 


ris - ing day, 

f .s : 1 .t |d' : 


rhoes, 
.n : |1 .f :s .1 

echoes, echoes to the 

: d .n |f .r : n .f 


ris - ing day, echoes, 

: | : d .n 


d 1 :t |d' :- 

ris - ing day, 

n : r n : - 
s : s s : 

ris - ing day, 

s : s, |d : - 


p 

n .s,f :n .n |f .!, : f .f ,n r ,r'4':t .d',r 


Na - tore's n - ni - ver - sal 
d .n,r:d .ta, 1 1| .d,ta,: 1| .r,d t ( .,d : r n,f 


s :- .s |1 
Na - ture's u 

d :- .d |f 


:- .1 t .s : s 


ni- ver - sal 

: - .r s : si 


/ DS. 

Id 1 :- d 1 .s : d' .s : .r',r' d 1 :t |d' : - 


song, Echoes, echoes to the ris 
n : d ,n,r:d .ti |d ,n,r:d .f n 


ing day. 

: r |n : 

ing day. 

: s s : 


Ech - oes to the ris 

s : n : f s : 1 s 


song, Ech oes to the ris - ing day. 

Id : d :r n :f s :si |d : 



St. Co. (New.) 



ADDITIONAL EXERCISES, PART 2. 

NOTE. The Standard Course Exorcises, 188, 189, 191, and 192, may precede these, but it is not 
essential that they should do so. For style of singing see " Hints on the Tur.ea." 



KEY A?. L is F. By permission irom Anglican Hymn Book. J. Criijcr. 


1 1, d 


t ( n 


r d 


t. Id r 


n f 


I. Lord, in 


this thy mer - cys 


day, Ere it 


pass for 


\ P1 i ll 


S6| 1| 


li 1, 


se, 


ll t, 


d d I 


2. By thy 


night of a - gon - 


y, By thy 


sup - nil . 1 


|d n 


n n 


n 


n 


n s 


S 1 


3.By thy 


tears of bit - ter 


woe For Je - 


ru sa - V 


1, L 


n, d| 


r l la 


n, 


ll Si 


d f, 


4. Grant us 


'neath thy wings a 


place, Lest we 


lose thit ] 


r r 


d 


n d 


t. 1, 


li sei 


ll ~ I 


aye A 


WAY, ON OUR 


knees we fall and 


pray. 


Id t, 


d - 


S| ll 


f I f i | PI| P1| 


m 


ca - ting 


cry, By thy 


wil - liny - ness to 


die. 


S S 


n |d d 


r - .d 


ti ti 


d 


lem be - 


low, Let us 


not thy love fore - 


g- 


S ( Si 


d - |d, f, 


r, r, |PI n. 


1 


day of 


grace, Ere we 


shall be - hold THY 


FACE. 


RISE MY SOUL, ADORE THY MAKER. 


KKY G. By permission from Anglican Hymn Book. D. t. G. E. Monk. 


, n :f 


s : r 


d :r 


n : t| 


n 1 : 1 


u - 












V 


l.RlSE MY 


SOUL, A 


DORE THY 


MA - KER ! 


Ax - GELS 


PRAISE 


d :d 


t, : t, 


li : li 


S6, t S6| 


l,r :f 


r : 


I.Nev - er 


cast me 


from thy 


pre - sence 


Till my 


soul 


s :f 


r : s 


n : r 


t, : n 


" 1 : 1 


s : 


S.Thou the 


night wast 


my Pro - 


tec - tor : 


With me 


stay 


d :1, 


si : s, 


li : fi 


HI : HI 


d f if 


s : 


i.Ho - ly, 


ho - ly, 


ho - ly 


Giv - er 


Of all 


good, 


f. G. 


/ t : t 


d 1 : 


f d : f 


n : d 


r : 


d : 


JOIN THY 


LAYS; 


WITH THEM 


BE PAR - 


TAK 


EK. 


n : s 


n : 


rl, :d 


d :d 


t, :- 


d :- 


Shall be 


full 


Of thy 


bles - sed 


es 


sence. 


t : t 


1 : 


r'l : 1 


s : s 


s :f 


n : 


All the 


day, 


Ev - er 


my Di - 


rect 


or. 


s : n 


1 : 


taf : f | 


d : HI 


s, : 


d, :- 


\ Life and 


food, 


REION, A - 


DOR'D FOR 


EV 


Ell! 



St. Co. (New.) 






LONDON : J. CURWEN & SONS, 8 & 9 WARWICK LANE, E.O. PRICE FOURPEXCE. 

R 



250 



ADDITIONAL EXERCISKS. PART II. 



FATHER, MY SPIRIT OWNS. 



KEY E (?. L is C. 


" mourn," in Anglican Hymn Book, by per. 


G. A. Maefarren. 


: n 1 : - .n|d .r 


: n 


r """* i ^~ 


:f 


1 :-.flr.n 


:f 


n : | 


l.Fa- 


ther, myepi 


rit 


owns 


Thy 


right to mine 


and 


me ; 


:d 


n : - .d | l|.t. 


:d 


r :- i- 


: r 


f : - .r 1 1| 


: r 


t, ! 


2.A - 


las ! the brit 


- tie 


reed, 


On 


hu - man life 


to 


lean! 


: 1 


d 1 :-.l|n 


: 1 


1 :- 1- 


: 1 


r 1 : - .1 |f .8 


: 1 


t : | 


3.1n 


deep submis 


sion, 


aid 


The 


brok - ken heart to 


lie, 


:li 


1, :-.l,U, 


:li 


f :- 1- 


: r 


r : - .r |r 


: r 


se, : | . 


B>.t. 


f. E?. 


: n 


f :f hi, 


: se, 


n :- |- 


:d 


d :t, |1, 


: se ( 


1, :-.l,n|f 


Yet 


par - don hu 


man 


groans 


From 


hu - man a 


go - 


ny ; The eye's 


:d 


d : d | l|ij 


: n. 


n, : | 


li 


f i : f , 1 r, 


: r\ 


HI :-. n it,|r 


A 


so - lace frail in - 


deed, 


'Tis 


gone as soon 


as 


seen ! Then who 


: 1 


1 : 1 | lr 


: t, 


1, :- 1- 


: n 


r :r |r 


: t. 


d :-.ds|l 


Nor, 


when the stroke is 


made, 


To 


mur - mur or 


re - 


ply ; Great grace 


M 


1, :1, l*f, 


:n, 


d, :- 1- 


1 1m 


r. : r, | f , 


: n. 


1, :-.l,n|r 


: 1 


se : 1 |t 


: n .r>d : - .1 1 se 


:1 


f :r |d 


:t, 


li - 1- 


de- 


sire, the soul's 


deT 


light, Thy wis - dom 


hath seen good 


to 


blight. 


: n 


r : d |n 


: t. 


d :-.d|r 


:d 


ta, : ta, 1 1, 


: se. 


1, :- 1- 


shall 


fill the cheer 


- less 


void, Or stay 


the 


soul 'mid hopes de - 


stroyed ? 


: 1 


t : d 1 | t 


: t 


1 :-.l|r 


: n 


f :f |n 


: -.r 


d :- |- 


for 


great -est need 


be- 


stow, And strong sup- 


ports for deep 


eat 


woe. 


:d 


t, : 1, | se, 


: se, 1, :-.l,|t, 


:d 


r : r |n 


: n, 


1, :- 1- 


NEARER, MY GOD, TO THEE. 


KBT F. 


From Anglican Hymn Book, by per. 


Henry Smart. 


/d :- |d :f 


n : r |s : 


d : |r : r 


n :|: 


\.Near - tr, my 


God, to thee, 


Hear thou my 


prayer ; 


8, :- jl. :r 


d :t, Id :- 


d : |d : t, 


d :- I- :- 


2.Though the great 


bat - tie rage 


Hot - ly a - 


round, 


n : |f :1 


8 : 8 | 8 : 


n : - |1 : s 


s : | : 


3. When, my course 


Jin \shtd, I 


Breathe my last 


breath, 


d :- If, :r, 


s, :-.f,)n, : 


1, : f , : s, 


d :- |- : 










\ 4. And when thou, 


Lord, once more, 


Glo - rious shalt 


come, 


St. Co. fNmo.J 









ADDITIONAL KXERCISES. PART II. 



251 



c. t. 



1 i"l : 1 1 : t 


d' :r' |n 


: 1 : |d' :t 1 : | : 


E'en though a 
df :- |f :s 


hea - vy cross, Faint - ing, I bear, 

s :f |n : f : in :-.rd : | : 


Still where my 

8 d' i | r' ; r 

Ent - 'ring the 

df :- |r :s.f 


cap - tain fights Let me 

s : 1 .t|d : t 1 : |1 


be found ; 

: se 1 : | : 

of death ; 


sha - dow - y 

n : r |d 


Val - ley 

: r : |n 


Oh! for a 


dwell -ing place. In thy bright home ! 








f. F. 


d 1 :- |f 




: n 1 


r 1 


: r 1 |d' : 


J n : 1 1 : s 


Still all 
n :- |f 

Through toils 


my 

: s 

and 
there 

: n 


prayer 
strife 

d' 

shall 
f 


shall be, 

: s .f n : 


Near - er, my 

'd :- |d :t, 

Near - er, my 

*d : |f .n : r 


to be 

I be 
:s d :- 


E - - ven 

1 :- |r 


Near - er, my 


THROUGH ALL 


B - 


TER - 


NI - TY 


Near - r, my 


f :f |n 




: 


r 


: |d :t| 


d : _ |- : _ 


God, TO THBB, 

li : ti .1| I se ( : 


Near 

1| 

Near 
1. 


er to 

: s, : s, 

er to 

: f n : r 


thee. 
thee. 
thee. 

d :- | : 


God, TO THEE, 

r : r 1 1| : 

God, TO THEE, 


Near 
f. 


er to 

: s, : s. 


God, TO THEE, 


Near 


er to 


thee. 


THE GIPSY'S . TENT. 


KBY A. M. 120. 


Allegro Vivace. 
mf SOLO S. or T. 
i : d : r 


Bohemian Air arranged by W. H. Birch. 
(By permission.) 
n : - .r : d s t : d : m r '. : 


Eight measure* 


I.We live so 
2. Come to our 

:d :d 


mer - ry, so hap - py and free, 
green - wood home and blithe some be, 

:d :d :d :d :r :r 






La, la. 

: s, :s. 


: S| : s, : si : si : 1| : 1| 


Symphony. 




: n : n 


:n :n :n:n :f:f 




d. 


: : 


d, : : d, : : f, : : 




La. 




la. 



St. Co. (New). 



O.N. edition W. H. BIRCH, London Street, Reading. 



252 



ADMTIOXA.L EXERCISES. PART IT. 



Dane -ing and 
In the wild 

:r :r 


sing - ing be - 
woods to roam 

:r :r 


neath the oak- 
light - ly and 

ir : t| 


tree. 
free. 

:d :d 


: : \ 

CHORUS, ff 

S| :d :r 
We live so 


:li :1| 


:li :1| 


:li is. 


is, :s, 


HI :si is. 


:f :f 
r, : : 


r, : : 


:f :r 


:n :n 
d : : 


d :d :t, 

Come to our 

d| :HI :S| , 


, n : - .r :d 

mer - ry, so 

It, :-.f,:n, 
yd : - .ti : d 


si : d : n 
hap - py and 

HI : S| : HI 

d :d : d 


free, 

fi :- :- 
1. :- :- 


1, :r :f 

Dan - cing and 

f . : fi : li 
r : 1, : r 


1 :-.s :f 

sing - ing be 

fi :-.S|:l, 
f : - .n : r 


f green - wood home 

Id :-.s, :d 


and blithe - some 

di : HI : d| 


be, 

f i : - : - 


In the wild 

f , : f , : f , 


woods to roam 

f, :-.f.:f, 


/ * * 


: : 


E. t. 
r s :d> : r 1 
Come to our 
We'll tell your 


d ] : - . t : t 

for - est home, 
for - tunes young 


I : s : / 

hap - py and 
maid - en quite 


f : 1, : t, 

neath the oak 

1, : f i : f. 


d. 


tree, 
n, : : 


: t|H : n 
:,d :d 


:f :f 
: r : r 


: r : r 

: s, : si 


r : r : r 

light - ly and 
\ r, : ri : s. 


d :- :- 

free. 

d, : - : - 


: r s : s 


: s : s 

s, : : 


: s : s 

t, : : 


/ n : : 

bright. ' 
true; 


s : rf 1 : - .d 

List to oui 
And pro - mise 


r } : d 1 : I 

sweet songs they'l 
al - so fond 


s ./ : n : - .r 

make your hearts 
lovers for 


d :- :- 

light. ] 
you. 


n : n 


: n : n 


r r 


n f 


n : 


d :d 


:d :d 


d d 


d t| 


d :- - 


s : s 


: s : s 


1 1 


s s 


S ~~~ *" 


d : 


d : : 


f. 


8| 


Id, ; - -\ 


s d 1 : r 1 


d 1 :-.t : t 


1 s f 


n 


s :d> -.d 


Come to our 
n n : n 


for - est home, 

f :-.f :f 


hap - py and 
t, r t| 


bright, 

d - 


List to our 

d :d -.d 


s s : s 


s : - .s : s 


s s s 


S ~ ~ 


n ; n n 


We'll tell vour 

d d ;. d 


for - tunes young 

s : - .s : s 


maid en quite 

S| t| S, 


true, 

d 


And pro - mise 

d :d d 



St. 






ADDITIONAL EXERCISES. PART II. 

f. A. ff 



r 1 : d 1 : 1 


s : 1 : -.t 


d 1 : - : - 


d s ( : d : r 


n . - .r : d 


\vect songs they'll 


make your hearts 

d :d :-.r 


light. 

d : : 


We live so 
l,n, : s, : s. 


mer - ry, so 

si :-.f,:m, 


f :f :f 


n : s : - .f 


n : : 


f d : d : t, 


d :-.t,:d 


al - so fond 

f , : f i : f i 


lov - ers for 


you. 
d : : 


We live so 


mer - ry, so 

d : - .s,: d , 


s, : d : n 


r : : 


1, : r : f 


1 :-.s:f 


f : 1, : t, 


hap - py and 

n, : si : HI 


free, 

_ 
i 


Dan - cing and 
f. f .i 
i ii : li 


sing 1 - ing be - 
fi 
i . - .S|: i| 


neath the oak 1 


d :d :d 


1, : : 


r : 1| : r 


f : - .n : r 


r : r : r 


hap - py and 

\ di : n, : d, 


free, 

f, :- :- 


Dan - cing and 

fi : f . : f i 


sing - ing be - 


neath the oak 1 
r, : r ( : s, j 




SOLO C. or B. 








d :- :- 


n\ '. l\ '. t\ 
Taste of our 
Come, where the 

: 1. : li 


d '. . t\ \ l\ 
Gip - sy fare, 
song - thrush and 

: li : li 


n\ : l t : d 

whole -some and 
lin - net holds 

: 1. : 1, 


plain, 
sway, 

: t, : t, ( 


tree. 


' HI : ri| 


: n, : n, 


i HI r HI 


:f, :f, | 


d : - : 


:d :d 


:d :d 


:d :d 


:r :r 


d, :- :- 


1, : : 


1, : : 


li : : 


r, : : / 


t\ :r in 


/ : - .n, : r 


n : d : t\ 


l\ '. : n\ 


n\ '. l\ '. t\ 


And if you 
Come where they 


like it then 
war - ble their 


pray come a - 
well tun - ed 


gain. With 
lay, Oh 


rich foam - ing 
come with a 


t ( :t, 


: t| : r 


: d : t. 


: 1, : 1, 


: 1, : li 


fi :f, 


: f, : 1. 


: 1, : sei 


: pi| : ri| 


: ri| : rij 


r : r 


:r :f 


: n : r 


:d :d 


:d :d 


ri : 


n : : 


HI i : HI 


1, : : 


1, : : 


Id - .t\:l\ 

ale in large 
light - some heart, 


n : - .r : d 

bum - pers of 
cheer - ful and 


horn, We'll 
gay, We'll 


f\ ' t\ ' T 
toast our brown 
sing, feast, and 


/ : - . : r \ 

beau - ties till ' 
dance till the 


li : 1| 


: li : li 


: t, : t ( 


: t, : t, 


: t, : r 


n, : HI 


'. Pll ' Pit 


: f , : f , 


: f , : f , 


: f i : t/ 


d :d 


* d '. d 


: r r 


: r : r 


:r :f 


1, : 


If : : 


n : : 


r, : : 


r, : : / 


St. Co. (New.) 











254 ADDITIONAL EXERCISES. PART II. 


n :d :-.t 


h :- 


: 


8 










dawn's the bright 
close of the 

: d i t| 


morn, 
day. 

li :- 


. 


ff 

si : d 


: r 


n : - .r : d 


H 


:d : 


: 1, : sei 


1, :- 


: 


We live so 
Pll : S, : s. 


mer - ry, i-o 


hap - py 

n, : 5, : 


: n : j" 


n : 
d :- 


:Z| 


d :d 


:t, 


d :-.t,:d 


d 


:d : 


. n, : :* 


1. :- 


: 


We live so 
d| \ HI 1 S| 


mer - ry, so 

d : - .s,: d 


hap - py 

d, : n, : 


r : : 


I, : r 


:f 


1 :- 


.s :f 


f : 1 : t, 


d 


; ; 


free, 
f, :- :- 


Dan - cing 

fi :fi 


and 

1| 


sing - 

f 1 ' ~ 


ing be - 
.8, : 1| 


neath the oak 

1. : fi : fi 


tree. 
HI : : 


1, : - : - 


r : 1| 


: r 


f :- 


.n : r 


r : r : r 


d 


: : 


free, 

f. :- :- 


Dan - cing 

f. :fi 


and 


sing - 

fi :- 


ing be - 
f, f, 


neath the oak 

1'; ' T\ '. S, 


tree. 

d :- : 


8 :f :- 


f :n 


: 


r : 1 


: s.f 


n : : n 


f 


: s : 


Gai - ly, 

1, : 1, : - 


hap - py, 

si : a. 


; 


jol - ly and 


free, No 

d :- :d 


life e - 

d :d : 


d :d : 


d :d 


: 


s : s 


: s 


s :- :d 


d 


:d : 


Gai - ly, 

f . : f , : - 


hap - py, 

s : si 


: 


jol - ly and 
s, : f : n .r 


free, No 

d : : tai 


life e - 

li = 8) : 


8 :- :d.r 

ours 'neath the 

d :-:!.!, 


n :f 


: r 

oak 


d :- 

tree. 

d :- 


'. ~~ 


s :f : 
Gai - ly, 

1, : 1. : - 


f :n : 

hap - py, 

s, : a, : 


old 
d : 


d :- :n.f 


s : 


:f 


n : - 


- : 


d :d :- 


d 


:d : 


ours 'neath the 

n, : : li.li 


old 

i : 


oak 

: si 


tree. 

d :- 


; 


Gai - ly, 


hap - py, 

8| : S| : 


rail. 

T :1 :_. n : - :{J 


d 1 : t ) . , 
f :s J- l 


adagio. . 

s : : d .r n : f : r 


d :- 


jol - ly and free, No 

ti : t| : t| d : : d 


life e - quals 

d :d :d 


ours 'neath the old oak 
d : : m.f| s, : 1 ( : f 


tree. 

n, : 


: 8 : 8 8 : : d 


d :d :d 


d : : d .d d T^ : t, 


d :- 


jol - ly and free, No 


life e - quals 


ours 'neath the old oak 


tree. 


si : f : n.r d : : ta ( 


li : si : f , 


R, : - : 1..1, s, : - :[j' j 


d :- 


St. Co. (New.; 




" 





ADDIliONAL EXERCISES. PART 11. 



255 



HARVEST HOME.' 



KEY D. M. 80, twice 
f 

Is : s |d" : 
Har - vest home, 
n : n |n : 


Chorus from 
har - vest home, 

f :f |f : 


' Helvellyn." 

t : d 1 | r 1 : t 


G. A. Macfarren. 


har - - vest 

f :- |- :f 


home, 


1 d 1 :d' Is :- 

Har - vest home, 

\ d :d |d :- 


har - vest home, 

d :d |d : 


r 1 : d 1 It : s 


d 1 : |- : 

home, 

d' : - |- : 


har - - vest 

d :- |- :d 


s :s 1? : 

Har - vest home, 

n : n |s : 


har - vest home, 

f :f |f :- 


t :d' |r' :t 


P 

d 1 : - | : d 1 

home. We 
n : | : s 


har - - vest 

f :- |- :f 


d 1 :d' Id 1 :- 

Har - vest home, 

d :d |n :- 


har - vest home, 

f :f |1 :- 


r 1 : d 1 |t : r 1 


d 1 :s |s :- 

home. We come, We 
d : | : n 


har - - vest 
s : | : s 


t :1 Is :l.f 

come, we come, And we 

f :n |r : f .r 

: | : s .s 

come, we come, And we 

r : d 1 1| : S|.S| 


n : s | d 1 : 

bring the last 

d : n |s : 
s : s js : 

bring the last 

d : d |n : 


t :d'.l|s : 1 .f 

load of our gol - den 

f : s .n |r : f .r 
s : s .s | s : t 

load of our gol - den 

r : n .d| t| : s. 


f :- |n : 


grain. 

r :- |d : i 


t : - | d 1 : i 


grain. 
d :- |- : 


A. t. 


cres. 

r :-.r|t| : - .ti 


n : - .n|d : - .d 


f :- 1 : 


Loud - ly shout, 

: hi. :-.!, 


loud - ly shout, a- 


gain, a- gain, a- 


gain. ff 

d :- |d :-.d 


Loud - ly 
: |dif :-.f 


shout, loud - ly 
r : | s : - . s 


shout, a- gain, a- 

n : - .n| 1 : - .1 


gain. Har - vest 
f :- 1 : 


Loud - ly 

: |df, :-.f 


shout, loud - ly 

fi :- Is, :-.s. 


shout, a- gain, a- 


gain. 

1, :- 1 : 


f 

: |n : - .r 


s : , : 


, : In :-.r 


s : | : 


Har - vest 

d :- |- : 


home, 


har - vest 

d :- i- :- 


home, 

- :- |d :-.d 


home, 

: |s :-.! 


Har - vest 
S ~~ | 


home, 
: is :-.! 


loud - ly 

s : | : 


Har - vest 

: Is, :-.f 


home, har - vest 


home, 

n, : | : 


8t. Co. fNewJ. 



250 



ADDITIONAL EXERCISES. PART II. 



f. D. 



: : Id :-.r 

Loud - ly 

Id :- |d :-.d 

\ shout, 
: |n :-.f 
' Loud - ly 

: Hi :-.!, 
/ : ' : 


shout, 

d :!-: 
shout, 

s, :- 1- :- 

dolce. 

: | :*s 


r :- |- :-.d 

har - - vest 

t, :- |- :- .d 

f :- |- :-.n 
bar - - vest 

s, :- |- :-.d 
s :- |l.t:d'.r' 


d :- 1 : 

home. 

d :- 1 : , 
n : | :d s 

home. The 

d :~ 1 :*,i, ) 
n 1 : d 1 |s : 1 . 


: 1 : 


The 
The 

: | :ds 


fields 
board 


once more have 
will groan with 

n : n |n : n 


f : s |f : s 

fields once more have 
board will groan with 

\ t, : si |t, : s, 
,8 :- |r :1 


n : s |n : s 

boun - teous been, O'er 
Eng - lish cheer, In 
d : s, | d : s, 

8 : | n 


r : s |r : s 

them the wa - vy 
hon - our of the 

r : s, | r : s, 
s : |l.t:d'.r 


n : s | n : s 

wealth was seen, The 
fall - ing year, The 

d :si |u : S| 
n 1 :f>.n'|r'.di:t.l 


liinm - teous 
Eng - - lish 

r :- |- :f 


been, 
cheer, 

n :- |d : 


O'er them the 
lion - 'ring the 

f :- |f :f 


wa - - vy 
bravo de - 

n : | : n 


f :s |f :s 

fields once moro have 
board will groan with 
t| : S| |t| : S, 


n : s | n : s 

boun -teous been, O'er 
Eng - lish cheer, In 

d : s | d : s, 


r : s |r : s 

them the wa - vy 
hon - our of the 

r : s, |r : s. 


n : s | n : s 

wealthwas seen, O'er 
fall - ing year, In 

d : BI |d : s ( 



/ 8 : |r : 1 


f. G. 

8 : Hi : f 


cres. 

n : 1 1, : f 

now they are 
thus has en - 

ti :- It, :r 
r : n |r : n 

now they've lost their 
thus h:is shed its 

se, : n, | se, : n. 


n : |d : 1 

robb'd of their 
rich'd us with 

d :- |1, :d 
d : n |d : n 

am - pic store,they've 
gold - en store, has / 

1, : n. i 1| : HI / 


wealth was 

din ing 

r : 1 :f 



f :s |f :s 

them the wa - vy 
hon - our of the 

t, : s, | t-i : s. 


seen, But 
year, Which 
n : 1*8, : t, 


n : s Hi : r 

wealthwas seen, Hut 
fall - ing year, Which 

d : s, |*i : r. 



St. Co. (New.) 



ADDITIONAL EXERCISES. PART II 



257 





/ 






s :- |r :1 


s : |n : - .d 


s :- |- :- 


- :- |n :-.dv 


am - - pie 


store. Shout once 


more, 


shout once 


gold - - en 


store. 






r :- |- :f 


n : |n : - .d 


s :- |- :- 


: |n : - .d 




f :s |f : s 


n :- I : 


In :-.d 


s : 1 : 


lost their am - pie 


store. 


Loud - ly 


shout, 


shed its gold - en 


store. 






t| : S| |ti : si 


d :- | : 


: 1 : 


: 1 : 


D. t. 






piu ores. 


/ i i i 


i a 


. i 


a . _ i _, i 


r | 


. i 


1 


s . . 


more, 


i 


1 


once 


d' ':- It i-,s 


1 
f | i 

L 


I 


S ~~"* ~"~ t ~~~~ 

S J ~~" "^ 


loud - ly 


shout, loud - ly 


shout, 


once 


: 1 : 


: |!|r : - .s ( 


S ~~" \ ~~ ~"~ 


s : | : / 


1 poco rit. 




ff a tempo. -^ 




s : |s : 


S* -__ 1 O 
\ a 


s : s |d" : 


1 :1 Iff : 


more, shout 


once more, 


Har - vest home, 


har - vest home, 


S" \ Q ' 
| 9 


s : | s : 


n : n | s : 


f :f f :- 


s : |s : 


s : | s : 


d 1 :d' ;d' : 


d 1 rd 1 |d' : 


more, shout 


once more, 


Har - vest home, 


har - vest home, 


s : | s : 


s : | s : 


d :d |n : 


f :f |1 :- / 


t : d 1 | r 1 : t 


1 :- Is : 


S* c 1 f\ 1 
t | U 


r' :r' n' :- \ 


har - - vest 


home, 


Har - vest home, 


har - vest home, 


f : |- :f 


n :- I- : 


n : n |n : 


1 :1 |se :- 


r' :d' |t :r> 


d' :- |- : 


d 1 : d 1 'd 1 : 


1 :1 It :- 


har - - vest 


home, 


Har - vest home, 


har - vest home, 


s : | : s 


d 1 :- 1- : 


d 1 : d 1 1 1 : 


f :f |n : 


rf 


. 






i fi :-|-:- 


t :- |- :-.d' 


d 1 

U . 




har 


vest 


home. 




1 : | '. 


s : | : - .s 


S . ~~ i ~ ~ 




T-l 1 
1 . 


f 1 : | :-.n 


n 1 :|: 




har 


vest 


home. 




r I 

r . | 


s : | :-.d 


d : ( : 





St. Co. (New), 




258 



ADDITIONAL EXERCISES. PART II. 



Wore 
G 

K 

/ .n 1 
l.A- 
.8 


.s for this work 
eorge Bennett. 
BY C. Alia Mi 

n* :.d'.l 
way to the 
s :s .f 


by AWA 

\rcia. 

s : d 1 .s s 

for - est, fair > 

n : n .n f 


Y TO THE FORI 

: r 1 .s s : - 

a - ture in -vites, 
:f .f PI :- 


]ST. 
.s i? :d'.l 

With fra - grance an 
.n s : s .f 


Music by 
Franz Abt. 

s : d'.n ' 

i beau - ty and 
PI : n ,n 


.d 1 

3.We'll 

.d 


d' : d 1 .d' 

sit. on a 

d : n .f 


d 1 :d'.d' d 


.,t : 1 .t d' : - 


.d 1 d 1 :d .d 1 

The lov'd and th 

.d d :n .f 


d' :d'.d' 

e lov - ing our 

d :d.l, 


moss - bank and sp 
8 : 8 .8 S 


read out our fare, 

: s .s d : - 


fe 


.,8 : 1 .r 1 s 


poco rit. 

: .s s : s .s s : s .s t ..d 1 : r 1 .n 1 


* :- f V 

down, And 

s : - .s 

r' : - .r 1 


syl 
r 

d 1 


- vande- lights; The sun in its splendour shines lov - ing-ly 
: r .fe s : .s t, .,d : r .n n .f :t,.s s :s .s 


: d 1 .d 1 t 


: .s s 


: s .s s : s .s s .,1 : t .d 1 


dain - ties shall share ; We'll troll 
r .,n:fe.r 8 : .s s, ., 


the gay car - ol or tune - ful quar 
li: t, .d de.r : S| .s 8 : s .s 


-tet, Our 
8 : - .8 

d'.de'rr'.ni 


a tempo. > 
PI 1 1 Pi' .PI 1 PI 1 


-" 

:1 .r 1 ITI 


t : 1 .s s : - .n f ^s~Tl .t 


glad - ly we'll has - ten from ci 
s : 8 .B 8 : f .f f 

d 1 : t .ta 1 : 1 .1 8 ., 


ty and town, ^ 
:f .f n : - .t 

r'id'.t d 1 :- .r 
day for- get, i 

: s .8 d : - .c 

rit. 

'. : '5? S 

la la! 
s .fe.l : s .d' t 


ind glad - ly we'll 

I r .,Pi:f .f 


has - ten from 

s . ta : 1 .1 


i f .,s : 1 s 


s .n 1 : r 1 .de 1 


cares and our tro 

d :d .d de 
f : 1 .t 

ci - ty and 

1 :f .f 


u - bles for ONE 
: r .r 8 

d 1 : 

town. f 

PI : .d,n 


)ur cares and our 
I r .,n : f .r 


trou - bles for 

n .s : f .n 


rit. 
PP la 

: .d,n s ,fe,i : s .d 1 , 


r 1 

ONE 

\ r 


day for- 

: r .s, 


Trala 
d 1 : .d,n 
get. Trala 
d : .d,n 


la la la la la la! 

B .fe,l : s .d 1 s 

la la la la la la 
s .fe,l : s .s s 


Trala la la la la la 
: .d,n s .fe.l : s .d 1 
Trala la la la la la 
: .d,n s .fe,l : s .s 


? 


: .s 


-^ a tempo. , . 

d 1 :d' .d 1 


? : 1 .r 1 a 


: 1 .t 


d 1 :^ . 


la! 
t 


And 

: .s 


glad - ly we 

n : f .s 


11 has - ten from c 

1 :f .f p 


i - ty and 
i :f .f 


town. 

n : 


I 1 


: .s 


d' :d' .d 1 


d' :d' .r' d 


|i : s .s 


s : 


la! 
8 


Our 

: .s 


cares and 01 
d : r .n 


ir trou - bles for < 
f :f .r a 


>NB day for - 

: s .si 


get. 
d , . 



8t. Co. (Nrv>.) 



ADDITIONAL EXERCISES. PART II. 





- ^- 


.1 


8 : d 1 . 


8 8 


: r 1 . 


ss : - 


.s n' : d .1 


s :d'.n 


2. We'll 


hie through the 


for - est with laugh - ter 


and shout, 


Its glades and its 


olois - ters we'll 


.8 


s : s 


.f 


n : n . 


n f 


:f . 


f n :- 


.n s : s .f 


n : n .n 


.d 1 


d' :d' 


.d 1 


d 1 : d 1 . 


d 1 d 1 


,1:1. 


t d 1 :- 


.d d 1 :d.d 


d 1 :d'.d' 


4.A- 


way to 


the 


for - est, 


a - way and a - way, 


Our hoi - i - daj 


' bright - ens a 


.d 


d : n 


.f 


s : s . 


S S 


: s . 


s d :- 


.d d :n.f 


d :d.l, 














poco rit. 






P 


-<r 







~= == ^1. f f 


fe 


,s : 1 .r 1 


8 : .s 


S 


r? .s 


s : s .s 


t ^diTF .n 


f : - .f 


wan - dera - 


bout ; While 


gold -beams are 


glint - ing o'er pil - lar and 


arch, We'll 


r 


:r .fe 


s : .s 


t| .,d 


: r .n 


n .f : t .s 


s : s .s 


s : - .s 


d 1 


: d' .d 1 


t : .s 


S 


: s .s 


s : s .s 


s .,1 : t .d 1 


r' :- .r 1 


" red - let-ter 


day!" This 


life 


has not 


man - y, then wel - come the 


few, With 


r 


,n : fe.r 


s : .s 


8, .,1 


: t, .d 


de.r : s, .s 


s : s .s 


s : - .s 


atempo . > : - <^: 


n 1 


: n 1 .n 1 


n 1 : 1 .r 1 


d 1 .,t 


: 1 .s 


s : - .n 


f .,8 : 1 .1 


d'.de 1 : r 1 .n 1 , 


roam 'neath the 


sha - dows of 


lin - 


den and 


larch, We'll roam 'neath the 


sha - dows of 1 


S 


: s .s 


8 :f .f 


f 


:f .f 


n : - .d 


r ..n : f .f 


s .ta: 1 .1 / 


d 1 


: t .ta 


1 :1 .1 


s ,,r' 


:d'.t 


d' : - .n 


f .,s : 1 .s 


s .n 1 : r 1 .de 1 


souls that are 


grate - ful, and 


hearts 


that are 


true, With souls that are 


grate - ful, and 


d 


:d .d 


de : r .r 


S 


: s .s 


d : - .d r .,n : f .r 


n .8 : f .n 


\ 










rit. 


rit. 


f 










y> Q 


PP 


i fi 


:1 . 


t 


d' : 






: .n 1 r 1 


: : .n 1 


lin 


den 


and 


larch. 






la la! 


la 


1 


:f . 


f 


n : 


.d,n 


3 .fe,l 


: s .d 1 t 


: .d,n s .fe,l : s .d 1 










Trala 


la la la la la la! 


Trala la la la la la 


r 1 


: r 1 


r 1 


d' * : 


.d,n 


s .fe,l 


: s .d" s 1 


: .d,n s .fe,l : s .d 1 


hearts that 


are 


true. 


Trala 


la la la la la la ! 


Trala la la la la la 


r 


: r . 


l 


d : 


.d,Pl 


s .fe,l 


: s .s s 


: .d,n s .fe,l : s .s 


a tempo. 


^ / r> i* 


r 1 


: 


S 


d 1 :c 


I 1 .d 1 


& 


: 1 .r 


s : 1 .t 


d 1 : 


la! 


We'll 


roam 'neath th 


e sha 


dows of 


lin - den and 


larch . 


t 


: 


S 


n : f .s 


1 


:f .f 


T :f .f 


n : 


S 1 


; 


.s 


d 1 n 


I 1 .d 1 


d 1 


: d 1 .r 


i 1 : s .s 


s : 


la! 


Witt 


souls that are 


grate 


- ful and 


hearts that are 


true. 


8 


: 


.s 


d : r .n 


f 


:f .r 


s : s .S| 


d : 



St. Co. (New.) 




260 



ADDITIONAL EXERCISES. - PART II. 



SUNSHINE AFTER RAIN. 



KEY Bt? Firmly and in moderate time. (Copyright.) Henry Lanet. 


mf -=c^ !> -=^m in>- F. t. -- 


/ ; .8) 


d . S| : n .r,d 


d : s, .s, 


n .d : s .f,n 


r s .s : d 1 \ 


I.I 


left my love in 


Eng - land, In 


pov-er - ty and 


pain/L'he tears 


: .n. 


s, .n, : s, .f, 


n, : s, .f. 


Hi .f, : 8| .1| 


t _ J 

l in . - .a 


2.1 


left my love in 


Eiig - land, And 


sailed the stormy 


sea, To 


: .d 


d .d : d .t| 




d .d : d .d 


*|H : - .s 


3.1 


sought my love in 


Eng - land. Ami 


brought her o'er the 


sea ; A 


: .d, 


n, .(i : S| .s, 


1, .s,,fi: HI .TI 


d| .I") : H| .f. 


8 ,d - .n 1 


^=CT ^==- f. Bt>. p -=: 




1 . s,f : n .s 


s . f ,n : n . r 


da, :- .si 


li .1| : 1| .ti,d 


;>. hung hea- vy 


iu my eyes, But 


hers came down like 


rain. I 


gave her half of 








2.1 


wrought & strove from 


f .f :f .f 


f .n,r : d .ta. 


li .r,d:t ( .ti 


l| ) : Si 


:fe, 








rl gave 


her 


earn my bread by 


dai- ly toil, An 


hon-est man and 


frco.JI wrought 


and 








(My farm 


is 


f .jn : i .t| 


d .r : n .d 


d .1 :s .f 


m t, ; - ,t| 


d .d :d .d 


hap - py man, a 


hap-py wife, To 


bless my homo and 


me. My 


farm is large,my 


r .,d : t, .81 


1, .t, :d .n, 


f, .r, : S| .BI 


d si . S| : s, 


~-~" * ~~~ 


r .t, : s, .s 


<: 
li .1| : 1| .t|,n 


r : - .si 


n .n : n .r,d 


d .d : d .r.n 


all I had, Rc- 


press'dthcris - ing 


sigh, For, 


thinking of the 


days to come, I 


moni till night, And 


Biiv'd my lit - tie 


store ; 






f i : - .n,,r, 


de, : d| 


d, :t. .s, 


S| .86) : 1| .HI 


n, .HI : f, . f ( 


half of 


all I 


had, ) 






strove from 


morn till 


night, And 


ev -'ry sum-mor 


gave me wealth,And 


large, my 


wants are 


small, ) 






d .ti.l,: ti .s 


8 :- .fe 


f :- .f 


n .r :d .t ( 


d .tai : I, .s. 


wants arc small,! 


bid (my care) de- 


part ; And 


sit be - neath my 


own oak tree, With 


: 


: 


:- .li.t 


d .t, : 1| .sei 


1, .8, : f , .n, 


i 


^^~~ 




cen - do. ^ f~^ 


f . r,n : f . r,n 


f : s .,f 


n,f .r,n : d .r 


tii*-. i * 
,,Q . 1 ,T . 8| lift*) 


d .d :f,-s.n,-f. 


kept my cour-age 


high. "0! fare- 


well," I said," if 


sea - sons pass, And 


sun- shine fol - lows 


fi .si : 1, .la, 


i : s, .,s, 


BI .t, : d .fei 


si .fe, : s, .s, 


s, .81 :BI .s ( 


made the lit - tie 


more. Oh ! at 


length I bought the 


6eld I ploughed,The 


sun- shine fol-lowed 


f ( .f : f .n 


r : t, .,t, 


d .f :n .r 


r .d : t, .r 


d .n :r .d 


proud,yet grate-ful 


heart. Oh', the 


children smil- ing 


round the board, Ne'er 


ask for broad in 


TI .r : r .d 


ti : s, .,s. 


d .s, : 1| .r. 


S; .TI : S| .f| 


HI .n :tj .d , 


St. Co. (Xew.) 



ADDITIONAL EXERCISES. PART II. 



2G1 



ff- 



.r 



ram, 


And 


*l 


: s. 


rain ; 

d .ti 


The 

:d .,r 


vain ; 


The 


s, 


: 1, .,t. 



n,f .r,n : d .r 

morning dawns on 

Si ,t, : d .fe, 



n .f :n .r 

day has dawn'd up 

d ,s, : 1, .r, 



M-J.^ 

darkest night, You'll 
.fe, : s 



morning dawn'don that dark night,And 



.d 



.t, 



-on the night,The 
.r, : si .f| 



s .f,n:n .r,d 

see me back a - 



I went back a - 

d .d :d .t, 

sun has fol-lowed 

n ( .d| : si .si 



gam. 



PI, 
gain. 



Words by IF I HAD BUT TWO LITTLE WINGS. Music by 
Coleridge. (COPYRIGHT.) Henry Smart. 
f) KEY E7. Con moto. M. 88. cres. ^, 


: s 


s : - .s | n : s 


d 1 : -= .n | n : n 


n : - .n | d : PI 


1 : -.r | r : r 


If 
: n 


I had but two 

n : - .n | d : n 


lit - tie wings, And 

n : - .d | d : d 


were a lit - tie 

d :-.d|l, :d 


feath - 'ry bird, To 
d : -.d | d : d 


: s 


s : - .s | s : s 


1 :-.l|l :1 


1 :-.l|n :1 


r : -.1 1 1 : 1 


If 

:d 


I had but two 

d : - .d | d : d 


lit - tie wings, And 

li : - .1,1 1| : I, 


were a lit - tie 


feath - 'ry bird, To 

f e, : -.f e| f e : f e 



r :f |1 :-.s 

you I'd fly, my 

t, :t, |f :-.n 
s : s ! r : s 

you I'd fly, my 

f : r 1 1, : si 


f :n Id 1 :-.t 

dear, To you, to 

r : d |n : - .r 
s : | : se 

dear, To 

d : | : n 


1 : n 1 1 : - .1 

you I'd fly, my 

d : n | r : - .d 
1 :d' |fe :-.fe 

you I'd fly, my 


1 | R . . 
I . | b . 


dear. 

d :- It, : 


f e : - | s : 


dear. f) 

r : |s, : s. 


But 



I :t 

But 
* IT 

I :s 

But 

t, :r |f :f 

thoughts like these are 
St. Co. (New.J 



_>. cres. ^> 


dim. 


r 1 : - ,d'| d 1 : n 


s : d 1 |n' : - .d 1 t 


: - .1 1 1 : s \ 


thoughts like these, but 

s : - .s | s : d 


thoughts like these are i 
n . : s |s : s d 


die things,and 


t '. ,d'| d' i s 


d 1 :s jd 1 :-.s s 


:- .f |f : s 


thoughts like these, but 

f : - .n|n : 


thoughts like these are i 

- :n |d :n f 


die things.and 

:-.f|f :n 


i - die things, 


like these are | i 


dlethings,and 



2G2 



ADDITIONAL EXERCISES. PART II. 



poeo ritard. 



8 :- If :- 


n :- |- :f 


n : | : r 


d. _ 



8 


I stay 


here, and 


I stay here, 


But 


r :- |r :- 


d :r |d :r 


d : 1 1| : 


d : | 


n 


I stay 


here, and I, and 


I stay 


here, 




1 :- It :- 


s : se | 1 : 


s :): 


S \ "~ j ~~" 


s 


I stay 


here, and I 


stay 


here, 


But 


r :- Is, :- 


d :n, Hi :f, 


As :f 

S| Sj \\ . 


n : 1 ) 
d : | J 


d 


I stay 


here, and I stay here, And I stay 


here, 




cret. > 




s : - .s |n : s 


d' : - .n|n : n 


n : - .n| d : n 


1 :-.r|r 


r ' 


in my sleep to 
n : - .n|d : n 


you I'd fly ; I'm 

n : - .d | d : d 


al - ways with you 

d :-.d|l, :d 


in my sleep 

d :-.d|d 


The 

d 


s : - . s | s : s 


1 :-.!!! : 1 


1 :-.l|n :1 


r :-.l|l 


1 


in my sleep to 


you I'd fly ; I'm 


al - ways with you 


in my sleep 


The 


d :-.djd :d 


'' : "- 1J1 ' :1 ' 


1. :-.li|li : s, fe, :-.fe|fe : 


fe / 


r~rrrFf-.. : 


FT; isr : -.t 


1 :n |t :-.! 


FT^I, 


, 


world is all one's 


own, The world, the 


world is all one's 


own, 




t, :t| |f :-.n 


r : d |n : - .r 


d : n | r : - .d 


d : It, 




s : s |r : s 


8 : 1 : se 


1 :d' |fe :-.fe 


fe :- |8 : 




world is all one's 


own, The 


world is all one's 


own. 


P 


f ; r | t| i s, 


d : I : n 


li : 1| |r : -.r 


r :- |8, . 












But 


^>. cret. -^. 




: | :t 


r 1 : - ,d'| d 1 : n 


8 : d 1 | n 1 : - .d 


t : - .11 1 : 


s \ 


But 


then one wakes, but 


then one wakes, And 


where am I P 


All, 


I : r 


s : - .s |s : d 


n : s |s : - .8 


s :-.f|f : 


d 


: | : s 


t : - .d'|d' : s 


d 1 :s |d' :-.d' 


d' :-.d'|d' : 


s 


=- __^I "" But 


then one wakes,but 


then one wakes, And 


where am I P 


All, 


t, :r |f -f 


f : - .n|n : 


: n d : n 


f :-.f|f : 


n 


then one wakes, and 


where am I P 


One wakes, And 


where am I P 


All / 


St. Co. (New.) 





ADDITIONAL EXERCISES. PART II. 



263 



ooco ritard. 



dim, 

s :- |- :f 


n : | :f 


n : - | : r 


d :- - 


B^.t. 
"1, 


all a - 
r :- |r :- 


lone, All, 
d :r |d :r 


all a - 

d :- |t, : 


lone, 

d :- - 


Sleep 

8 id, 


1 :- It :- 


all, all a - 
s : se | 1 : 1 


lone, a 

s : I : s 


lone. 

S ~ " "* * 


ml, 


all a 

r : | s, : 


lone, all, all a - 

di i f 
, P)| | 1| f Xj 


lone, all, all a - 

(Sj : s, | s : f 
(BI : j : si 


lone. 

n :- -? 
d :- -5 


Sleep 
d f| 


\ all a 


lone, all, all a - 


lone, a - 


lone. 




/ TI : Si | s, : - .d 


> 

d : - itj| ti : l|.s, 


ores. 

n : - .r |d : t| 


r : d s 


r i 

:f 


stays not though a 
r, :n, | s, : -- .s. 


mon - arch bids; Sol 


love to wake e'er 

ri| : - ,f|| I, : set 


break of day 
t| : i| 1, 


, For 


t, : d | d : - .s, 


Si :-.s,|si : l,.t| 


d : - .t,|n : n 


n in n 


: r 


stays not though a 

fi : ni |ni : - .ni 


mon - arch bids; Sol 


love to wake e'er 

d, :-.r,|n, :n\ 


break of day ; For 
li : li f. : f, 


/ n : - .d|n : r 

though my sleep be 

d : - ,s,| d : t. 


gone, For 
d : n, | d : se, 


li : 1( | d ,t, : li.t 
though my sleep be 

1. :fi If, :fi 


f. EP. 

gone, 
m iti : - - 


: v 
: s 


s : - .n| s : f 


For though my 

n : d |n : r 


sleep, my sleep be 
d :r |r :r 


gone, 


yet 

: t 


though my sleep be 

si :-.s,|s, : si 


gone, For though my 


sleep, my sleep be 

f i '. Y\ \8\ '. S| 


gone, 
d s, : r s 


yet 




For 


though my sleep be 


gone, yet while / 


/ : 1 :1 


s :-.f|f : 


'^rF'Td 1 :t 


1 : - .s s 


:-.l\ 


yet 


while 'tis dark, 


'tis dark one 


shuts one's lids, And 


f : n | r : de 


r : - .rfr i - .d 


d : t, | 1, : s, 


r : - .n|n 


:d 


while 'tis dark one 

d> : t |1 : s 


shuts one' s lids, yet 
1 :-.l|r :- 


while 'tis dark one 
r :f |r' : r' 


shuts one' s lids, And 
t ', .d | d' '. s 


while 'tis dark one 

1 :s |f :n 


shuts one's lids, 
r :d |t, : 1, 


while 'tis dark one 

BI :- If :- 


shuts one's lids, And 

f : - .n |n : n 


while 'tis dark one 


shuts one's lids, one 


shuts, one 


shuts one's lids, And 


St. Co. (New.) 





264 



ADDITIONAL EXERCISES. PART II. 



dim. 



poco ritard. 



s :- If :- 


n :- 1- :f 


n : | : r 


d :- !- 


still dreams 

r :- |r :- 


on, And 

d :r |d :r 


still dreams 

d :- |t, :- 


on. 

d :- f- 


still dreams 

1 :- It :- 


on, and still, . and 

s : se 1 1 : 


still dreams 

s :- |- :- 


on. 

s :- 1- 


still dreams 

r : | si : 


on, and still 

d :n, |1| :f, 


dreams 

- '* ft, is, 


on. 

n : | 
d :- |- 


still dreams 


on, and still dreams 


on, and still dreams 


on. 



Words by 

Geo. Bennett. (Arranged 

KXY D. Sostenuto con express ione. 
SOLO CONTRALTO. 

: ' .*i : i .i | d 



f> 

n : 

Hm, &c. 

d : 



Hm, &c. 

d : 



1. As sweet to wea 

2. Blestangol, dark 



ffiL OF HOPE. Music by 
ixed voices oy ALFRED STONE.) O. Reichardl. 


- .d \d : r ,n 


* ./ : / | . r : r . r 


ry hearts as 
were life with- 


slum - ber, And brooding 
out thee, To prince & 


| ' 


r :- |- :- 


1 . 


ti :- I- :- 


| : 


s :- J- :- 


- 1- :~ 


s, :- I- :- 



m id 


1 1( : 


r 


<i 


gent - ly 


as 


the 


do 


pea - bant 


thou 


art 


dei 


cres. 






V 


n : 


Ir : 







d :- 


1 





t| 


Hm, &c. 








s : 


11 : 





8 


d : n 


If : 


fe 


S 



: | .:#. 

When earth's low- 
N or ago nor 






s : t .1 | s ./ : n .r 

press - ing carea en - 
youth can ev - er 

f :- I- :- 
ti : I : 



s 



r.d id 

cum - ber, 
doubt theo, 



8 * ~~ 



St. Co. (New.J 



/ ,d : r .n 

Bright Hope comes 
Thy radiant 


r : - . r \ $ : 

mis - sion'd from 
pres - ence all 
ores, 
r : - | f e : 


t .1 

a- 
must 


s : ~~ . s '.8 . s d 


:-.*!* : / .* \ 


bove. Where gloom'd the cloud, a glo - ry 
cheer. Sweet Seraph, who, when E - den's 


- : 


t, :- |d : 

Hm, &c. 
s : 1 1 : 

r : I : 




ti : d | r : f n 


i 
I 

:- jde> :- 
: 11 :- 


s : 1 |t : r 1 d 1 


s, :- 1 : 


/ ./:/ 1 


./: s .1 


wept, ther 
scenes so 


S 

eglad 
fair 


- ness 
and 


n : | . i : s\.s\ 

smiles ; While trusting 
bright, Still deign'd to 


d ,r : n ,r \ d ,m : s >ta\ 


brightens. Where sorrow 
por - tals Shut in those 


faith the spi - rit 
so - lace fal - len 


1 :- I- 


- : 


s :- 


- 


: 


s : | : 


s : | : 


f :- 1- 


- : 


f :- 




: 


n : i : 


n : | : 


Hm, &c. 

r 1 : |- 
r :- |- 


- : 


r' :- 
s : 


- 


: 


d' :- |- :- 
d :- i- :- 


cl : '. / 


ta.l : I \ 


.1:1 . 1 


$.8 : n ,d\ s\ 


: n .r 


d :- \ : 

guiles, 
light. 
f Quicker. 

PI : | .s : s .s 


: 1 .: , 
se : - .se] se : -.se 


light- ens, And aimless 
mor - tals, Andha-lo 

f : |re : 


doubt no 
earth with 

n : 


more be- 
heav'n'sde- 

f :- 


d : 1- 


- : 


d :- 


t, 


: 


1. While trusting 

d : 1 .n : n .n 


faith the spi - rit 

n : - .PI 1 PJ : - jn 


Hra, &c. 

d 1 : |1 


_ 


s : 


^ 





s : | .d'id'.d 1 


r' :-.r'|r' :-.r' 


f :- |fe :- 


s : 


s, 


: 


2.StiU deign'd to 
ten. 


so - lace fal - len 

t : - .t 1 1 : - .t / 






/ t.l:l 1 


.d':t .1 


s : - .s | s 

doubt no more 
n : - ,n| r 

d 1 :-.d'|t 


be- 

: - .r 

: -.t 


n : | .n : n .n 

guiles, And aimless 

r : | .d:d.d 
t : | .1:1.1 


1 :-.l|l :s.f\ 
doubt no more be- 

d : f .Pi|r : - .r 


. light - ens, And aimless 
\ n : n j .1 : s .f 

Id 1 :d' ( .d'rd'.d 


d 1 :-.d'|t :-.t 


mor - tals, 

I 1 :1 I 


And ha-lo 

.f :f .f 


earth with heav'n's own 

s : - .3 | s : - .s 


light, Andha-lo 

se :- I .1:1.1 


earth with heav'n's own 

f :-.f|s :-.s 



St. Co. (New.J 



266 

: 1 : 

guiles, 
d :- |- :- 

d' :-i--- 
light. 
d :- |- :- 

s : t .l\ ./: n .r 


ADDITIONAL EXER 

1 : 

CQDA. tempo prime. 

s : |n : n 

An - gel of 
n : |d :d 

s : | s : s 

An - pel of 

J :- |d :d 

d :d> | : 


CISE8. PART II. 
--. molto espress. 

:- Mi :t t 

An - gel of 

P 

f :- |- :- 

Hope 

t, :-|-:- 

s :- I- :- 
Hope 
d :- |- :- 

=~7^. |- :t.l 


d : - 1 
Hope, 

n ' : s |n : n 


lin - ger mnr 

d :n |d :d 


8 : |s : s 

lia - per near 
d :- |d :d 

I : s \ :n \ 
lin - gor, still 
PP 

s :_|-:- 

ger, 

d 1 :-|-:_ 
ger, 
8 :- - :- 

d^_ :-."\^- 

n :-~p ; 

us. 

d :- |- :- 

8 :- |- :- 
us. 

d :-|-:- 

E. Spo/orth. 

n : r .d 


Lin - ger, still 

f :- |- :- 
us, 

a 1 . 
8 . | 

US, 

si :-!-:- 
1 : s \ :t\ 

lin - ger near 

f :- |- :- 
still 

r :- |- :- 
d' :t |- : 


lin 

n "' : | f : f e 


j -__ ger, 
^ Tie 1 1 : 


lin ... 
d : | r : re 


n :- |f : 


d' :-|-:- 

lin 

d :- |- :- 


. 

. i . 

:"- ff :- 


d :- |- :- 


. ^ _ 


HI. 

n :- |f :- 


n : |f :- 

ger near 

d :- |d :- 
8 :- |1 :- 

ger near 

d :- |d :- 
'LEASANT SPRING 

:d |s, :- 


lin 

d :- 1- :- 
d' : |1 :- 


still lin 

s, :- |- :- d :- |- :- 

f) KEY Q. M. 88. THE SPBINO, THE I 

/ .(n) n : - .f |s A- : r,d- 1, 


1. The Spring, the plea - sant Spring is blown, 

. ,) s, : - .8) |S| : s, 1, : 1, I s, : - 
.(d) d : - .r |n : n f : f In : - 
2. Coma with all thy sweet - est smiles, 

.(d) d :- .d |d :d d :d Id :- 


Let us 

8, : 8 t 
n : f .n 


With thy 

d : r .n 



St. Co. (Ntw.j 



ADDITIONAL EXEKCI8ES. PART It. 



267 









D. t 


jt, .r :- .d 


, f , 

s ,i .- ; i ,1*1 , 


- |n : r n 


: - .n 


r s : - .d' 


leave the 


smo - ky 


town, From 


the 


mall and 


s, :- .s, 


Si : S, 


1 l 8| 


- .8, 


id :- .n 


r : - .n 


r :d 


Id :t, d 


:- .d 


r s : - .s 


gra - ces, 


with thy 


wiles, Come 


and 


we will 


f :- .n 


t, :d 


1st :- d 


:- .d 


'in : - .n 




ores. 






/ t .d 1 :r' .t |d' .t :d . 


r 1 n'.f 1 .- :r',t.- id 1 


:- .1 


s ,f .- : n .,r 


from the rmg f 


Ev' - ry one 


has 


ta ken 


s : s 


S : 


s : s |s 


:- .f 


n,r.- :d .,t ( 


s : s js : 


s : s | s 


:- .d' 


d 1 ^ 1 .- :s~~ 


mer - ry be, 


Who shall be 


so 


blest as 


r .n : f .r 


n .f : n . 


r d,t|- :r,f.- |n 


:- .f 


s : s, 






/ n : n .,f 


s :1 


.,t Id 1 :- .r' n',f'.- 


: r'.t .- |d' : s 


wing, Ev' - ry 


one, ev' - 


ry one has ta 


ken 


wing, has 


Id : n .,r 


d :f 


.,f s : - . 1 s 


: s 


s : s 


s : s ,,s 


s : d' 


.,r ( |d' : - .1 d',r'.- : t .r 1 .- |n' : d 1 


we, Who shall 


be, who 


shall be so blest 


as 


we, so 


,|d :d .,r 


n :f 


.,r n : - .f s 


: Id' :n 


^ f. Q. ft' Much slower. 


1 :f |r' :t d 


:- |- :- 


r .r : 


|r .r :- 


ta ken v, 


ing. 


Clo-e, 


Strephon, 


f : |f : n 


: j : 


"t|.t| : 


Ui.r :- 


d 1 : 1 |t : s s 


: |- : 


d's.s : 


11 .1 :- 


bleet as v 


re? 


Clo-e, 


Strephon, 


f : |s : d 


~~ 1 ~~ ~~~ 


d 's .s : 


If .f. :- / 


/ n : n | f : d 


: - .d |d :- .d 


r : r 


In : i 


Co - ry don, A 


11 are fled and 


all are 


gone; 


r : de | r : d 


:- .d |d :- .d 


d : t, 


Id : - 


1 :1 |1 :- 1 


:- .1 Is :- .s 


s : s 


Is :- 


Co - ry - don, A 


Jl are fled and 


all are 


gone; 


i HI : 1, ; r : f 


f 1 M 

; .1 j n : - , f 


1*1 : Si 


Id :- 



St. Co. (2ftfo.) 



268 



ADDITIONAL EXERCISES. PAKT II. 



P Original lime. 




ores. 








f,m.- 


:j>.- 


1 


:- .f 


n,r.- 


:n.f.- is :- 


r 


:- .de 


r ,f 


:1 .8 \ 


What 


is 


left's 


not 


worth 


your stay, 


Come, 


Au- re 


lia, i 


d 


:d 


d 


:- .d 


d 


:1, Is, :- 


1, 


:- .li 


li 


: !i r 


d 


:d |d 


:- .d 


d 


:d |d :- 


r 


:- .n 


r 


:de C 


What 


is 


left's 


not 


worth 


your stay, 


Come, 


Au-re 


lia, 


1, 


:1. Hi 


:- .1, 


S| 


: f i | HI : 


f| 


m 


f, 


:n, | 


/ f ,n 


:r .d 


ti 


: s .s 


s 


: | : s .s 


S 


: 




: 


come, 


come a- 


way, 


come a- 


way, 


come a- 


way, 








ll 


: 1, ,1| 


t, 







: t, .t, |d : 




: r .r 


n 


: 












come a - way. 




come a 


way, 




r .de 


: r .r 


r 


: 




:r .r |d " : 


: t| .t, | d : 


come, 


come a- 


way, 






come a way, 




come a 


way, 




r, .n, 


:f, ,fe, 




: 




:f, -fi In, : 




: i'i . TI 


d, 


: , 


S 


: - .n 


f 


: n 


f 


: s .s ] 1 : 


1,8.- 


:f/,.- 


r 


: - .r 


Come, 


Au- 


re 


lia, 


como, 


come a- way, 


What 


is 


left's 


not 


d 


:- .d 


d 


:d 


d 


:d .d |d :- 


1, 


1| 


t| 


:- .t, 


n 


:- ,s 


1 


: s 


f 


: n ,n | f : 


f 


:f 


S 


: - .s 


Come 


Au- re - 


lia, 


come, 


come a- way, 


What 


is 


left's 


not 


d 


:- .ta. 


1, 


: ta, 


1, 


' S . S| I 1 1 


f 


:f 


f 


:- .f 








Cl'lS. 










/ S,f.- 


:n,r.- 


Id 


: 


f .n 


: f .r jn : f 


n 


: r .n 


f 


: \ 


worth 


your 


stay, 




Come, 


come, Au-re - Ha, 


como, 


como a 


way, 




t| 


: t. 


Id" 


: 


t t .d 


: t| .r |d : r 


d 


: t, .t, 


d 


: / 


S 


: s 


Is 


; 


8 


: s .s | s : 1 


s 


: s .s 


f 


: ( 


worth 


your 


stay, 




Come, 


come, Au-re - lia, 


come. 


come a 


way, 


< 


f 


: f 


In' 


: 


r .d 


: r .ti |d : f i 


S| 


: s, .8, 


1| 


. 


,{,i 


:s .f 


|n .f 


:s .f 


n 


:- |r :-.r 


n .f 


:s .1 


8 .f 


:n .r N 


Come, 


come, Au-re - 


lia, 


Come, 


come a- 


way, 


. 


. 


- ( 


d 


: r .r 


n .r 


:d .r 


d 


: I t| : - .t, 


d 


:d .d 


d 


:d.r 1 














Como a- way, 


corao a- 


f 


: r .r 


Is 


:s .1 


8 


: |s : - .s 


S 


:s .f 


s 


: s .s 


Come, 


como, Aii-re - 


lia, 


Come, 


come a- 


way, 


. 


. 


- 


1, 


:t, .t, 


d .r 


:n .f 


8 


: |s, : - .8. 


d .r 


: n .f 


n .r 


;d .t, J 



St. Co. 



ADDITIONAL EXERCISES PAKT II. 



2G9 



p 




eres. 


P 


PI .f 


: s .1 | s .f : n .r 


PI : 


s : - .8, S| 


: I, | f.- : d,t,.- 


. 


... 


Come, Au- re 


lia, come a - 


d 


:d .d |d :d .r 


d 


: H. :si , 


way, 


come a - way, come a 


- way, 


f 


S 


: s .f | s : s .s 


s : : 


: |r,f.- :n,r.- 


. 


. 


. 


come a - 


d .r 


: n .f |n .r : d .t| 


d :- 


n : - .PI PI 


:f If, :, 






Come, Au- re 


lia, 




/> 


* PP 




r : 


d | s : - .S| 


S| 


1. 1- :- 


f :r |d :t { 


d :- |- :-. 


way, 


Come, Au- 


re - 


lia, 


come a 


way. 


s, : 


i 




i : 


1 :- |s, :- 


s, :-!-:-. 


f : 


r 1 : 




1 : 


r : f |n : r 


n : i : - . 


way, 








come a 


way. 


d : 


|n : - .P; 


PI 


f, . 
. ~ 


f :- Is, :- 


d, :-|-:-. 


I 


Come, Au- 


re - 


lia, 






Words by AT FIRST THE MOUNTAIN RILL. 


Music by 


John Oxenford. 


(Part-song from " Jessy Lea.") 


G. A. Macftt'/ren. 


KEY D. Andante. 


(T. S. Copyright.) 




P 










s ,,s : (V .t : 1 .s e 


:f.f:s.ll :r :s 


f f PI : i 


At 


first the mountain rill is ^ 


veak, And from its pris - on scarce 


3an break 


: .,n 


n .,n : s .f : PI .n r 


i : r .r : r .r t| : t| : r 


r r d : / 


: .,s 


s ..sjn'.r'rd'.t 1 


: - .r : n .f f : f : s 


ss : s .s i 


At 


first themountain rill is i 


weak, And from its pris - on scarce 


jan bi-eak Then each | 


: .,d 


d .,d : d .d : d .d i 


: - .r : r .r S| : s, : t, 


t, d - : J 


A. t. 




ore*. f dim. 




r s,.s. 


: n .d : t, .r 


d ..PI 


: s : - .s 


s : - .f : n .r 


r : n : 


Then each pebble in its 


way 


Seems e - 


nough its course t 


5 stay. 


r S,.S| 


: s, .s ( : S| .si 


3| 


: S| : d 


li .,li: li : t, 


t, : d : 


sd 


:- .d :f .t. 


d 


: d : n 


r .,r : r : f 


f :n : 


peb 


blc in its 
: d, .PI, : r, .f , 


way 
n, ".,d, 


Seems e - 
: n, : d, 


nough its course to 

r, .,r,: r, : s, 


stay, f) \ 

d, : d .,d : d .d J 


Then each pebble in its 


way 


Seems e - 


nough its course to 


stay. Spreading as it / 


St. Co. (New.} 



270 



ADDITIONAL EXERCISES. PART II. 



f. D. 

r'..d':t .1 : .f 
Spreading as it glides a- 

"t 1 : s .f : n .r 


n : : 

long, 

d : : 


mf 

f .,n':r' .d 1 :t .1 

Soon it is a torrent 

r 1 .,d': t .1 : s .f 


8 

strong 

n 


cres. 

ds : : 8 

* glides a - 

P 

& ,,s : fe .8 : 1 .n 1 


mf 

in'.jr'rd' .t : 1 .s 
Spreading as it glides a- 

long, 

n' ,f : 1 : n 1 .r 1 


s : : 
long, 
s : - . s : s . s 
Soon it is a 

r 1 :s .1 :s .f 


/**, 

s 1 .,f n> .r 1 d 1 .t ( 

Soon it is a torrent' 
S ,,S 8 
tor - rent strong, 

n 


And its path is broad and 

r .,r : r .r : de.de 
ta :-- :1 .1 

strong ; And its 
S .,8 I A .8 : 8 .8 
And its path is broad and 

s .,s : feTs TT .n' 


free, As it 
r : - : f . 

1 .,1 : 1 : 1 .1 

path is free, As it 
f :- :f .f 
free, As it 
e dim. ; 

s' .f : se .1 : n 1 .r 1 


bounds in - to the 
n : - . f : n . r 

d 1 : - .s :1 .t 
bounds in - to the 
s : : 

bounds, 
5 cres. 

r' : s .d 1 : t .d 1 


sea. 

d 
d 1 

sea. 

1 ,,s : f .n : r .d 

Soon it is a torrent' 
n' ,,r': s : 


And its path is broad and 
r .,r : r .r : de.de 

s ..s s .8 : s .s 

And its path is broad and 

tai : L .1) 

\ strong And its 
t .r : n .1 


frew, As it 

r :- :f .f 
1 :r' :1 .1 

free, As it 
r .,r : f : r .r 
path is free, As it 

~I^=~ 
s .,s :d' .t : 1 .s 


bounds in - to the 
n ; .n : PI .n 

d 1 : - .d' : - .d' 

bounds, as it 
s :- .1 : 1 .1 

t,o, .nils in - to the 

a :f : 


sea. 
8 " ~""" 

? : - .r 1 : t .,1 
bounds in - to the 
t :- ; 

sea. / 
cres. 

.,1 :r' .d 1 :t .1 \ 


At first, at 

.t, : d .r 


first the mountain rill is 
n .,n : s .f : n .n 


weak, 

n .2 : 


But spreading as it 
.,f : 1 .s : f .f i 


1 s : 


: : P.,8 


d 1 :- .t :1 .s 


f : : .,1 


sea. 

.f : n .r 

At first, at 
1 .,s : s : 


At 
d .,d : n .r : d .t ( 
first the mountain rill is 
mf 

.,d': f .n 1 : r' .d 1 


first the rill is 

1, :- .d :f .n 
weak, the rill is 

m s .f : f .n 


weak, But 

r .,r : f .n : r .d 

weak, But spreading as it/ 
ere*. 

8 .,f : t : 1 \ 


glides a-long, 

f .,s : s : 

r' :- .d 1 :t .1 
spread - ing as it 
t ( .,ti: t .r : 8 .f 


A torrent strong, its 

.,d:d" .t : 1 .s 
s . : .,d' : f .n 1 

glides, A torrent 
n ..n : 1 .s : f .,r 


path is broad and free, 
f .f : n .r : r .d 

r'.t :d' .r 1 : s~ 

strong, its path is broad, 
8 .s : 1, .t, : d 


As it bounds, 

n .,f:f :- 
ta .,1 : r : - 

As it bounds, 

de .,r : f : 


i glides a-long, as it 
St. Co. (New.) 


glides, A torrent strong.its 


path is broad and free, 


As it bounds, 



I 



ADDITIONAL EXERCISKS. PART II. 



J71 



t .,1 :n' :r' 


f .,n':s' .n 1 :d' .1 


s .1 : t :n' .r 1 


d 1 : 
sea. 
n : 

sea. 
d' : 

sea. 

d : 


as it bounds, 

f .,f : 1 : - 

r' .,r':f :- 

as it bounds, 
f .,f : r : - 


bounds 
s .,s : d 1 : s .n 


in - to the 

f .f :i :- .f 

in - to the 
t .d 1 : r 1 : t .t 


As it bounds 

d' .,d':n' .d 1 :n' .d 1 


As it bounds 

s ,,s : s : 


in - to the 
- .s : s : S| .si 



s .,s :d'.t : 1 .s 
love, is oft so weak at 
n .,n : s .f : n .n 

s .,s : n 1 .r 1 : d 1 .t 
love is oft so weak at 

d .,d : d .d : d .d 



P 

: s 
Thus 

: n 

: s 
Thus 

:d 

A. t. 

* s,.si : n .d : t| .r 

Scarcely can its presence 

r si.Sj : S, ,S| : S| .S| 

sd :- .d :f .t, 

can its presence 

t|-n|.ri| : d| .HI : TI ,f| 
Scarcely can its presence 

f. D. 



first, 



first, 





cres. 


d .,n : 


S 


feel; 


But 


si : 


l 


d : 


d 


feel ; 


But 


Hi ..d,: 


n, 


feel; 


But 



f .f :s .! 

That e'en the 
: r .r : r .r 

: - .r : n .f 

That e'en the 

: - .r : r .r 



- .8 
its 

d 

n 

its 

d, 

its 

/ 



1 :r 


.r :s .f 

in which 'tis 

.t| : r .r 
.f : s .s 

in which 'tis 
.S| I t, .t, 


f :n 


heart 

ti :- 
f :- 

heart 
si : - 


nurs'd 

r :d 


s : 
nurs'd 
d :- 



dim. 



: s .s 

Scarcely 



s : - .f : n .r 

pow'r 'twill soon re 


r 


: n 
:d 


B 


-vea] 
t, 


r .,r : r : f 

pow'r 'twill soon re - 

r, .,r,: r, : s, 


f 


: n 


,d : d .d 


veal 
d, 


':?. 


pow'r 'twill soon re - 


veal 


; And 


so mighty 



s r' .,d': t .1 ' s .f 

And so mighty is its 

"it .,1 : s .f : n .r 

is its 


n : : 
force, 

d : : 
mf 
in'.,r':d' .t : 1 .s 
And so mighty is its 
8 """ ~"" 
force, 


f .,n':r' .d 1 : t .1 

Nothing can re- strain its 

r 1 .,d':t .1 :s .f 
s : : 

force, 

s : - .s : s .s 

No - thing can re- 



s : : 

course ; 

n : : 

f dim, 

s' .,f':n' .r 1 rd'.t 

Nothing can restrain its 

s ,,s : s : 

strain its course ; 



/ s .,s : fe .s : 1 .n 1 

Riches, honours, what are 

r .,r : r .r : de.de 
ta :- :1. .1 

course, Itiches, 
s ,,s : s .s : s .s 
Kiches, honours, what are 


n> .,f':l tn'.r 1 


r 1 :s .1 :s .f 


n : 

way; 

d : : 
d' : : 

way; 

1 ,,s : f .n : r .d 
Nothing can re-strain its 


they ? Love thro' 

r : : f .i 
1 .,1 : 1 : 1 .1 

what are they ? Love thro' 
f : : f .f 
they? Love thro' 


all will find a 
n : - .f : n .r 

d 1 :- .s : 1 .t 

all will find a 

s : : 
all. 



St. Co. (NewJ. 



ADDITIONAL EXERCISES. PART II. 



s .,s : fe .TTT~.Pi 1 ' 
Nothing can re- strain its 
r .,r : r .r : de.de 

s .,s : s .s : s .s 
Nothing can re- strain its 

tai : :l|.l, 

course, can ro- 


f dim. 

s 1 .f : se .1 : r' .r 1 

course, Love thro' 

r : :f .f 
1 :r' : 1 .1 
course, Love thro' 
r .,r : f : r .r 

strain its course, Love thro' 


P eres. 

r 1 :s .d 1 :t .d 1 

all will find a 

PI t - .PI j n .n 
d 1 : - .d 1 :- .d 1 


n 1 .,r': s : \ 

way. 

s : : 

P : - .r 1 : t 1 


all, Lovo thro' 
s :- .1 :1 .1 

all will find a 


all will tind a 

t. 


way. / 



to -=- 


^^ 






" * = -- 

: .r : n .f 


s .,s : d 1 . t : 1 . s 


s :f : 


.,1 : r 1 .d 1 : t .1 \ 


Thus love, thus 

: .t, :d .r 

1 : s : 


love is oft so weak at 

PI .,n : s .f : n .n 
P 

: : .,s 


first ; 
n :f : 

d 1 :- .t :1 .s 


But soon it will its 

.,f :1 .s :f .f 
f : : .,1 


way. 

: .f : n .r 

Thus love, thus 


Thus 
d .,d : n .r : d .t t 

love is oft so weak at 


love is weak at 

li :- .d :f .n 
first, so weak at 


first, But 

r .,r : f .n : r .d 

first,But soon it will its , 



1 .,s : s : 


% f ' .n' : r' .d' 


t .1 :s .f :f .PI 


cres. 

s .,f : t : 1 


pow'r reveal, 

f .,8 : s : 
r' :- .d 1 : t .1 


so mightv,Nothing 

.,d:d' .t :1 .s 


can re - strain its course, 
f .f : n .r : r .d 

r 1 .t : d 1 .r 1 : s 


Love thro' all, 

n .,f:f :- 
ta 1 : r 1 


soon re - veals its 


pow'r, so mighty, 

PI .,n : 1 .8 : f ,,r 


Nothing can re - strain, 


Love thro' all, 
de . r : f * 


pow'r re-veal, its 


pow'r so mighty, Nothing 


can re - strain its course, 


Love thro' all, 



t .,1 :n' :r> 


f ..n 1 :* 1 .n 1 : d 1 .1 


s .1 :t :n' .r 1 


d 1 : 


love thro* all, 

f .,f : 1 : - 


love thro' 

8 .,s : d 1 : s .n 


all will find a 

f .f :f :- .f 


way. 

n : 


r' .,r':f : 


Love thro' all 

d 1 .,d':n' .d 1 :n' .d 1 


will find a 

t .d 1 rr 1 : t .t 


way. 

d 1 :- 


love thro* all, 

f .,f : r : - 


love thro' all 

8 .,s : s : 


will find a 

- .s : s : s, .BI 


way. 

d : 



St. Co. (New.) 



ADDITIONAL EXERCISES. - PART II. 



273 



O THE JOY OF SPRING. 





"\Vords by /. 


5. C. 


















KEY F. 


















/ -=- -^- ^ := 


r- 


d.r 


n .s, : 


PI 


: 


r.d 


r.li 


; 


r 


! 


f 


.1 


? 


the 

d.d 


joy of 
d .8) : 


Sprin 
d 


Bfi 


Let us 

t,.d 


gaily 
Ii.ll 


: 


sing, 
li 


While the 

:l,.r 


,2.Now the 


primrose pale 


Greets the 


daf-fo 


- 


dil, 


And the 


! 


n .f s .n : 


s 


; 


S .8 


f .f 


j 


f 


! 


r 


.f 


\ .TThen com -panlous, ho! 


To the 


fields we go, 


And in 


\: 


d.d Id.d : 


d 


: 


r .n 


f.f| 


: 


f, 


; 


f, 


.f. 



Slyrian Air. 



s .r : s .1 : r .f 
sunshine on the moadis 



vio-let - scented air is 

f .f :f .r :s .s 

harmo - ny be - guile the 



n : 

bright, 



sweet, 

s : 

hours, 



:d .r 

While the 

: d .t, 

Birds in 

: s .s 

Now in 



S|.S: : S;.S; : BI..SI Id '. : n .r / 



C. t. fres. 



.^ ^ 


/ = 





==- 


n .s, : n : r .d 


t|pi.s : n 1 : r 1 .d 1 . 


t . 


d" fFTrT:!' .,t 


d 1 


: 


lambkins play, And the 


earth is gay, And all 


na-ture keeps a hoi - i- 


day. 




d .S| : d : t, .d 


s 


d.n : s : s .s 


8 . 


s : t .d 1 : t .,s 


S 


: 


ev-'ry tree Make a 




melo - dv, Singing 


welcome to the sun- ny 


May. 




s .n : s : f .n 


r 


s.d 1 : d 1 : f' .n 1 


r 1 . 


n 1 : f .n 1 : r 1 .,f ' 


n 1 


: 


softest trill ; Now in 




music shrill, Shall our 


song the joy-ful wel-kin 


fill. 




d .d :d :d .d 


r s.s : s : s ,s 


S . 


s : s .s : s .,s 


d 


* 




-== <r 


dim. 




1 .f :d' :t .1 


1 


,,s : n : s .se 


T, 


.,1 :s .1 :f .r 


n 


: 


la la la, La la 


la la la, La la 


la 


la la la la la 


la, 




f .f :f :d .d 


d 


.,d:d :d .d 


r 


.,d : t| .t, : t| ,t| 


d 


: 


la la la, La la 


la la la, La la 


la 


la la la la la 


la, 




d 1 1 1 s f 


f 




f 


.,f : f .f :r .s 


s 


. ^_ 


tl * J. * X m 9 tm 

la la la, La la 


la la la, La la 


la 


la la la la la 


la, 




f .f : f : f, .f, 


d 


.,d : d : d .d s. 


.,si: S| ,S| : Si .s t 


a 


'. ~ 


motto, n't. e dim. 


<^; 


rit. ^ 


^ - > 




1 .s :f :t .,i 


fe.s :d' :t .1 


1 .,s : 1 .,s : f .t| 


d 


lambkins play, And the 


earth is gay, And all 


na - turekeepsa hol-i - 


day. 


f .d : d : f .,f 


re .PI : n : f .t' 


f .,f : f .,f : t, .s, 


S| 


ev-'ry tree, Make a 


mel-o - dy, Singing 


wel - come to the sun-ny 


May. 


d 1 .ta : 1 : s ,,s 


1 .s :s :d' .d 1 


t .,t : t .,t : s .f 


n 


softest trill ; Now in 


mu-sic shrill, Shall our 


song the joy - ful wel-kin 


mi. 


f .f : f : r .,r 


d .d :d . fj fj 


s, .,si: s, .,s ( : s\ .s t 


d 


fit. Co. (New) 









f. F. 

id's .se 

La la 

i 1 n.n 

La lii 
:f'd'.d' 

La la 

:*a.a 



: s .se 

While the 

: PI .n 

Birds in 

: d 1 .d 1 
Now in 

- :d .d 



274 



ADDITIONAL EXERCISES. PAKT II. 



HOW LOVELY ARE THE MESSENGERS. 

(Chorus from " St. Paul.") 



Mendelstohn. 



KKT GK Andante con moto. M. 132. ALTO. 
P 

1 1 : : ! : : si d : - : t, 1 1, : - : s, f : - : n | r : - : d 1 1 ( : d : r | s, : s, : Sl 

1 1 How love - ly are the mes - sen-gers that! preach us the gos-pel of 


nil :- :- 1 : : , 

( | peace ; How 


1 :- :t, |d :- :r 

love - ly are the 


t, :- :d |r :- :f 
mes - sen - gers that 


n 


:r :d IT : li : t, 


d :-:-!: :d 


* 


preach ua the goa - pel of 


peace ; The 


gos pel of 
: : | :BASS.: si 








How 


n, 


: - : | : : s, 


1 : - : si |t| : - : d 


r : - : - !- :n : f 




a; the 

: - '. t| 1 1| ' ' s. 


mes - sen - gers that 

f :- :n |r :- :d 


preach us the 
t, : d : r | s, : s t : s. 


love 


ly are the 


mes - sen - gers that 


preach us the gos - pel of 


n 


: n : r |d : - : 


: : I : : 


: :d |d :- :- 


i 


- pel of peace ! 


1, : - : t| |d : - : r 


How love 

t, :- :d |r :- :f 


peace, How 


love ly are the 


mes - sen- gers that 


- 


! - :- Is, :- : - ^ : :d |d :- :f n :r :d |r :1| 


n 


: r : d |r : l t : t 


are they that preach us the gos pel 
d :- : - I : :d i, : - : - | - : - 


preach us the gos - pel of 


peace ! the words 


fS.( 


3.T.B. 
s :- :- |- :- :n n :- :- |r :- :d 


ti :d :r |r :n :f \ 


To 


all f the na tiona is 

a :- : s, |d :- :d d :- :- |ti : - :d 


gone forth the sound of their 
BI : I, : t| i t| : d : r 


of 

: Si 


peace ; To all the na tions is 

n :- :- |- :- : s s :- :- | s :- :s 


gone forth the sound of their 
t' : n : r | r : d : t. 


To 

: s, 


all f the na - tions is 
d,:- :d j n : - :d s :- :- |f :- :n 


gone forth the sound of their 
r : d : t, | t, : 1, : s, 


, of 


peace ; To all the na tions is 


gone forth the sound of their 



8t. Co. (Nev). 



ADDITIONAL EXERCISES. PAKT It. 



275 



D. t. 



n : - : - I : :n 

words, to 

d :- :- 1 : :n 


all ' ' the 


d 1 :- :- |t :- : t,n 

na - tions is 


f :s :1 v 

gone forth the 

f :- :- 


words, the 

d : - : n |n : - : - 

words, to all 

d : - : I : : n 

words, to 


sound 
_ _ 1 

' the 


is 

1 :-:- lit:- : 

na - tions 
n : - : | Pi| : - : m \*.\ 

na - tions is 


gone, 

r : - : - 

gone, / 


all the 


/|t :d' : r\ 

sound of their 

- :- : f 

is 
is 

- : - : r 
is 


s :- :- I- :- : 
words, is 

f : - : - |n : - : s 

gone forth, the 

s : 1 : t |d' : r 1 : n 1 

gone forth the sound of their 
n :f : s |1 : t : d 1 
gone forth the sound of their 


1 :t :d' |r' :n' :f 

gone forth the sound of their 
s :- :- |f :- :- 


f':- :- 1- :- : - 

words, 

- :- :r is :- :f 


sound 

n 1 : - : - 


|r' :- :d" 

their 

1- : :f 

the 


of their 
t : - : - | : : s 
words, How 

sound. 


words, 

f :- :- 

words. 



PI : - : - 

words. 

d' :- :t 
love - ly 



the 



; 


1 ; 


. 


: : I : 


: s 


d' :-- 


: t 










How 


love 


. ly 


; 


: 1 : 





: : s, | s : - 


:f 


n : - 










How love - 


ly 


are 




f 1 : 


- : n 1 | r' : - 


:d' 


t : d 1 : r 1 | s : s 


: s 


s : - 


: - 


mes 


- sen - gers 


that 


preach us the gos - pel 


of 


peace, 




- ; 


- ; - | ; 


: s. 


s : - : f |pi : - 


: r 


n : - 


:d 






How 


love - ly are 


the mes 


sen-' 



/ ' 


f :- :n' |r' :- : d 1 


n 1 : r- : d 1 | r 1 : 1 : t 


d 1 : - : - | s : - : \ 


are the 


mes - sen - gers that 


preach us the gos - pel of 


peace, 


: : s 


f :- : s |1 :- : t 


n :- : - jf :- :r 


s :f :n |f :d :r 


the 


mes - sen - gers that 


preach us, that 


preach us the gos - pel of 


: : s 


d 1 : - :t |1 : - : r 1 


d 1 : - : - |s : - : i 1 


n 1 :r' : d 1 |r' : 1 : t 


the 


mes - sen - gers that 


preach us, that 


preach us the gos- pel, the 


f :- :n 


1 :- :s |f :- :r 


s : \ \ - '. - i 


s : - : - | - : : s 


\ gers, the 


mes - sen - gers that 


preach 


us, that/ 


dim. f> f. Gr. 


/ s :- :- |- :- :f 


n : - : - |n - : f 


PI : - : - |r : - : d 


,:- :- \ 


f they that 


preach us the 


gos - pel of 


peace. 


n : - : - j : : r 


r :- :- |d - :d 


d : - : - |t, : - : d 


^S, : - : - 


peace, that 


preach UP the 


gos - pel of 


peace. 


d 1 : s : ta |1 :- :1 


se : - : - i 1 : f 


s : - :- |f :- :n 


mt, : - ; - 


gos -pel of peace, that 


preach us the 


gos - pel of 


peace. 


s : f : n | f : d : r 


n : - : - 1 1| : 


BI : - : - | s, : - : s. 


d s ,:- :- 


preach us the gos - pel of 


peace, the 


gos - pel of 


peace. 


,St. Co. (New). 



27G 



ADDITIONAL EXERCISES. PART II. 

f. C. L IB A. 



! : :r 


s :- :f |"t :- : 1 


se : - : - | se : - : 1 


se: 1 : t |t : d' : r 1 ' 


To 


all the 


na - tions is 


gone forth the sound of their 


1 : : 


! ! ! ! i 


i ! t ! ! 


! i ' , : : 




To 


all 


the 


t i 


: : I : : 


: : 1 : : 


. : I : : 


O. t. X is . ores. 


1 d 'f : - : - | : : 


: : I : : 


: : 1 : : 


: : \ 


words. 








\ * 1| 


r :- :d |t, :- : 1, 


se,: - : - |se, : - : 1, 


se, : 1, : t| 


To 


all the 


na - tions is 


gone forth the 


"'!:- :f |r :- :- 


: : I : : 


: : 1 : : 


: : 


nu tions, 




ores. 




: i ' i 


: : | : : t. 


PI : - : - | - : - : - 


- : - : - 




To 


all, 




ftC. 


/I : : : : 1 : :d s 


s 1 : - : - 1 - : - : n 1 


n 1 : - : - | r 1 : - : s \ 




To 


all the 


na tions is 


t| : d : r 


d : - : - : :ds 


d' : - : - | - : - : d 1 


d':- :- |t :- :s 


sound of their 


words; 






: : 


: : | : ;dg 


n 1 : - : - | - : - : d 1 


a 1 - - Is - -a 

a . . | B . . s 




To 


all the 


na - tions is 


n : - : - 


n :- :d 1 1, :- : 


: : 1 : : 


! ! : : 


, the 


na - tions 






O. t. 


/ n 1 : n 1 : r 1 |d'f : n : r 


t :- :- | : :s 


d 1 : d 1 : t 1 1 : s : f 


r 1 : - 


gone forth the sound of their 


words, is 


gone forth the sound of their 


words, 


n : ba : se I 1 r : n : f 


f :- :- I : :n 


d :r :n |f :s : 1 


r : - : - 


a : 1 : t Id'f : s : 1 


r :- :- | : :d 


PI : f : s 1 1 : t : d 1 


s : - 


gone forth the sound of their 


words, is 


gone forth the sound of their 


words, 


: : 


: : f | 


s, : 1, : t, |d : r : r, 


n :- :- | : : 1, 


t, : Ij : 8, 


1 is 


gone forth the sound of their 


words, is 


gone forth the 



i- : 


: s 


s : - 


: - 


1- :- 


: n 


PI : - : - 


|r :- 


:d 




To 


all 






the 


na 


tions 


is 


I 1 " : 


:f 


PI : - 


: - 


1- :- 


:d 


d :- :- 


1 1, : - 


:d 


1- : 


: s. 


s : - 


: - 


1- :- 


: s 


s : - : - 


Is :- 


: s 




To 


all 






the 


na 


tions 


is 


|f :n 


: r 


d :- 


:s, 


Id :- 


: n 


s : - : - 


If :- 


: n 


sound of 


their 


words 


to 


all 


the 


na 


tions 


is 



t, : d :r |r :n : f * 

gone forth the sound of their 

s, : 1| : t, | t, : d : r 
f : n : r |r : d : t| 

gone forth the sound of their 
r : d : ti | t, : 1, : s, 
gone forth the sound of their 



St. Co. (New}. 



ADDITIONAL. EXERGUES. 1'AIIT II. 



277 



n : - : - I 


:d :d 


1 :- :- ,s :- :- 


f :- :- |n :- :r 


r : - : - 


words, 


throughout 


all the 


lands their glad 


tid 


d : - : - |ta,: - : ta 


1, :- :- It, :- :- 


d : - : - |d :- :d 


d :- :- 


through - out 


all the 


lands their glad 


tid 


1 n :- :- | 


:d :d 


f :- :- |r :- :- 


1 : - : - | s : - : 1 


s : - : - 


words, 


throughout 


all the 


lands their glad 


tid 


d :- :- | 


:d :d 


f , : - : - |s,:- : - 1, : - : - Id : - : f , s, :- :- 


- : - : - 


d :- :- | : : : : ! : : 


: : J ': : ; .V 


it,':- i - 


dings. p 

d :- :.- | : : s, d : - : t, 1 1, : - : s. 


f :- :n |r :- : d / 


. 


dings. How love - ly are the 


mes - sen - gers that!* 


- : - : - 


s :- :- |- :- : : : 1 : : 


: : 1 : : 


. 


dings. 


..,..] 


- '- f i 


n, : - : - | - : - : : : 1 : : 






p 


- : : 1 




: : | : : s 


s :- :- |f :- :- 


- : - : - 






How 


love - ly 




t ; : d : r ] s\ : s\ : s. 


s, : - : - | : : s. 


1, :- :t, |d :- :r 


t, :- :- 


preach us the gos - pel of 


peace, How 


love - ly are the 


mes 


: 1 


: : 


: : I : :n 


1 : - : - |- : - : - 


s : - : - 






How 


love ... 


ly 


: : 1 


: : 


: : | : :d 


f , : - : - | - : - : - 


s, : - : - 






How 


love ... 


ly 




p 


In : - : r 


n : r : d | r : 1, : t ( d : - : - 1 s ( : - : 


d :- :- |- :- :f 


they that 


preach us the gos - pel of peace, 


thev that 


Id :- :- 


'- : - : - | s, : - : s, s, : f, : n, |f, : f, : f. 


n, : - : | 1, : - : - 


sen 


gers that preach us the gos - pel of 


peace, that 


d :- :1 


s:-:- |f :-:f n:r:d | r : 1, : t| 


d :- :- | : : t, 


thev that 


preach, that preach us the gos - pel of 


peace, that 


1, ": - : f, 


. . 1 . __ 1 




fi :d, :r, 


S| . . | . . * . . | 


. 1 1 . HI 


they that 


preach us the gos - pel of 


n:-:-n:-:r d:- - 1 1. : - : d d:-:-l 


preach us the 


gos pel of peace. Four measures 


i set: - : - |1 


: - : li 


s, : - - | f , : - : n, n, : - : - | : 


' t, :- :- |d 


:- :f 


n:- - ! r : - : d d:-:-j : 


preach us the 


gos pel of peace. 


n, : - : - | - 


: - : f | 


s, : - - |s, : - : si d : - : - | : 


peace, 


the 


gos pel of peace. Symphoiiy. 


St. C<< (Xei 


vj. 



278 



ADDITIONAL EXKRdSKS. - PART II. 



AWAKE JEOLIAN LYRE. 



KEY D. 

: s n 


M. 50. Largo e 
cres. 

:-.s|d' : 


wstenuto. 


^ / 
- : : t 


I 1 |d' :d' 


t : 


J. Dauby. 

i : t 


A - wall 

: t| d 


e, a - wake, 


> " 

: -.n| s : : r 


E - o - lian 
i |n : n 


lyre, 

r* __ 
. 


a - 

1 : r 


: r n 


:- I- : .d 


>. a - wake, 
n 1 : | : ; s 


| s : s 


8 : 


I- :s ! 


A - wal 

: S: d 


e, a- 

1 

^^ i 


wake, 

- :- 1- 


: ; 


K - 1 1 - lian 
I Id :d 


lyre, 

s, : 


a - 

1 
1 / 


i d 1 :n' 


I r : t d 1 : - ! - 


& , ,_ 


Quicker. 
^ f 


M. 100. 


1 


wake, JE 

n : s 


o - lian lyre, 
|f :r n :- |- 


a - wake, 

: n r : 


1- : 


. 


I : , 


s : d 1 


|t :r' d 1 : | 


: s s : 


I : s 


s :f 


|n .f : s .n 


wake, 2B 


o - lian lyre, 


a - wake, 


and 


give to 
f 


nip - ture, 


: 


I- :s, d :- |- 


: d si : 


j 

I : .si: l|.t,|d .r : PI .d 




a - wake, 


and give to rap - turo, ' 


f .\ :t 


d'|r. :d< 


t .d 1 : t .d 1 


m/ 

t : 


:' 1 


. 


Td- v 


and give to rap - ture 
.d : r .n |f : n 


all thy tremb 
r .n : r .n 


ling strings ; 

r : r s 


.,s : s .f |n 


: s 


From 

f : 


1 = - 


3 f : 8 


8.8 : 8 .8 


From H 

8 : 


el-i - con's harmo - nious 

:s |d' ..d'rd'.ta 


springs, 


?" :- 


to rap ture 
n r : n .d 


all thy tremt 

s,.d : S|.d 


ling strings ; 


From Hel-icon's bar 

: | :d 


-mo - nious 
f ,f:f.n 


\ 










From 


Helicon's bar- 


f .,f: ' 


dim. 

n 1 r' :-.d' 


f> 
8 : 


~ 


: .t d 1 :n' Id 1 : 


Helicon's ] 


iar -mo - nious springs, 
d s .f : f .n |n .r : .t. 


d .t, : t .d d 


A thou - sand 
t| : .r n : 8 


rills 
n : - ,n 


It : 


iar -mo - nious 


springs, bar 
: .8 


-mo - nious sp 
s .f : f .n n 


rings, 

r : .s 8 


: s 


s : - . 8 


springs, 

r : - 


bar 

d t ( : - .d |d .t t : d .r 


-mo - nious sp 
n .r : r .d s. 


rings, A thou - sand 

: .8, d :d 


rills their 

d : - .d 


mo - ni 


ous springs, har-monious, bar 


-mo - nious sp 


rinnfs, 







St. Co. (New). 



: ! : d'.s 

a 

f .n : f ,n| f : n 

ma/y progress take, 

1 .s : 1 .8 |1 :d' 

m;izy progress take, a 

f.d:f.d|f :d 

: 1 : 
d .n : - .r |r .d : t ( .d 

laugh - ing flow'rs that 

n : s |s : -.1 

laugh-ing flow'rs that 

Largo e sostenuto. 
f M. 50. 

/ s : - .s | s : 
Now the rich 

n : - .s j s : 

dl *lt 1 
: - .PI 1 PT . 

Now the rich 

d :-.d|d :- 

t :- !- :- 

long 

S ~~"~ I "~~~ \ ~~"~ 

long ; 

s : | : 

% Spit 

t :- 1- 

strong, 
r : | dolce. 

S. | - 
s 

strong. Thro 
S| : | n 


ADDITIONAL EXEI 

l.s:f.n|d' : 


tCISES. PART II. 
their mazy pro - gross 

.1 : s .f |n : r 
.d 1 : d'.l | s : s 

their mazy pro - gress 

.f:d.f|s : s, 

dim 


279 
d' :- |- : \ 

take, 

n : | : S| 

a . I e 
o 1 o 

take, The 

d :- !- : / 

f) rail. ^ 

1 :se |1 : - 
as they flow. 

: 1 : 

: j 

PI ; - .PI 1 1| 

as they flow. 

1 :t Id 1 :-.d' 


thou - sand rills 

f .n: r .d|l : 


d'.piif.sll : 


thou - sand rills 

d :r.n|f : 
"?* 


Drink 

r : n |f : 

round them blow, 
round them blow. 

: I :d'.l 

Drink 

PI :f |s :1 


life and fragrance 
: 1 : 

: 1 : 
se : - .t 1 1 : r 

life and fragrance 
s : |s : t 


stream of 
s : f In : - .n 


Mu - sic 

PI : r |d : t| 


winds a- 

d : r | n : f e 


PI' :r' Id 1 :-.d' 


d 1 :t |n ( :r' 


d 1 :t 11 :-.! 


stream of 

d : r | n : f e 


Mu - sic 

s : | si : 
d 1 :- It :- 

jes - tic, 
n : |r :- 

8 '. 1 8 '. 
jes - tic, 

d : | si : 

dolce. 

: I :PI' 

And 

: 1 : s 
f :n | : 


winds a- 
P f 

t :1 I- :1 \ 


P f 
s : | : t 

Deep, ma - 

Si : I :r 
s : | : s 
Deep, ma - 
Si : | : 8, 
-itoso. M. 152. 

: 1 : 

: 1 : 
s :-.l|s :f 


smooth and J 

r :- 1- :r 
8 : f e | : f e ( 


smooth and ] 

r : | : r / 

n 1 : - .f '| PI' : r' \ 
Ce - res' gold - en 
s :-.l|s :f 

: 1 : 


' ver - dant 

n : - .f |n : r 


vales, 

r :d i : 


: 1 : 



St. C& (New). 



280 



ADDITIONAL EXERCISES. PART II. 



c 

reign. 

f :PI | : 

: 1 : 

(j : 1 : 
d 1 : s s : 


res. 

d 1 - : ,- 
Now, 
d :- |- :- - 

d 1 :d'.d'|d'.t: l.s 1 


:- |t :- 

now 

1 r 

1 r . 
s : f .n|r : 

ep a - main, 
n : r .d| 8| : 

.18 


d 1 :t.t|d' :d' 

head - long impet - uous 

n : r .r| n : n 
d 1 rs.sld' :s 

head - long impet - uous 
1 

: ~~. \ 

i : n .n r : n n 


Now rolling down the ste 

d'.t ; 1 .s|l .s : f.n f 
- : - 1 .d' : t 


see it pour, 

f :r n : -.srf.nf : 


- .n : f .r P 


1 :t d 1 :- -.n 1 :r'.d' 1 :f 


s : - 


see it pour, see it 

:d.d' t :d'.d' 


see it pour, - ... 

f : |d :-- - :- - :- 


sec it pour, see it 
:r.t||d :n.d s : n .d 


P 
: .ss :-.s |1 : ta.s 1 : 

The rocks and nod - ding groves 

r :-.rn :-Ji|f :n f :1 

pour, 

|t : -.t d 1 :-.d' |d' : ta 1 : d 1 


c> 

- :d' d 

re - t 
- :f r 

: 1 s 


/ 

I 1 : r 1 n 1 : t 
>el - low to the 
i : r Id : r 

: f n : r 

>el - low to the 

i S, S| : 8| 

ff 

t :- 1- :t \ 


pour, The rocks and nod - ding groves 

s, : - .8| d : -.ta,| 1| : s ( f| : 
d> t Id' 


re - I 

: f , 

:- Id' :- 


roar, 

n : | : 


r : |n : - .f s 


:- In" :- 


re - 

r : | : s 


d .tj: d .r |n .r : n.f 


B .1 : s .f |n .f : n .r d 


t,: d .r |n .r : n.l 


s : -- | : r 1 


roar, 
d .t ( : d .r |n .r : n.f 


s .1 : s .f |n .f : n.r d 


t ( : d .r 'n .r : n.i 


re - 

s : | : s 


/ d 1 :- |- :d' 

bel - - low 

S *~~ 1 1 . ~~ 

bel - low 
bel - low 

d 1 :- |f :- 


d 1 :- |t :- 

to the 

8 :- 1- :f 
to the 

n 1 :- |r' :- 

to the 

s : - | : s 


d 1 :d'.,t|d' 

roar, to the roar, 

n : s M f |n 

n' : n' .,r'| n 
roar, to the roar, 

d : s .,s | d 1 


D.S. 

d'.,t d' :- |- 

to the roar. , 

s .,f n : | 
n 1 .,r' d 1 : - | - 

to the roar. 

s .,3 d : | 



St. Co. (Ntw). 



ADDITIONAL EXERCISES, PART 3. 



For style of singing see " Hints on the Tunes." 



Words 
George I 

KEY G 

P 

t ' S| ,,S| 

ll Where the 

1 s ; .S| 
J 
2 Where the 

: n .,n 

3. Let us 
i i d .,d 


by WHERE THE GAY DREAMS OF CHILDHOOD ? 

ennett. (Copyright.) German Air. 
. Moderato. Harmonised by Kiickeu. 


s,.,n :*n 


: - .1 


s : r : r .,n 

child - hood, With the 

t, : t : t, .,d 

man-hood, That would 
r : s : f .,n 

re - al, There's no 
S| ' S| '. S| ,,S | 


f 1 - o 
i . i . . 8 

love - light of 

t, : t, : - ,t| 

seem not like 
r :f :- .1 

truth in our 

Si : S| : - .si 


n : : "1 

truth ? The 

d : - : df 

dreams, But 

n : : s d' 

dreams, Thev 

d :- :df 


gay dreams of 

si .,d : d : - .d 


bright dreams of 

n .,s : s : - .f 


live for the 
d :d : - .1, 


1 :- 

vi 

f :- 


Ts : s .t 


r' :d' 

beau - ty 

f :n 


mf 


dim. 

1 :-.s : 


r.,rs 


Pi. G. 

d : : d g| 

youth? They 

d : : d s , 


S|.,r : r : - .n 


sion of 

.f :f 


That 

: re 


daz - zled our 

n : - .n : t| 


pass'd like the 

S|.,t| : t| : - . t. 


pre - 
t : - 


sent and 

.t : t 


cer - tain, The 

t : d 1 : d 1 


sur - est 

d 1 : - .d 1 : 


of 

f,s 


schemes? We 

n : : dg| 


near the temp- 
8|.,f : f : - .8 


melt 

v r : - 


like the 
.r : s 


rain - bow, With 

s : 1 : f e 


fair - est 

8 : - .81 : 


of 

S| 


beams, In 
d : : d s , 




youth's morn of 
S| : s, : - .s. 


r : d : - .S| 

cloud- lets By 
S| : 8 : - .8, 
ta - tion, It 

f : n : - .n 


s,-.,f : f 


: - .s 


n : : 

roll'd, 

d :- : 

touch, 

s : : 


All 
Wo 


poco accell. 

s : 1 : t 

touch'd with the 

s : f e : f 

grasp at the 

t : d 1 : r' 


~^^=^- D. t.m. 
r 1 : d 1 : .1$ 
glo - ries, All 
s : s : .is 

bub - ble, We 

f :n' : .is 


morn - ing un- 

s,.,r : r : - .t. 


fades at 
r .,s : s 


the 

: - .s 


beau - ty In 
d : d : - .d 


man - hood or 

t, : t| : - .s. 


age, 

d :- : 


The 
.ds 


true and the 

s : s : s 


last - ing, The 

d :d : .is 


s : 1 


: t 


r 1 : d 1 


/ G. \ 


~^> ~^* 

s : 1 : 


t 


r' id '. s 


t : 1 : -.f 


touch'd with the 

s : f e : f 


glo - ries, All 

S* c * ni 1 1 
1 1 


touch'd with 

t, :d : 


the 

r 


glo - ries Of 

d :d : .d 


crim - son and 

t, : t, :-.ti 


grasp at the 

t :d :r' 


bub - ble, We 
f :n' : .d's 


grasp at 

s : f e : 


the 
f 


bub - ble, It 
n : n ; .PI 


bursts at the 

r : r : - .s 


true and the 

\ s : s : s 


last - ing, The 

d : d : . d s 


true and 

s, : s, : 


the 
l 


last - ing, Our 

S| : S| : .s> 


thoughts should en- 
S| : S ( I - .81 ' 



LONDON : J. CURWEN & SONS, 8 & 9 WARWICK LANE, E.C. PRICE FOUUPBNCE. 



282 



ADDITIONAL EXERCISES. PART III. 



piu lento. 



n : : n 


r : t : - .1 


s : s, : s, 


f : n : r |d : 


gold, All 


touch'd with the 


glo - ries Of 


crim - son and 


gold. 


d :- :d 


d : t, : - .t, 


d : s, : s. 


r : d : t| 


a, : 


clutch, We 


grasp at the 


bub - ble, It 


bursts at the 


clutch. 


s : : s 


fe : s : - .f 


n : n : n 


8 : 8 :f 


n : 


gage, The 


true and the 


last - ing Our 


thoughts should en- 


gage. 


d :- :d 


r : i, :-.BI 


d :d :d 


t| : d : BI 


d : 


THEME SUBLIME OF ENDLESS PRAISE. 


KEY B7. M. 60. 




Handel. 


/ : 


I ' 


d 


t, : .r 


r .d :d.t, 


d 




: 


: \ 




Theme sub - 


lime of 


end - less 


praise, 








di : si 


It 


.1, 




pii : TI 


di TI 


PIl U| 


r * 




**l w 1 

Theme sub - 


1 '1 

lime 


of 


end - less 


i| i 

praise, of 


end - 


less 


praise, 







i 
i 


1 
1 


: 


: 


8| 


:d 


t, : .r 


r .d :d.t, 












Theme sub - 


lime of 


end - less 


: 






: 


d, : s, 


n, 


: .1, 


li .8, : S|.f, 


Hi : S, 










Theme sub - 


lime 


of 


end - less 


praise, of / 






F.t. 


1 d :s 


n 


: ,1 


1 .8 :s.f 


n : .s 


8 .f 


:f .n 


r : n 1 .t 


d 1 : 


Theme sub - 


lime 


of 


end less 


praise, of 


end - 


less, 


end - less 


praise, 


: 


8| 


:d 


t, : .r 


r .d :d.t, 


1, 


: .d 


d .t, :t,n.r 


d : 




Theme sub - 


lime of 


end - less 


praise 


of 


end - less 


praise, 


d :r 


n 


: 1. 


n : t, 


d : n 


f 


:d 


8 : 


r s : d 1 


praise, of 


end - 


less 


praise, of 


end - less, 


end - 


less 


praise, 


Theme sub - 


1, : t, 


d 


; 


j 


: 




5 


8, :df 


n : .1 


\ end - less 


praise, 












Theme sub- 


lime of , 


. 


; A : f n : . 1 1 . s 


ft f PI : .s a .f : f 








Theme sub - 


lime of 






praise, of 


i 
end - less 


end - 


less 


: 




{ 


; 


8, :d 


t| 


: .r 


r .d : d .t. 


1, .r : - .d 










Theme sub - 


lime 


of 


end - less 


praise, 


t : .r 1 


r'.d 1 


:d'.t 


1 .s : 1 .t 


d' : 


r 


: s 


s : - .n 


d .1, : 1 


lime of 


end - 


less, 


end - less 


praise, 


Theme sub - 


lime of 


end - leas 


1 .8 : 8 .f 


n 


: .s 


f .n : r 


d : 


8) 


:t, 


d : n, 


f, :-.fi 


end - less 


praise, 


of 


end less 


praise, 






/ 



St. Co. (New). 



ADDITIONAL EXERCISES. PABT 



283 



f. B>. M. 69. 



/ f : n r : - .r 


d :- : : : , 


praise, of end - less 

1 J i 4. 

C| <1| t l| tQ Q t| 


praise. 

d :- : : : 

praise. 

n : : : d S| ; - , g| 


of end - less 

r : n .f s : - .f 


praise, of end - loss 

si : d S| : - ,S| 


praise. f Just and 

d : f,d, : - .d, r, id, : f| - .f| : n, 




Just and righteous are thy ways ; / 


j 










S| : - . S| 


li .S| : d . 


: 










Just and 


righteous are 

f ,di :- -d, 


li .BI :d 

righteous are 

. HI : HI . T|,di 


- .d : t( 

thy ways, 


li .t|,d: r .d 


t| .d,r: d .ta 


Just and 
1, .Pl|,f|: Si . S| 


right 
right 


- eous 


. eous are thy 
f 1 .Pli.rr. HI .d| 


Just are thy 


ways, 




are thy/ 


- .d : t. 


: 




d :- .d 


r .d :f 


- .f : n 


thy ways ; 

r>i .r, : s, 

righteous are 

s, : 

i ways ; 
8| S| ,S| 


- -s, :f, 

thy ways, 

d :- .1 

Just and 


Just and 

: n, .HI 

are thy 

s : - .s 

right - eous 

d : 


righteous are 
ll .S| : 1, .t, 


thy ways ; 
d .5; : d 


ways, 

f .n : r 


d : 

ways; 


are thy 


ways ; Just and 


righteous are thy 


ways; 




1 


F. t. 




, r s .i,t : d'.d 1 


t .d 1 :d 

are thy ways, 

f .n : 1 ,Si,fi 


t .1 :s .1 


f :- .f 

are thy 

- :t, .t, 

are thy 


f .s ,f : n .r ,d 


right - eous 

;t ( n .n 

Just and 


right - eous 

si .l,.t : d 


ways, 

d : 

ways ; 

,d :- .d 


righteous are thy 


ways, 


id :- .d 


r .d :f 




- .f :n 


r : - .r 


Just and 

d : 


Just and 


righteous are 


thy ways, 


are thy 


ways; 



St. Co. (Ntw). 



284 



ADDITIONAL EXERCISES. PART III. 

f. B7. 



/ t| .d : 1 ( .r si : 


: 


: 


: 


\ 


are thy ways, 










: d :- .d 


rl,. s, :d 


- .d : tai 


: li .1| 


Si : - .fi,r, 


Just and 


righteous are 


thy ways ; 


Just and 


right - eous 


r .d :f - .f :n 


. -n : n .r,d 


r ,n,f : s .f 


n .d :f 


- .n : n .r ,d 


righteous arc thv wavs ; 


Just are thy 


ways, 


- and right* 


- eous ; Just & 


m 





! 


'd, :-.d, 


\ 








Just and / 


f. E7. B7. t. 


: fd :- .d 'La :d> 


- .d :t 


d' : - .r 1 


"'1 : r .,r 


Just and 


righteous are 


thy ways, 


are thy 


ways; Just & 


f ( .HI : r, s, : 


*"id : - .n 


f .n : r 


n :- .f 


d :t, .,t, 


are thy ways ; 


Just and 


right - eous 


are thy 


ways ; 


t| .d : t, .1, s, : 


A s : s .d 1 


1 : t 


s : - .t 


d 'f : s ,,s 


righteous are thy ways ; 


Just are thy 


ways, Just 


arc thy 


ways ; Just & 


r, .d, : f| - .f| : HI 


.-|H : n .r,d 


r .n,f : s .f 


n : n .r 


d fi :f .,f 


\ righteous are thy ways ; 


Just are thy 


ways, 


arc thy 


ways ; 


s : - .d 


f .. :-.f 


n : 


n : - .n 


n : n 


n : n 


n : ^ 


right - ecus 1 


are thv 


ways, 


And thy 


mer - cies 


still en - 


durc. 


d :-.d 


d :t| 


u i ~~~~ 


n, : - .se. 


li :r.d 


t, :1, 


se, : 


8 :-.! 


f :-.f 


S . "~~" 


d :- .r 


n : n 


r :d 


t, :- 


right - eous 


are thy 


wavs, 


And thy 


mer - c:os 


still en - 


dure, 


n : - .f 


r : - .r 


d :- 


li : - -t, 


d : 1 


se, : 1, 


n, : 


f. E7. 


; 


; 


n : n 


n : 


r 1 : d 1 


t : 1 


t :d' 






still en - 


dure, 


And thy 


mer - cies 


still en - 





: 




; 


-in : - .n 


n : n 


n : n 


; 


: 


: 




rl :-.! 


se : d 1 


t : 1 






still en - 


durc, 


And thy 


mer - cies 


still en - 


' ' 


: 


n, :n, 


n, : 


f,d :1, 


n : 1 


se : 1 


F. t. m. 


se : 


f n : 1 


s : 1 


f :r 


n : 


t : d 1 


t : d 1 


dure, 


And thy 


mer - cies 


still en - 


durc, 


And thy 


mer - cie* 


n : 


rd :d 


n : n 


r : 1, 


t. : 


n : r; 


n : 












still en - 


dure, 


t : 


r 'd' : d 1 


d 1 :d' 


t : 1 


se : 


se : 1 


se : 1 


dure, 


And thy 


mer - cies 


still en - 


dure, 


And thy 


mer - cies 


, n : 


fen : f 


d : 1 


r :f 


n 


: 


: 



st. Co. ,'yctvj. 



ADDITIONAL EXERCISES. PART HI. 



285 



f.Bt?. 



r : d 1 t 


:- 1 :-.t 


d 1 :t.l 1 


:se.l 1 : 


: < 


still en - dure, 


And tl 

: n : - .1 


y mer - cies sti 

d :f n 


1 en - dure, 

: - .n n : 


- 'd : 1, 

Ev - er 


se : 1 t 


:- d 1 :-.1 


1 : r'.d 1 t 


: - .t d 1 : 


: 


still en - dure, 

, n : 1 se 


And tt 
:- 1 :f 


iy mer - ciea sti 
d : r n 


.1 en - dure, 

: - .ri 1| : 


'. 1 


,81 : f i 


pii,i'|.ri|,f| : 8| . t a 


d| .d(,i"i :n<,f i.S|,n 


l,,U,,t,:d, Sl .l,, S , 


fi,S|.Pi|,f,:ri,S|.f|,s. 


faith - ful, 


ev - - er 


sure, Ev 


" " 


~ 


: 


F. t. 








/ d'g : PI 


r :*f 


n,r.n,f: s .t ( 


d .d,r :pi,f .s ,PI 


1 ,s .1 ,t:d',s .1 ,s 


Er - er 

HI .d, : S| .d 


faith - ful, 
t| .S| . r 'il| >t| 


ev - - cr 
d,t|.d ,r: n ,s ( 


sure, Ev 

li :d .n 


f :n .d 


or, ev - er 


faithful, ev- er, 


ev - - er 


sure, ev - er 


sure, Ev - er 


f ,s .n ,f : r ,s .f ,s 


n .d : PI .fe 


s ,te.s ,l:t ,s .1 ,t 


d' .t,l:s,f.n,r 


n :s jn 


r .d : t, .li,t, 


- er, ev - er 
d :d .r 


faith 
t|,l| ,ti,d:r ,t|.d ,r 


- ful, ev - er 


sure, ev - er 

s, :d ji 


faithful, ev - er 


sure, Ev - er 

d' :1 


faith 

s :f 


- ful, ev - er 
pi,r.n,f :s .t| 


sure, ev - er 
d .d,r:n,f.s,n 


: 


Ev - er 


faith - ful, 


ev er 


sure, Ev 


i 

yd :f .r 


*fc' : 


', 


* 


d :1 


sure, ev - er 

f :1, .f, 


sure, 

s,r, :t| t, 


d tl.-s.f.n,! 


p.r.n.f.-i l,t,s, 


Ev - er 

d .1, :d, .f, 


sure, ev - er 

1 ,s .f ,n : f ,s .1 ,t 


sure, Ev - er 
d's .f ,n :r ,d .t|,l| 


faith 


s :n 


- ful, ev - er 

f ,n .f ,s : 1 ,3 .f ,s ' 


f 


- er, ev - er 

*! :f. 


faith - ful, 


ev - er 

d| ,di,r, :ni,f|.S|,m ( 


faith 
li,S|.f ,n|:f|,S|.li,t| 


\ Ev - er 


faith - ful, 


ev - er 


sure, Ev 


er 


St. Co. (New). 











286 ADDITIONAL EXKRCISES. PART III. 


. :f 

faith - ful, 

d :li .r 


n,r.n,f:s .t ( d .d,r:n,f.s,n 


l.s.f.n: 


f .s 

er 

d .S| 


n : 
sure, 
81 : 


ev - er sure, ev 
d : ti .t| 1, :s, .si 




f. :" 


sure, ev 
n ,f .s ,n : 1 


- er 
.8 

ful, 
.t, 
er, 


sure, ev - er sure, ev - er 
s ' .n n :n .n 
ev - - er sure, ev - er 
d,ti.d,r:n ,BI l.S|.l|,t|:d .d 


sure, 
i : 

sure. 


v - er 

d .r 
ev - er 

er 


sure, 
n : 

sure, 

d :- 

sure, 


d ,r .n ,d : r 


ev 


ev - er faith - ful, 


ev 


. 


. 


; i ; 






. 


d :1, 


8, :f| 


: 





: 


: 


d : 1| 


Ev - er, 

si :f t 


ev - er 

r\\ I d| 


i 


. 


d :1 


8 :f 


Ev - er 

n :f 


faith - fill, 

n : 


ev - er 
d : 1 


d :d 


d :-.d 


And thv 

d :d" 


mer - cies 

d :- 


still en - 


dure, 


ev - er 


And thy 


mer ciea 


still en - 


dure, 












i r\\ : 

sure, 

d : 


8 : n 

Ev - er 

d : s. 


r :d 

faith - ful, 
t| ! 8| 


: n 

ev - er 

t, :d 


t : 

sure, 

t, :- 


: n 
ev - er 

d : s, 


r : 

sure, 

ti :- 


sure, 
8 


d :n 


: n 


r :d 


s : 


n : d 


s : 


sure, 


Ev - er 

HI : d| 


faith - ful, 

81 :s, 


ev - er 

8, : si 


sure, 

s, : 


ev - er 


sure, 




And thy 


mer - cies 


still en - dure, 






/ s : n 


r * 




. 


. 


ev - er 

ti : d 


sure, 

ti :- d :1| 


a 


i : f 


ri|,r|.nifi: BI . t, 


r :d 

ev - or 


Ev - er 

8 : f :d .r 

are, Ev - er 
1| J f | 


faith - ful, 

n .s, : 1| .ti 


ev er 

d ,t,.d ,r : n . si 


faith ful, 

d : 


ev - er 




ev - er 


sure. 





St. Co. (NtwJ. 



ADDITIONAL EXEECISE8. PART HI 



287 



1 

d| -d|,ri : n,,f| .s ( ,n/ 


1 :'' d 1 ' 
Ev - er 

1,,8, .f|,n, ;f,d,r.n,f 


r : s 
faith - ful, 
s .S|,l ( : t|,d .r ,ti 


B7. t. 

s :i"'l ^ 

ev - er 
d,r .n,r :"1 ( ,f ( 


sure, ev- 
il .l,,t, : d,r .n,d 


f.s .1,8 rin'.r'.d'.ri 


er, ev 
t,l .t,d' :r',d'.t,r' 


- er 

s :d 


sure, ev - 


f " :'l 

Ev - er 


s" :f 

faith - ful, 


er 
n ,T ,d ,t| ;d f |,S|.l|,t| 


faith 



s 

faith 
HI 

d 

sure, 
d .8, 



f 

still 
t| 

r 

S| 



f 

ful, 



t, 
ful, 



: n 
en 

:d 
:d 



: 8| 



ev 
d 



ev - 
d .d| 



r 

dure, 

t, 

S 

dure, 

3| 



;r 1 


s :f 




er 


faith - ful, 


1 


t, :- 


s 


: n 


;r 

5| 


sure, 

s, : 


And 

8| 


thy 

:d 


1 


r '. ~~"* 


t, 


:d 


jr 

vj. 


sure, 

s, : 


And 
l 


thy 

: si 


jr 


sure, 






Adagio. 

f :- .f 


f :PI 


r : 


Ev - er 

d :- .d 


faith - ful, 

S| : d 


ev 

d : 


f :- .d 


r : s 


s : 


Ev - er 

1, :-.!, 


faith - ful, 

ti : d 


ev 

si : 



mer - 

t, 

S 

mer - 



:d 

cies 

: n 

cies 



sure. 

d :- 
f .,n n : 



er 
- . s, 



sure. 
d| 



THE WOODS. 



KEY A. Andante con moto. M. 80. 



Be- 

,n : 
Be- 
,d : 


8|,"t ,d 


ti 


:l,r 


,li 

in 

,1, 

in 
,d 


: 1,,1 ,r 


ti 

drest, 
Si 
f 
dre.st, 

d 


hold the 

S|( 48) 

n t ~ ,n 

hold the 

dr ,d 


woods 
8| 


: fu- 


ver-dure 
: l.r ,1. 
: f r ,f 
ver-dure 

: d ,- ,d 


n 


ll'' 


woods 

d 



,-,r :f,-,l 

Theheav'naa 

,- ,t| : ti,- ,t, 

,-,f :r,-,f 

Theheav'nsa 

- d : d ,- ,d 


s 


Mendelssohn. 

~ r n r i- in 


-gain 

d 
n 


are 

:- :t, 
: - ,- ,s : f ,- ,s 


-gain 

d 


are 

: 8) : s. 



St. Co. (New). 



288 



ADDITIONAL EXERCISES. PART III. 



E. t. 



d : -,-, :" 


1 


I,- 


,s : 


1 ,- 4 s : 1 , 


-.8 


s : - 


__ 


s 


f,-,n:f,-,f 


: 1 ,- ,f 


bright: Re - 

d .-.si: 8,4-48. : B id,-,d 

bright : Rctum-ing Spring in 


turn - ing 

r : 

-spires 

t : 


Spring inspires the 

: r 

the 

~~ V 


breast, Re 

s ,- ,d : d ,- ,d : d ,- ,d 

breast, Return - ing Spring in 

d A * A ~ ft *fi ft 
4 40 . a i 413 a ^ 40 


turn-in^ Spring inspires the 

d : : t| 

-spires the 

1 :- :f 


'. bright : Ri turn-ing Spring in 

I d,,-,d:d,-,d :df-,f 


-spires 

f : 


the 
. f 

. i 




breast, Return - ing Spring in 

n ,- ,n ; n ,- jn i n ,- ,n 


-pfa-es 

r : 


. ^ h2 / 


d. f. D. L is B. 

fs : fe ,- ,r' : d' ,- 


t 


T~~ "": 


t 


: n 

de 

: r 


- 


d 1 
light, 
d 


dim. 

: - ,- ,t : 1 4- ,s \ 

With hope and 

: - ,- ,r : n ,- ,n 


breast With hope and 

d r : - ,- ,f : n ,- ,f 


calm 

n : 


it : 1 ,- , 


se : 1 ,- ,r' 


d 1 : 


r' 


: se 

de 
: n 


- 


1 

light, 
1, 


: - ,- ,86 : 1 ,- ,d' 

With hope and 

:- ,- ,ti :d ,- ,d 


breast With hope and 
dr : - ,- ,t| : d ,- ,r 


calm 

n : 





A. t. 
>d : n ,- ,r 


: d ,- ,t| 


d :- :- 

light, 
81 4- 8| : 1, ,- ,si : li ,- ,s, 

light, With hope and calm de - 


~ ~ 1^1 : f 4- ( r : d ,- ,t| 

With hope and calm de - 
f , : - : - 


d" 

light, 
n. 


calm 
calm 

tn : 

calm 

1-8, : 


de 

: s, 

de 
:f 

de 
: si 


- 


light. 

r 


^ 


: s 


light, With hope and calm de- 

d ,- ,d, : d| ,- ,d, : d ( ,- ,d| 


light. 
d| 


: 


: 


: i ,S| : s,.n ,d 


ti 


:1 


<: 


li : li.f ,r 


ti :-r 

f :- - 
men, 

d :-,- 
-,8s : - 


,r :f 


,-,1 t 


: - .- ,n 


: r 4- ,n v 


For -sake the 

: , ,s, : 81,- 4 8| 
: , ,n : n 4 - ,n 
For -sake the 
: 4 ,d :d r 4 d 

fi 

d : - ,- , : n 


bus 
Bj 


y haunts of 

: f i,- ,1| : 1|,- ,1, 


Thou child of 1 

,t, : t|,- ,t| e 
,f :r,-,f r 


x>il 

. 

i :--,s 


and 

: t 
:frj 


n 


:f 


,-, 


f : f ,- ,f 


bus 

d 

E. t. 


lr 


y haunts of 

,8 : 1 ,- ,8 : 1 , 


Thou child of 1 

,d : d ,- t d c 


oil 

8| 


and 

: s, 




: s 


eres. 

f ,- ,n : f ,- ,f : 1 ,- ,f 


care, 
d ,- ,S| : 8| 4 - ,8| ; 8 


Come, 

d,-,d 


roam the shady woodland 

r : : r 


glen, 

s ,- ,d : d ,- ,d 


Come, 


roam the shady woodland 


caro,Come, roam the shady 


wood 
t 


land 
__ * 


glen,Come,roamthe shad} 

d 1 ,- ,8 : s ,- ,8 : s ,- ,s 


1 wood 

1 :- 


land 

:f 


|care,Come, roam the shady 
d l ,-,d:d,-,d :*f,-,f 


wood 
f 


land 

- :f 


glen,Come,roam the shadj 

n 4- ,n : n ,- 4 n : n ,- /i 


wood 
r : 


land 

: r 



St. Co. (Newj. 



ADDITIONAL EXERCISES. PAliX III. 



289 



d. f. D. L is B. 
fs : fe<- 4 r' : d ,- , 


t 1 : t : n 


dim. 

d' : - 4 - .t : 1 .- ,s 

air, And breathe the 

d : - ,- ,r : n ,- ,n 
1 : - ,- ,se : 1 ,- .d 1 

air, And breathe the 

li .: - - ,t| : d - 4 d 
- ,- ,t : f ,- 4 r : d ,- ,t| d 

And breathe the balmy air. 


glen, And breathe the balm y 

dr : - ,- ,f : n 4 - ,f n : : r 
it : 1 ,- ,se : 1 .- ,r' d 1 : r' : se 


glen, And breathe the balm y 
dr : - ,- ,t| : d 4 - ,r n : : n 

A. t. 
1d : n ,- 4 r : d .- ,t| d : : 


balm - - y 
*8| : : S, 
balm y 

tn : - : f 

balm y 

rs, : : s ( 

/ : 4 ,s, : S|,n 4 d t| : 1 


air, 
air, And breathe the balmy 

n ,- ,n : f ,- 4 n :,-/) 

air, And breathe the balmy 

d 4 - 4 d| : d| ,- ,d| : d| 4 - ,d, 

,-,1. : li.f ,r t, .-.-. 


air. 

r : : s 


: r ,- ,n ^ 


air. 

d, : - : - 
r : f - ,1 s : - ,- ,n 


Hereo-dours float, 
'. | ,S| ' S||~ 4 S| Sj 


and zephyrs play, ( )n rnoi'ning's gold 


en 
t| 

:fr,s' 


m m mm f f f f f 
. 4 (Tl n 4 (PlPl I 4 ~ 4 l A 4 ~ 4 I i . 44 


f : r ,- 4 f n : - r ,s 


Hereo-dours float, and zephyrs play, C 

i A ' d ,- 4 d d : - ,- 4 d : d ,- 4 d d '-- 

p E. t. 
d .-,-, : m l 1 .-,8 : 1 4 - ,s : 1 4 -,s s :- 

beam; With them thy grief swill pass a -way, 

d t - ( S|: S| 4 -,S| ; s |d,- 4 d r : :r s 4 - 4 d:d 

4 beam jWiththemthygriefs will pass a - way, "With t 

n m* m. pi ' PI 1 1 t* * ' f" H 1 Q Q 
t *'''* i' ' ^ 4 i "^ " " i IP 

l>eam;Withtheinthygrief swill pasa a - way, With tl 

d (4 - 4 d : d ,- <d ;d f , ,f f : : f n ,- ,ri : n 

d. f D. L is B. -> -^^^ 

f s : fe ( - ,r' : d 1 ,- 4 t 1 : t : n 


>n morning's gold 

d : d ,- ,d d : s\ 


en 

: s, 


cres. 

: s f r * : * r / : 1 r \ 

With them thy grief will pass a- 

,- 4 d : d ,- 4 d d : t| 

lemthygriefswill pass a 

,-8 : s-,s 1 : : f 

iem thy grief s will pas* a 

4 ,n ; n 4 ( n r ; t r / 
dim. 

d 1 : - .- .t : 1 ,- 4 s 
dream, And van - ish 

d : - ,- ,r ; n ,- 4 n 
~ i~ 486 : 1 ,- ,d 

dream, And van - ish 

li ~ r ti id,- 4 d i 


way, And van - 

dr : - ,- ,f : n ,- 
it : 1 ,- ,se : 1 4 - 


ish liku a 

,f n : : r 
,r d 1 : r 1 : se 


way, And van - 


ish like a 

4 r n : : n 



St. Co. (New). 



290 



ADDITIONAL EXERCISES. PART III. 



A. t. 
d 


: n ,- ,r : d ,- ,t. 


d :- .- 

dream, 
Si - iS, : 1, ,- ,si : 1| ,- ,8 ( 

dream. And van-ish like a 

n ,- ,n : t ,- ,n : f , ,n 

dream, And van-ish like a 


<O 

And van - 
f. : 


r : d ,- ,t| 

ish like a 


d" 

dream, 
n, 


like 
r s, 
like 

tn 

like 


a 

: : s, 
a 
:- :f 
a 
: : s, 


dream. 

r 


: 


: s 


dream. 

d, : - : - 



HOME, O WHERE IS THY BLEST HAVEN. 

Words by Music by 

Oeorgt Bennett. O. JietcJtardt. 

Arranged for mixed voices* by ALKHKD STONB. 

KEY 0. M. 64. TBNOK SOLO. 

I : 



n : n I : f ., 



: n 


: 1 : 
d 1 :-.t |t. l:l.s 


: 1 : 
s :f | :n 


: 1 
re : | re 




Hm. 










: n 


n : ! : n 


r :- |d :- 


: 11, 


: 


: n 


d 1 :-!-:! 


1 :-|-:- 


:? |- 


: t .1 


Hm. 










: n 


1 :- |- :d 


r :- |n :- 


f : If 


J 



Home, O where is 


' :-. /*{*'. r'ltP.t 


Sever 'd now from all I 


love, 


thy blest hav- en! 


PP 


I 






n . 1 
Hm. 


1 






d :- I- :- 




d :- 


: 


t, : n : se 


1 :-[-:- 


se : | : 


1 :- 


: 


se : , t : n 1 


Hm. 


. 1 










St. Co. (Nva.) 



Muy be sung in key A?, by A.T.B.B.. and Baritone Solo. 



ADDITIONAL EXERCISES. PART III. 



291 



/ i fi ' ra' *' ! x f' 
J " 1 * / 

All that with dear life is 
PP 

t .!: 


wove, 

d 1 : | s : n 


Far a 

1 :- 


i 

8 . | 

Hm. 

r 1 :- |f ir- 
is :- |- :- 


s : n : d 

n 1 : |d' : 8 
d : : 


r : 

1 :- 
f :- 


crav - en. mf 


n , ;_J ru ,; du 


t : 1 


f :- |n :s 

Hm. 

s : | : 


n : : s 

s : : d 1 


f :- 

d 1 : - 


- :- Id : 
: 1 : ' 


d : : n 


f :- 

t : I 


1 

In 
Hm. 


fo - reign lands I am a 
PP ^ 

S ""*" """" 


stran - ger, 
j . 


n : | : 


n : | : 


r : 


s : | : 

Hm. 

(r 1 : rf 1 I : 
1 


d 1 :- - :- 
d : - : 


f :- 

r 1 : <*' 


greet - ing, 


Words of welcome are re- 


peat - ing, 


:- 1- :s 

Hm. 


86 '. ~~~ \ I ~~ 


i . 

L 


In : I :n 
[d 1 :- 1- :d' 

Hm. 

ild :- I- :d 


f _ 1 
r f . 

t. . 
. * 


n : 
d 1 :- 


St. Co. (New.) 







Ir'.r'rn'.r' r\_ 

away I toil with spi 



No 



I . 



I- It 

rit 

I : 
If :- 
Ir' :- 



: s 



lov'doneshere withkindly 

s :- |- :- 
f :- !- :- 

t. I . 




d 1 ;-.t\l.l:t .1} 

Coldness haunts the unknown 



- :- !- :t 
f :- I- :- 



292 



ADDITIONAL EXERCISES. PART III. 



n \ : _|_:_ 


' :- I 


; 


: : 


T :-.t\# :-.r'i 


ran ... 


ger. 






Shall I ev - er 


86 : t | : 86 
Hm. 

n : se I : n 


n : f ./i | n 


: r 


: f ./i | n : i .,n 
d :- r :- 


n : n | : n 
d :d |- :d 


t :n' | :t 

Hm. 


se : 1 .,se| se 


:t 


1 : |se : 


1 :1 I- :1 


n : n 1 : 


n : | : 
One sweet form I lov'cUo 

: n | : n 
d :d |- :d 


n : | : 

well? 

n : ~Tse~: t 
t| : |n : se 


n : n | : n 

Tell me,heav'n,my spirit 
ft? 

t, , 
~ ~~ 

s : | : 


have to cheer me, 
: n | : n 

Hm. 

r : r | : r 


se : se | : se 

Hm. 

: n | : n 


:n |- 


: n 


se : 1 1 : n 1 
n : | : 


r l ; _ | f 1 ; r l 

8 :- 1- :- / 


toll, 


' : - .r'Jr'.r 1 : w'.r 
Point the homo that I may 


r 1 : rf 1 | : t 

have her 


""r':- |* : , 
near mo. 


d' : |s :n 

Hm. 

- : In :d 


1. i 


r : | 


II 


S ~"~ | "~~ . ^ 

n : |f : 


t : |d' :'s 
f : |n : n ( 


n 1 : | d 1 : s 

Hm. 

d :- | : 


1 :- 1- 

f :- 1 


: 


. :- ,- :- 


i 

s :- |- :d' ' 

8 : Id : d 1 1 


: 1 J j_ 1 ^ 
Hm. 

s : | se : n : | f : 


ftp 
: 1 | : se 1 : 

n : |r : d : 


n : d :- |- 
d : !,:-!- 


n 1 : - |r' : d 1 : |r' : 

Hm. 

d 1 : | n : 1 : - | r : - 


d 1 :- |t :- 1 : 
n :- |- :- 1, :- 


1 : n :- |- 

- :- 1, :-|- 


St. Co. (New.) 







ADDITIONAL EXERCISES. PART III. 


293 


KEY 

: s 


D. THE STOTTT-LIMB'D OAK. 

s :1 |s : - .s d'.t:l.s|f : :-.f|n.n:s.s 


/. Dcwby. 

d> :-.r'|t :- 


The 

: n 


stout -limb'd oak that long has borne Th' unnumber'd shocks of 

n :f |n : - .n l.s:f.nl.r : :-.r|d.d;r.r 


win - try skies, 

n. : f e 1 s : i 


The 

:d 

d 1 


d 1 : d 1 |d' : 


: -.pi'lf'ji 1 : r'.d 1 t :-.s|s.s:s.s 


s :1 |s : f 

win - try skiee, 

1, :r Is, :- j 
n |r : - .r \ 


stout -limb'd oak that long has borne Tlr unnumber'd shocks of 

d :f |d : : -.d|r .d : t,.l s, : -.s,|d.d : t|.t ( 


:d' .d 1 Id'.t.l :t .s 


d 1 : n 1 |1 : - .r 1 ' 


a., t. 


Lift 


ing its head with dauntless 

: I : 


scorn, The wind's tu - 

: 1 : 
n' :d* |f :r' 


mul - tuous rage de- 
ad : d .d |d .t|,l ( : t, .s, 


Lift - ing its head with dauntless 

s d : - .n | s : f 




Lift - ing its 

: 1 : 


head with daunt - less 

: 1 : 


scorn. 


The wind's tu - 

1 : 1 


d 


:- .d |d :f 


i 
f : n |r .n,f : s .f 


. D. 


- \ .r 1 :r' .r 1 


. fies, 

\ d 

. scorn, 

f n 

mul 


The wind's tu - 

: n 1 1, : - .r 

The wind's tu - 

:d |f :r 

tuous rago de - 


mul - tuous rage de - 

t, :d |d : t, 

mul - tuous rage de - 
fies, 

: 1 : 


fies, The winds tu- 

d s : | .t : t .t 

fies, 

Lift - ing its head with dauntless 
s : s .s | s,f.s,l: s,f.n,r 


/ n 1 


tr 

:n> |f :r' 


d 1 :- | : 


A. t. 
r's : s .s | s,f.s,l: s,f.n,r\ 


mul 

d' 


- tuous rage de - 
: s |f : - .f 


fies, 

s : | : 


Lift - ing its head with dauntless 

tpi : n .n |n,r.n,f : n,r.d,t ( 


fd 1 


: d 1 .d 1 |d' .t,l : t .s 


d 1 :n' |1 :- .r 1 


tn : d | s, : - .S| 


Lift 

d 


- ing its head with dauntless 

: |r :r .r 


scorn, The wind's tu 
n :d |f :r 


- mul - tuous rage de - 


\ scorn, 


Lift - ing its 


head with daunt - less 


scorn, 




n 
scorn, 

d 


:- .n |f :- .f 

The wind's tu - 
:- .d |r :- .r 


n :- |f :- 

mul tuous 

d : :r 


f :n |r : - .r \ 


rage de - 

r : d 1 : t| 


d 


' - i : 


.s |1 :- .f 


s : s | s : - .s 


fies, 

d 


:d .d |d .t|,l,:t,.s, 


The wind's tu - 

d : n | 1| : - .r 


mul - tuous rage de- 
t( : d | si : - .si 


Lift 


ing its head with dauntless 


scorn, 




/ 



St. Co. (New). 



294 



ADDITIONAL EXERCISES. PAKT in. 



1st time. 1)0. 2nd time. $ 
fies nos. 

sr' : | r' : 
fies. fies. 

\ 

t :t |d'.t :d'.n' 

course, its buoyant course It 
86 : 86 | 1 .86 : 1 .86 

: n 1 1 .n : 1 .n 

its buoyant course It 

: | : .d 1 r'.n'if 


n'.r':d'.t 
And should it 
n'.r':d'.t 


tr 

1 :s If : 

fall, and should 
1 :s |f : 

1 :s |f : 
fall, and should 
1, :( If, : 

I- .d',t:d'.r' 


-.f 

it 
-.f 

-.f 
it 
-.f, 

d'.t 


n : -.d'|t .d 1 : r'.d'\ 
fall, its buoyant, buoyant 

n : -.1 Ise.l : t .1 
n :- !- :- 

fall, 

: 1 .se |1 : - . 


n'.r'-.d'.t 
And should it 

n .r : d .t| 
n 1 .r',d': r' 


guides a -long the 
i : - .1 se.n : - .f 


roll - 
n .r 


ing waves, 

:d .t, |d :- . 


f :- 
guides 

.n'ir'.d 1 : t 


f |f .se :1 .r 


n 
roll 

: .s 

the 

: .n 


: I : .d' 

the 
:- .n |1, :- .1, 

ing waves, 

1 .t: d'.t |1 .s:f .n 


a - long the 

Is: | 


the 

: : .s 
l.t : d'.t |1.8 :f.n 


roll - - ing waves, 

t.d':r.d'|t.l:8.f n : | 


> roll - - ing 
f .s: l.slf .n:r.d 


r : 

waves, 

t, : 
s* 

:r' 
pest 

: 8 
: t 

pest 


1 : 
1 : 


r n .f : s .f In .r : d.t 


1, :-.l|l :1 ( 

waves, the roll - ing 


roll - - ing 

f .:!. |f .n:r.d 


the roll - - ing 

.t, d .r : n ,r| d .t,: l,.s 


n : |r 


d' :d' ..d'ld' : f ' 

And though assail'd with 

d : d .,d n : f 
n : i .,i s : t 

And though assail'd with 

d :f .,f n :r 

8. ( 

d 1 : - .t,l|t : t 

still it braves, The 

8 : f e s : t 

1 :- .r' 'r' : r' 
still it braves, The 
d : r ; s. : s 


n 1 
e 
8 

d' 

e 

d 

1. f. F. 
d'l.s 
roar 
d'l.s 

d'1.8 
roar 
d'l. 8 


: d 1 |d' : f ' 

?ual force The 
Id :r 

: 1 |s : t 

?ual force The 
In :r 

: f .n |f,nr,d:r,d.t|,l 

- ing tempest still it 

: f .n |f,n.r,d:r,d.t,,l 


waves, 

d ' 1 1, 


8 : 1 
waves, 
8, : 

,n" :- Ji' |r' 

roar - ing tern - 

n .8 :- .d' |t 


1 d' :- .d 1 |s 

roar - ing tern - 

d,t|.d.r:n,r.n,fe|8 


: f .n |f,nj.d:r,d.ti,l, 

- ing tempest still it 



St Co. (Nm). 



ADDITIONAL EXERCISES. PART III. 



295 



D. t. m. 1. tr 

"s :- | :r' n 1 : n 1 [n 1 :r d 1 : |t : d 1 


D.S. 


braves, The roar - ing tern - pest still it brav 

se,t| : | :t d 1 :d' Id 1 :1 s : | :s s 


08. 


t ( r : - | : r d 1 : n< | s 1 : f ' n 1 : - | r 1 : n 1 


: 


braves, The roar - ing tern - pest still it brav 
"18, : I : s d 1 : 1 | n : f s : | : s, d 


Be. 


Words by MORNING PRAYER. 

/. S. Stallybrass. Music by 


KEY C. Adagio. M. 69. 

1 II 1 1 .PI X* 1 ' 1 1 1 / 1 f 

:s n 1 :-jr|r :d f i-.f'ln 1 : r 1 s :l.,f|f :n 


Mendelssohn. 
PP 

f : f |n : -.PI 


A sol - emn calm, a si - lence ho - ly, Now lies on all thing! 
:n s :-.s|f :n 1 :-.l|s :s s :1 .,f | f : n 


i far and nig 
n : r .,d | ti 


h; The 
: -.r 


: d n 1 : - .n'| t : d d 1 : - ,d'| d 1 : t s : 1 .,f | f : n 


1 : t .,1 1 se 


: -.se 


A sol - emn calm, a si - lence ho - ly, Now lies on all thing 
:d d 1 :-.d'|s :1 r :-.r|s :s s : 1 .,f | f :n 


i far and nig 

r : r |n 


h; The 
: -.n 


cres. 

1 : 1 1 1 : se 


d 1 :d' Id 1 :t .1 


tf dim. 

rl 4- 1 c 1 
L | o f 1 


s : - ,s | s 


: \ 


woods a - lone are 

d ,r : n .f | n : - .r 


bend - ing low - ly.To 
d .n : 1 .s |fe :fe.l 


greet their Ma - ker 

s : f | n : ria 


pass - ing by, 

r : f |n : 

_ - 


l.t:d'.ri|d' :-.t 


1 .t : d'.n'l 1 :r' .fe 


s : - ,s | s : d' 

greet their Ma - ker 


d" : t |d' 

pass - ing by. 


- -^ 

: - .n 
To 


woods a - lone are 


bend - ing low - ly,To 


( 1, : 1, in : - .n 

- : 1 : 
: .f|f :n.,r 


1 .s : fe.nl r :r .d 


P 
s : - .s | s : s 

Ma - ker pass - ing 
r :-.n|f :f 

Ma - ker pass - ing 

d :-.d'|d' :t 


8 : s ) . a 

s, : s, \ ' 

s : | 

n : | 
by. > 


:-.d' 

8 
I 

n 
d' 


""TTd'l d 1 : t .,1 


To greet their 

d : ta | 1 : na 

Ma - ker, greet their 

s' : f '.,n'| f ' : d 1 


f To greet their 
n 1 :r'.,d|t : - .s 1 


greet their Ma - ker 


pass - ing by, their 


Ma - ker pass - ing 


by. 


I 


( d' : t .,1 1 s : - .f 


n : r .,d | f : f e 


s :-.\\fc } \\ t \ 


d :- | 


d t 


St. Co. (New). 



296 



ADDITIONAL EXERCISES. PART III. 



n 1 :-.n'|r' : d 1 

feel my bo - ing 

s : - .3 1 f : n 


f : - .f 'Tn r Tr l 

new - cre-a - ted, 
1 :-.l|s :s 


P } 

s : 1 .,f | f : n 

Where is the care, the 
s : 1 .,f | f : n 


op 

f : f | n : - .n \ 

tor - ment gone? Thej 

n : r .,d 1 1| : - .r f 


n 1 :-.n'|t : d 1 


d 1 : - .d'| d 1 : t 


s : 1 .,f I f : n 


1 : t ..1 1 se 


: -.se 


feel mv be - ing 

\ d 1 : - .d'| 8 : 1 


new - cre-a - ted, 
r : - .r | s : s 


Where is the care, the 
s : 1 .,f | f : n 


tor - ment gone 

r : r |n 


? The 
: -.n 


cres. 

1 1 :1 |1 :se 


d- : d 1 |d' : t .1 


if dim. 


s : - .s | s 


'. ~~ \ 


fears that late - ly 

d .r : n .f |n : - .r 


o - ver - weighted.Re 

d .n : 1 .s |fe : fe.l 


-tiro a - bash'd bo - 

s : f ! r, : na 


fore the Dawn, 
r :f |n : , 




l.t:d'.r'|d' :-.t 


1 .t : d'.n'l 1 : r'.fe 


s : - .s | s : d 1 


d 1 : t |d' 


- . 
: - .n 


fears that late - ly 


o - ver - wcighted.Re 


-tiro a - bash'd bo - 


fore the Dawn, Re- 


1, : 1, |n :-.n 


1 . s : f e.n | r : r .d 


t, :-.t,|d :j% 


Si '. 8| j 


:-.d 


/ - : ! : 


"~T~~^d'| d 1 : t .,1 


P 
s : - .s | s : s 


8. _ 
. | 


s \ 


I : . f | f : n .,r 


Re-tire a- 

d : ta 1 1 : na 

bash'd, ro - tiro a - 

s' : f '.,n'| f ' : d' 


bash'd be-fore the 
r :-.n|f :f 

bash'd bo -fore the 

d' : - .d'| d 1 : t 

bash'd be-fore the 


Dawn, 
n : | 

Dawn. 

d 1 :- |- 

Dawn. 


The 
n 

s 

The 


Re-tire a- 


tire a - bash'd bo 


-fore the Dawn,a - 


d|_2l.Hi :-< 


n : r .,d | f : f e 


8 :-.S 8 ! 8 :8 j 
fill s, : BI ) 


d :- |- 


d 


n 1 : - .n"1 r 1 : d 1 


f r-.f'Tn 1 Tr' 


1 / 
s : 1 .,f | f : n 


ip 

f :f |n 


: - .n \ 


world, with all its 


joy andsor - row, 
1 :-.l|s :s 


Is . but a bridge o'er 

s :d.,t,|d : d .n 


time's deep flood, Thati 

n : r | de : - .def 


J I , J U ^| % 1 


f :-.f'|d' :t 


d 1 : d'.,s |s : s~~ 


1 : 1 |1 


: -.1 ( 


world, with all its 

d : n | s : 1 


joy andsor - row, 
r :-.r|s : - .f 


Is but a bridge o'er 
n : f .,r | r : d 


time's deep flood. That 
fi : f|.8,| 1, : -.s / 


cres. f 

\ : 1 |1 :se 'd' : d< |d' : t .1 


cres. 

r' :f |n' : - .r 


d 1 :r'.t1s' 


. _^ , 


I, a cheer -ful 
de.r : n.f |n : - .r 


pil - grim, bor - row,To 

d .n : 1 .s| fe : fe.fe 


boar me to m> 
8 : - .8 | 8 : 1 


home and God. 
8 : - .8 |S : f 


1 .-rr'lt :-.t 


TTt : d"7ni 1 : r 1 .r 


r 1 :-.r'|n' rd'.r' 

bear me to my 

t :-.t|d' it 


n 1 :t.r'|d' 

home and God 

s :f |n 


j 

: - .n 

To 


I, a cheer - ful 

f : n.r|n : - .n 


pil - grim, bor - row, To 

l.s:fejn|r : r .d 1 


St. CoTfNcw) 





ADDITIONAL EXERCISES. PART III. 



297 



/ : I : 
: .f |f :n .,r 


~T~.d'|d|_ :t .,1 

To bear me 

d : ta 1 1 : na 


f> 

S* o 1 c c 
. . a | a . s 

to my homo and 

r :-.n |f :f 


. :- \? 

God. 
n :- |- 


To bear me 
n' :r'.,d'|t- :-.s' 


to my home, my 
s 1 : f .,:V| f ' : d' 


home, my home and 

d 1 :-.d'|d' :t 


God. 
d 1 :- |- 


boar me to my 

d 1 : t .,1| s :-.f 


home and God, my 

n : r ,,d | f : f e 


home, my home and 

s - \ s 1 * : *l 
'foils, : t \ 


God. 

d :- |- 



YE SPOTTED SNAKES. 



KEY A. 


Andante. M. 96. 


S. J. S. Stevens. 


mf 

Id :t|.d 


l-.t| : d ;r 


:n.f 


f 


: n |n : 


- .n 


n.r : d.t|| t : 1 


i s, : | : 


Vo spotted 


snakes with dou- ble 
f, : S| |1, I S, 


tong 

S| 


ue, Thor 


-ny 

S| 


hedge -hogs be i 


Lot seen ; 

GI s, \p | : 


n :r.d 


d :d |d 


: ti 


d 


:- |d : 


d 


r : n | r : - 


- .d t, : s I : f 


Ye spotted 
\ | d| :r|.ri| 


snakes with dou- ble 

fi : n. In : s, 


tong 
d, 


ue, Thor-ny 
:- |d :-.d 


hedge-hogs be 

t( : d |r : i 


not seen; Newta and 
P 
'i si : |1| :-.r 






P 


E. t. 






cres. 


: 


1 : 


: r 


;df 


f 


: n | s : s 


s : 1 1 : -.1' 


fa 


| : tai 


Newt 

ta, : 1 


s and 

ta, ;l,r 


blind worms do no 
r :d |f :ri 


wrong ; Come not 

PI : r |f : - .d 


Newts and 
f :n |f :r 

blind worms, newts and 

. t| : d |r : - .81 


blind worm. 

s :f 

blind worm 
Pl| : f 


j, newts 
s t ^ 1 
3, newts and 


t : d 1 | r" : d 1 

blind worms do no 

s : 1 |t : d' 


d 1 :t |d' :-.d' 


wrong ; Come not 

s :- If :-.f 


s .n : 


r .d |f 


: n 
: s 


n 


: r 


is 


: r n .f 


e : s | s : f e 

our fai - ry 

: r |d .r,n: r .d 


near 

d : 
s : 


our fai - 
d It, 

s | s 


queen, 

d : t| 


Come not near 

|r :r d 
I s : - .s s 


s 


: 


: s 1 1 : 1 


near 

n : 


our fai - 

n |r 


ry 

id 


queen, 
8| : 


Come not near 

It, :- .t, d 


our fai - ry 
t| | 1| r j 



St. Co. (New). 



298 



ADDITIONAL, EXERCISES. PART III. 



queen, 

d : 



s : 

queen, 

si : 



Con upres.f) 

Is, :-.s, 
Phi - lo- 



l,.t,;d |r :n .f 

mel with mel - lo - 






: 


: 1 : 
f 




f :n 


1 : 




d .1, 


dy, _ 


|n .r : n .d 


Sing 

T :& \- : 


in 

fe 




Sing in 


your sweet 






P 






: 


\ :d 


: t| | 1, : 







Sing 


in your 





P 

: |f.n:f.r 


n .f e : s | s : f e 


cret. 

s :- |f.n:f.r 


n .f : s .1 |n : r \ 


Sing in 

t, :d I- :t, 


your sweet lul - la - 

d : r |n : r 

lul-la - by, sing, 
cret. 


by, sing in 
f .r : n .d| 1| : si 


your sweet lul - la - 


your sweet 

s .f : n |r : s 


sing in your, 

t : d 1 | : t 


lul - la - by, sing, 

s, :- 1- :- 


sing in 

d :t, |1| :- 


your sweet 
cret. 

s, : |r : 


lul - la, lul - la- 

d .r : n .f | 8 : si 


sweet 


lul - la - by, 


sing in 


your sweet lul - la - 


P 
d :n.n|f .f : r .r 


PP 

8 : d .d|r .r : t,.t 


/> '/ 

d : ' |s :f.n 


1 :t.d'|r :n.f 


by, lul-la, lul-lajul-la- 

d : 8|.8|| !,.!,: t,.t. 


by, lul la, lul-la, lid-la- 

A 1 


by. Nev - er 
s, : |d : r .n 


harm, nor spell, nor 

f :d |d : t, 


n : !?:. 


8 : n .n|f .f : r .r 


n : |s .1 : t .d 1 


d 1 :t.l|s :s 


by, lulla- 

d : | :s.8 


by, lul-la, lul-la, lul-la- 


by. Nev - er 

d : |n : r .d 


harm, nor spell, nor 
f :f |s :s 


f : n |B : f .n 


poeo cret. 

1 : - ,s|f .n : r.d ir : |s : f .n 


dim. 

1 :- |r :s 

night, so good 

d : - | d : t, 
f :- |s :s 


charm, Come our 

d : |d : r .n 


love - ly la - dy 

f :d U.-dis,.!, 


nigh , So good 
d :t, |d :d 


1 : |n.s:t.d' 


d' :-.! :-.fe 


s : |n : f .8 


charm, Com* our 

1, :- |n ;r.d 


love - ly la - dy 

f :-.n|r.d:t,.l, 


nigh ; So good 
s, : |n : r .d 


night, so good 

f : - | 8 : s 


St. Co. (New,. 



ADDITIONAL EXERCISES. PART III. 299 


/ f : n 


P 
Id 1 . :d'. 

so good 

d . id. 
s. : 1. 


d 1 :-.n.f .r:d.t| 

night, with lulla, lulla- 
d :-.d|d.r:si 

with lul - la - 

s : - .s 1 1 .f : n-.r 


PP 
d : n .n| f .f : r .r 

by, lul-la,lul-la,lul-la- 


dim. 

8 :d.d|r .r : t|.t,\ 

by, lul-la,lul-la,lul-la- 
d : | :s,.s, 

dim. 

s :n .n|f .f : r .r 


night, 
d : 

1 :- 


by, f)p 
n : I : s .s 


night, so good 

1, :- n. :f . 


night, with lulla, lulla- 

n : -.d|f : s 


by, lulla- 
d : ( : s .s 


by, lul-la,lul-la,lul-la- 
n : i :si.s, 


\ 


with lul - la - 


by, 




f. A. D.O. 


* 


: 1 : 


f. D. mf 

: 1 8 ( r :n.f 


s .f : s .n|f .n : r .s 


by. 
8 .r, :- 


mf 

r, :n,.f 


S| in, | f i : T( 
spi - ders come not 

d : - .d|d : t| 


Weav-ing 
n, : hit, : d .r 


spi - ders co.i e not 
n .r : n .d|r .d : t|.r 


Weav-ing 

t, : d .r 


here, 
d :- |d s :-.f 


n : 1 i r : s 


/ f :n 


Weav-ing 

s, :-.f 


spi - ders come not 


here, Weav- ing 
d : | : 

ff 

\ : s 1 : s 


spi - ders come not 

1 :1 |s :f 


t : 


d' :-.t|l :s 


here, 

r :d 


Hence, 
f : 

r' : 
Hence, 

Ids : 


hence, ye long-legg'ii 

n : - .n|d : d 

d' :-.s|l : d 1 
hence, ye long- legg'd 
d : - ^ |f : n 


spin - ners, ye 

d :d |d :-.d 

hence, 
d 1 : d 1 | : n 

spin - ners, ye 
f :n | :d 


long- legg'd spin - ners 

d : r |n : r 
f :f Id' :s 

long- legg'd spin - ners 
f :r |s : s, 


d : 

here, 

: 


d. \ 
n i-f> 

hence ! 

d :- 


p . C. L is A. 
81 :1 

Bee-ties 


t :t |d' :r 

black ap - proach not 

1 : se 1 1 : 1 


eres. 

n 1 : 1 1 : t 

near ; Worm and 

1 : se | n : f 


d 1 . : - 1 1 : - 
snail do 

n :- |f :- 


s :- 

hence ! 

d :- 


tad' ;d" 

Bee-ties 
1 :1 


t :n' [n 1 : r 1 

black ap - proach not 

n : n 1 1 : f 


d^TT |s : s 


s : 1 1 : r 1 


near ; Worm and 

n : |n : r 


snail do 
d :- |s :- 


ores. 


1 :- 

no 

n : 
d 1 :- 

no 

1 :- 

at. Co. (. 


: 1 

of - 

d' :- 
of 

New). 


1 : se | t : t 

fence, worm and 

n : 1 n : se 
t : | se : n 1 

fence, worm and 

n : | n : n 


d 1 :ri |n' : 1 .t 


d' :- It :- 

no of 

n : | : r 
1 :- |se :- , 

no of 

n : | : n 


snail do 

1 :s.f|n :f 


n 1 :r' |d'.t:l 


snail do 
li : t, |d : r 





300 



ADDITIONAL EXERCISES. PART III. 



A. t.ra.l.^ Con espressione. 



/ id : P\s\ :-.8i 


li.ti: d 


r : 


n.f 


f :n 


: 


: 1 : 


fence. Phi - lo- 


mel with 


mel - 


o - 


dy, 






de n : : 


: 


: 




: 1 


: 


: p\ d . ti: d . 1 














Sing in 


id :- : 


: 


. 




: P\r\ 


.r : n .d 


r : s 


- : fe 


fence. 








Sing in 


your sweet 


Mi :- : 





: 




: 1 


P: d 


t| 


1. :- 












Sing 


in your / 


P 


cres. 


mf 


: f.n:f.r 


n.fe: s 


s : 


fe 


s :- |f 


.n : f .r 


f.n:r.d|d : t. 


Sing in 


your sweet lul - 


la - 


by, sing in 


your sweet lul - la - 


t, :d - :t, 


d :r 


d .t,: 


d.l, 


t, :d |- 


- : t, 


d :1, s, :-.f 


your sweet 


lul - la - 


by, 


in 


your sweet 




lul - la, lul - la- 


s .f : n r : s 


: 


n : 


r 


f .r : n .d|r 


: - .s 


1.8 :f .n 


n : r 


lul - la - by, sing, 




sing 


in 


your sweet lul - la- 


by, swoet lul - la - 


s, : : 


d : t| 


li : 





t I 


- : BI 


d : f , si : si 


sweet 


lul - la - 


by, 




sing 


in 


your sweet lul - la - 


P PP 




n 


if 


d : BI.S, li.li: t|.t. 


d : 8,.s,|l|.l|: 


t|.t, 


d : d 


: r .n 


r : r 


s :-.f 


by, lul-la,lul-la,lul-la- 


by, lul-la,lul-la,lul-la- 


by. Nev - er 


harm, nor spoil, nor 




Pli ' Pli Hi 


f f ' 


Si.S, 


HI : |s 


i S i 


li '. li 


ti : t, 


by, P 




' 'PP" 




1 "* 1 




d : :r.r 


* : VI 


, : 


r .r 


d : n 


:r.d 


f : f 


r : r 


by, lulla - 


by, 




lulla- 


by. Nev - er 


harm, nor spell, nor 


d| : : s,.s 


d[ : 


i 


8,. 8 


d, :- d 


: d ! d :d 


ti : si 






L) 


dim. ^ 


f :n|d :d d :r.n|f 


: n 


n : r | s : f 


n 1 : I r : s 


f : n \ 


charm, Come our love- ly la 


- dy 


nigh ; So go 


ad night, so good 


night, 


d : |si : 1, s, : t|.d|r 


:d 


d :_t, |d :d 


d : hi : t ( 


d : 


1 : |n :f n : s | s 


: s 


s : 1 s : s 


f :- |s :r 


d : 


charm, Come our love- ly la 


- dy 


nigh ; So go 


od night, so gooc 


night, 


1, : |d :d d.n: r.d|t, 


:d 


s, : |n :_r_ 


d f i 1 1| * 81 


1, :- 


PP 


D.S. 


s . : 1 . s : - .n 


f .r:d.t. 


d 


8,.8| 


li.li: t|.t, ( 


1 '. 81 . 8 


li.li; t,.ti 


d :- 


so good night, with lulla, lulla- 


by, 




jy, lul-la,lul-la,lul-la- 


by- 


d . : d . d : - .s, 


li ! 81 


8| 


ivn, 


f,.f,: si.s, r 


i, : n,.n,lf|.f|: si.s, 


HI : 


lul - la - 


by, 


PP 


dim. 




s . : f . s : - .d d .f : n .r 


n 




: r .r ( 


[ : 


: r .r 


d : 


so good night, with lulla, lulla- 


by, 


lulla- 1 


zy, lulla- 


by. 


n. :f. n :-.d|f, : s t 


d 




: 8,.s, ( 


li : 


: S|.s, 


d, :- 


lul - la - 


by, 









St. Co. (NewJ. 



ADDITIONAL EXERCISKS. 1' ART III. 



501 



O SAVIOUR OF THE WORLD. 
KEY A!?. Anduntitw. M. 60. (COPYRIGHT.) 



John Qost. 



: | n : r : d 1 1, : 1, 


s, : |s : 


f :n |r :d 


O Sa - viour of the 

Is, :- f, :, |f, :f, 

! | S| : S| '. 8| | S; : 1| .t 


world, O 

n, : |d :-.t 


Sa - viour of the 

1. :li Hi :1. 
d :s |f :n 


d :- |d :- 


O Sa - viour of the 


world, 


Sa - viour of the 


: |d, : r, : r, | r, : r, 


n, : | n, : 


f, :fi If, :f, 


t, :- Id :d .d 


n : - .d 


d : d n : | r : 1, \ 


world, Who by thy 

S| : | n ( : n, .ri| 


Cross anc 

sei : - .se 


. pre - cious Blood . hast re - 

se, : se, 1, : 1 1, : 1 ( 


r : - |d :d .d 


d :-.d|d :d d : |f :f 


world, Who by thy 

s, :- 11, :!,.!, 


Cross an( 
n, : - .n. 


. pre - cious Blood hast re - 

n, : rc, f , : ' f , : f , , 


d :- |- :t, d :- 


| n ', n .n 


1 :- |n : 


: | n : n .n\ 


deem - - ed us, 

s, : I f , : n, : - 


Save us and 

- 1 : 


help us, 


^^^=- Save us and 

d : 1 1, : 


n : |r : d : - 


- 1 : 


Save us and 

: |d :d.d 


help us, 

n : |r : 


deem - ed us, 

s, : ! s, : d, : - 


- 1 : 


Save us and 

: 11. :li-l 


help us, 

se, : | se, : 




cres. -^ 


1 : |n : : 


Is :- 


f :n |r :d 


t, : |s : 


help us, ere*. 

: |1, :!,.! d :- 


O 


Sa - viour of the 

1. : s, | f i : n. 


world, O 

r, : 1 1| : 


Save us and help 

: id : d .d n : - 


us, O 


f : |T : 


s : f |n : r 


Save us and help 
|1, :!,.! s, :- 

Save us and help 


- |d :- 

us. 


us, 

f, :- !- :- 

help 


Sa - viour of the 
sj : | : S| 
ns, O | 



St. Co. (New). 



ADDITIONAL EXERCISKS. PART III. 



s. d.f. Gl?. LwEb. 



Et^. t. 


mf ere*. 




df :n |r :d 


t, :- 


- |t s e: 


1 : 1 1 1 


: 1 .1 


1 :-.l|l :1 


Sa - viour of the 


world, 





Sa - viour, Who by thy 


Cross and pre - cious 


"ili : li Hi : li 


s, : - 


- I't, :- 


d :1, (I. 


: 1|.1| 


d :-.li|l, : 1, 


df :s If :n 


r : - 


|n :- 


n : n | n 


: n .n 


f :-.f|f :f 


world, of the 


world, 





Sa - viour, Who by thy 


Cross and pre - cious 


i,r :r |f, : f, 


8, : - 


- |fr :- 


d :d |d 


:d.d 


r : - .r | r : r 


Sa - viour 








EP. t. m. 1. 






/ dim. 


P 




i d 1 : 1 1 : 1 


1 :- 


.s | 8 : 


f :- |n 


: n 


1 :- |r :r 


Blood hast re - 


deem - 


ed us, 


Save us 


and 


help us, we 


dna: |na : na 


r : - 


.r|r : 


r :- |d 


:d 


d :- |d :d 


'1 :- It :d' 


d 1 :- 


.t|t : 


se : 1 1 


: 1 


r :- |r :r 


Blood hast re - 


deem - 


ed us, 


Save us 


and 


help us, we 


refe: Ife : f e 


8 : - 


.8)8 : 


: 1 





f, :- If, :f, 


f. At?. 


/ s : f .n |n : r .d 


AS, :- | : 


s : n .d 1 1, : 1, .8, 


hum - bly be - seech thee, 


Lord, we 


hum - bly be - seech thee, O 


d : d .d |t, : t, .d 


*s, : 


f. :- 


HI : d .1, |s, : fe,.8. 




we 




n :1 .8 |f :f .f 


"t, : 8, |s, : s, .s. 


8| : 8, .n |r : d .t, 


hum - bly be - seech thee, O 


Lord, we hum - blybe- 


seech Thee, be-seech thee, O 


si : si .s, | s, : s, .s, 


l,ni : - |t. : 


d, :d, .d, |n : n .r. 




we 


hum - bly be - seech thee, O / 





P 






si : 


\ : 


'. \ 


: |n :- 


r 


d 1 1, 


' 1, \ 


Lord, 









Sa - 


viour of 


the 


s, : 


1 : 


' 1 : 


: li =- 


f, 


: "i 1 ri 


: t. 


t, :- 


1 : 


: 1 : 


: 1 : 




: flf 


: 


Lord, 






P 




O 




s, : 


Is, :- 


f i : n, |r, : d, 


t. :- Id, :- 


r. 


5 1 


i 


\ i Lord, 


O 


Sa viour of the 


world. O 


save 






St. Co. 


(New). 







ADDITIONAL EXERCISES. PAKT III. 



303 



cret. 


/ 


cret - cen- 


s^ : ' s : 


f :n |r :d 


t, : n 


' 


n : 1, | n : n .ro> 


world, O 


Sa - viour of the 


world, O 




Sa - viour, Who by thy 


d, : 1 s, : 


1, : s, | f , : HI 


r, :- It, 


:- d :d 1 1, :!,.! 


n : r I d : t, 


1, :- 


- 11 :- 


s :f |n 


: r 


d : |d :d.d 


Sa - viour of the 


world, 


O 


Sa - viour of 


the 


world, Who by thy 


HI : | n, : 


fi :- 


- 1- :- 


s, : | se. 


: 


li :1| Hi :l..li 


us and 


help 




us, O 




Sa - viour, 


do. al. f f. Dt^ 




At>. t. 


f :-.f|f :f 


f d 1 : - 


- | r 1 : r 1 


n- : , 


: n 1 


n 1 : | 


Cross and pre - cious 


Blood hast re - 


deem 


ed 


us, /') 


1, '. .1,| 1, : 1| 


r 1 : - 


- |1 : 1 


1 :- |se 


:ba 


se : I"!, : 












Save 


d : - .d | d : d 


r 1 : - 


- |1 : 1 


d 1 :- |t 


: 1 


t : | : 


Cross and pre - cious 


Blood hast re - 


deem 


ed 


us, 


f, :-.f,|fi :fi 


ta,f : - 


If :f 


n : | 


: n 


n : | : 


P m^^ 3 *" 3^m^= 




*/ 


d'f ; | n ; r 


d : - 


It, :1, 


li :si.si|t, 


: 1|.S| 


s, : is : 


Save us and 

- :- Hi :1, 


help 

si : - 


us, we 
1 f 1 f I 


hum-bly beseech thee, O 

f, :f,.f,|f, :f,.f, 


Lord, O 

n, : | n, : 


us and 


help 


us, 









ir :- Is :f 


n : - 


- |r :d 


t| : t|.t,| t. 


: t|.t. 


d :- |d : 


Save us and 


help 


us, we 


hum-bly beseech thee, O 


Lord, O 


i,r, : |n, : f , 


s, :- 


I s, : s. 


s, : S|.s,l s. 


: si.s, 


d, : |ta, : 




PP > 


Rather slower. f) 


'f :n |r :d 


t| : lai : ladai 


la, : s, | : si 


Sa - vioui of the 


world, Save us, and 


help us, we 


fi :- 1- :- 


f i : la, 


:la,.la. 


la, : s, | : s. 


save 


us, 




d :- I- :- 


r : la, : la,. la. 


lai : s, | : si 


save 


us, Save us, and 


help us, we 


1, :- Ha, :- 


si : la. 


: la, . la. 


la, : s, | : s, 


cret. 




/ 

dim. K\ 


n :r.r|f : t,.t, 


d :- 


- | : 


- :- |d 


: 


d :- |- :- 


hum-bly beseech thee, 


Lord, 




A 


- 


men. 


f, / t \ t . f f 
i :i,.i||f, :i|.l 


n, ; - 


-Hi :- 


s. :- If, 


: 


n, :, : 






A 


men, 






t, :t,.t||t. : r .r 


d :- 


- |f :- 


n : 1 1, 


: 


s, :- !- :- 


hum-bly beseecu thee, 


Lord, 




A 


- 


men. 


i S| : s ,S| S] : s,.Si 


d, :- 


- I- :- 


- :- If. 


: 


d, :-|-:- 



St Co (New). 



304 



ADDITIONAL EXERCISES. PART HI. 



THE SHEPHERD'S LAMENT. 



. Andante lento. M. 63. 



Henry Smart. 



p 

in .,"i 


s : - 


.f :r .1 ""T"" 


: s :s jl 1 n 1 


:- .d' :t .1 


On the 
* d .d 

: s .,s 


brow 
d :- 

s : - 


of yon-der moun - 
.ti :t, .r r 

.8 :s .t t 


tain A tho 

: n : s n 
id 1 : d 1 .s s 


u - sand times I 
', PI I PI .PI 

:d' .n 1 :r .d ! 


On the 

i d .,d 


brow 

n : - 
: .1 


of yon-der moun - 

.r :f .f f 
1 :- .f :n .s 


tain A tho 

: n : n d 
f :r :d .ti 


u - sand times I 

:1> -1 .li 
d .n : s .,8 : s .f . 


stand, 

r c - 


And 
: .f 


on my crook re- 

f : - .r : de.de 


pos - ing, Gaze 

r : 1, : S| 


down on tho ver-dant 
8| '. S| .,d : d .d i 


t il 

stand, 

r i - 


: .1 

And 


1 :- .1 :s .ta 

on my crook re- 
r : - .r : r .r 


1 :f :r 

pos - ing, Gaze 
r : f , : f i 


d : d .,n : n .f 

down on the ver-dant 
it) ', DI .,ri| '. I, . 1| 












n : r 


: .s 


d : - ,ti ,d : n .,r 


d : : t| .t| 


li : - .d :t, ,d 4 r 


land. 

d :t 


The 

, : .r 


flocks as they graze I 
8| . ~" (S| |S| S| *,S| 


fol - - low, My 


dog he guardeth them 


s : - 

land. 
8, t- 

d :- 

well, 

n : - 

well; 

li :- 

well; 


: .t 
The 

I d S .,8 

From the 

: "> t .,t 

From the 
From the 


t n : - ,re,n : s .,f 
nocks as they graze I 

? :t .t :d' .1 

moun - tain have I do- 

f :f .f :n .n 

t : r' .r 1 : s .d' 

moun tain have I de- 
Si : 8| .8| : 8| .8, 
moun - tain have I de- 


n : : r .r 
fol - - low, My 

The flocks as they graze, 
dim. f) 

s : f : n . 

scend - ed, Yet 

r :r :d . 
t : : d 1 .d 

scend - ed, Yet 
8| : S| J L . 
scend - ed, Yet 

ritard. 


d : - .n :n ,n ,n 
dog he guardeth them 
.HI 1 DI tPi| :n| ,ri| ,ni 
My dog he guardeth them 

r . : : n . \ 

how, yet 

li. : :ta,. / 
i :d d :i .i 

how, I can scarcely) 

f , . : : s, . " 

how, yet 






^ 


~- 


^ P 


If . : 


:fe 


s : d 1 .t : 1 .s' 


fe.s : f . : r 


d : n 


how, 

d . : 


yet 

d 


how I can 

d : n : d .d 


scarcely, scarce - ly 

d .d :d . :t t 


tell. ITie 

d : d 


d :i 


: na 


n : s : n .n 


re.n : 1 . : s 


8 : s 


tell, 

how, 

St. Co. 


yet 
(New). 


how I can 

si : : 8| .s. 


scarcely, scarce - ly 
tf 

si .s, : si . :> g( 


tell. The 
d !- ! | d 



ADDITIONAL EXERCISES. PART III. 305 


n : s .,s : f ,r 4 1 


1 : s : s .,d' 


n' :-,r',d': 


d 1 ,' ,1 


s :f : .f 


mea-dows are sweetly en- 


am - ell'd With 


flow - ers so lovely and 


gay, I 


d : d .,d : t|,t|,r 


r : n : s 


n i n M n : 


n ,n ,n 


r : : .r 


8. o e e o t 
i S .,S . S ,8 ( t 


t : d' : d 1 .,s 


s : -,se,l : 


n'.r'.d 


t :1 : .1 


mea-dows are sweetly en- 


am - ell'd With 


flow - ers so lovely and 


gay. i 


, d : n ,,n : r ,f t f 


f : n : n d : d M d : 


l.,lil. 


r : : .r 


t f ^ i 
- ,n ,i : i t s ,n 


r : 


It :ti 


d .n : s .s : 


s,f ,d 


n : r : .s 


ga - ther them but withou 


; know - 


ing To 


whoml shall give thema- 


way. In 


r : -^e.ride^de.df 


' ll 


ll : S| 


s, : S| .d : 


d,d,d 


d :t, : .r 


1 : - ,1 ,1 JPI ,n 4 s 


f 


r : r 


d : d .n : 


n,f,f 


s : : .t 


ga - therthembut withou 


, know - 

v 


ing To 
f i f 


whom I shall give them a - 

m m. m 1 


way. In 


B7. t. 


1 1 . 1 1 rii iij . ri| . 




s d : - .d :r t d ,ti 


d : - : t, .,t, 


li : 1| .,1| : t| ,d ,t| . 


rain.in rain, in storm, and in 


tern ... pest, I 


stand there be - neath the 


r s ( .8) : si .si :lai,lai,lai 


S| \ S6| .,SG| 


1| t H| .,1| : S6| .,S6| 


tn :- .n :f ,f ,f 


n : : r .,r 


d : d ,r ,n : pj ,,n 


rain, in storm, and in 


tern ... pest, I 


stand there be - neath the 


; ; 


. t|Pi| : pi| .Pi| '. ri| ( ni ,ri| 


HI iba^seit 1| t t| ( d : r ,n ,r 




In rain, in storm, & in 


tempest,! stand there beneath the/ 


;^> P f. Ef. 






/ L : : L . 1| 


l,n ,,r : 


r :d .1 


s :f : 


n . 


r . : : n . \ 


tree ; But yon 


door re-mains clos'd a- 


gainst me. 


And 


all, And 


1, : n, : n, 


",t|.,ti: 


t, :d .d 


t, :t, : 


d . 


li . : : si . 


n : d : d 


ds.,f : 


f : n .n 


r : : 


d .d 


d :d .d :d .,d 


tree ; But yon 


door re-mains clos'd a- 


gainst me, And 


all is a dream to 


d : : d, .d t 

tree ; But yon 


d i8|.,s,: si : si .s, 

door re-mains clos'd a- 


si : se, : 

gainst me, 


And 


f i . : : ta(. 

ail, And / 




ritard. 





f . : : f e 


s .1 : 


t .r 1 : d 1 .n 


s :- .f : 


r .n 


d :- :- , 


all, and 


all is a dream to 


me, a dream to 


me. 


d . : : d .d 


d : 


: 


.d : t. . : 


t; 


d : .si :1, .1, 


all, is a 


dream, 




a dream 


to 


me, a dream to 


< d : r : na.na 


n : 


: 


.s : s . : 


s 


s : .n :f .f 


me, is a 


dream, 




a dream 


to 


me, a dream to 


1, . : : la,.la, 


s, : 


: 


S.PI I r . \ 
.81 : s* . : 


f 

l 


3! : . :f, .f 


all is a 


dream, 









St. Co. (New). 



306 



ADDITIONAL EXERCISES. PART III. 

Q. t.m.l.r. 



: PI 


n : n .,n : n d ,d ,r 


n : n : - n 


"Tib 


true there ap -pear-cth a 


rain - bow, Ami 


8, :- d 


r : d .,d : t |S|( d ,t. 


d :d :- .d 


me. 






PI : 8 


se : 1 .,1 : t s ,s ,f 


n : d : n 


me. 'Tis 


true there ap -pear-eth a 


rain - bow, And 


d :- d 


t, : 1, !, :,n u nuri 


d| .HI : S| 


/ r.s.d.f. E>. L is C. ^ QjO 


n : n vi : f jn ,r 


t :- : :r 


o - ver yon cottage it 


stands : fJf) 


lint 


d id M d : t| ,t| ,t| 


dpi : - : .t| 


ti .,t| : t| : r ,r 




But 


she, a - las! is de- 


8 : 8 .,8 : r ,8 ,f 


m se : - : .se 


86 .,86 : 86 : t .t 


o - TOT yon cottage it 


stands: 




d : d .',d : d ,d ,d 


dpi :- . : 


: : 


-~ ~r JHjH 


f .,f : f :f .f 


f :s :1 


T :s :f 


n : - .n : f .r 


she a - las! is de- 

r : r .r :r .r 


part - ed, de - 
r :n :f 


r- od To 
: n : r 


some far land, and 

d : - .d : ti .t| 


part - ed to distant, 


far dis - tant 


lands, To 


some far land, and 


t : t .t :t .t 


t : : 


t : d> : 8 


8 .,8:8 .8 : S .8 


f>f> 


far 


dis - tant 


land, To some far land, and 




s, : : 


- : 1, : t, 


d :- .d :r .f 


She is de- 


part ... 


ed to 


some far land, and 



,=> "= 


far beyond the 
PI : .PI : PI .n 


s :f 


Pass 
f 


1 : - .f : n .r 

on, ye sheep, pass 

f - r :1.1, 


d : t|. : d . \ 

on - wards! The 

8< : 81. : .d 


far - ther, E'en 

r : n : s 


sea. 

r * 


t :d< rd'.s 


s rd'.n'ir'.d 1 

far beyond the 
d ;l,.l,;li.l, 


t :1 : .1 

sea. Pass 

r ~~ . r 


1 :-.! :.f 

on, ye sheep, pass 


n : r . : s . 

on - wards! Th 


far - ther, E'en 

f : r, : n 


d . :d . :d . 


ertt. 

d . : :d . 


8 :